Broadband nonlinear optical (NLO) organic nanostructures exhibiting both ultrafast photoresponse and a large cross-section of two-photon absorption throughout a wide NIR spectrum may make them suitable for use as nonlinear biophotonic materials. We report here the synthesis and characterization of two C60-(antenna)x analogous compounds as branched triad C60(>DPAF-C18)(>CPAF-C2M) and tetrad C60(>DPAF-C18)(>CPAF-C2M)2 nanostructures. These compounds showed approximately equal extinction coefficients of optical absorption over 400–550 nm that corresponds to near-IR two-photon based excitation wavelengths at 780–1,100 nm. Accordingly, they may be utilized as potential precursor candidates to the active-core structures of photosensitizing nanodrugs for 2γ-PDT in the biological optical window of 800–1,050 nm.
C60-(antenna)x nanostructures; ultrafast intramolecular energy-transfer; NIR two-photon absorption; 2γ-photodynamic therapeutic agent; photosensitizer
Oligonucleotide aptamers are highly structured DNA or RNA molecules, or modified versions thereof, that can bind to targets with specific affinities comparable to antibodies. They are identified through an in vitro selection process termed SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) to recognize a wide variety of targets, from small molecules to proteins, and from cultured cells to whole organisms. Aptamers possess a number of desirable properties, such as ease of synthesis, stability, robustness, and lack of immunogenicity. Standard SELEX libraries require two primers, one on each side of a central random domain, to amplify the target-bound sequences via PCR or RT-PCR. However, these primer sequences cause non-specific binding by their nature, and have been reported to lead to large numbers of false-positive binding sequences, or to interfere with binding of sequences within the random regions. This review is focused on methods which have been developed to eliminate fixed primer interference during the SELEX process.
Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule's biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional phenomenon. A major drawback of most proposed descriptors for 3D-QSAR that encode stereochemistry is that they require a heuristic for defining all stereocenters and rank-ordering its substituents. Here we propose a novel 3D-QSAR descriptor termed Enantioselective Molecular ASymmetry (EMAS) that is capable of distinguishing between enantiomers in the absence of such heuristics. The descriptor aims to measure the deviation from an overall symmetric shape of the molecule. A radial-distribution function (RDF) determines a signed volume of tetrahedrons of all triplets of atoms and the molecule center. The descriptor can be enriched with atom-centric properties such as partial charge. This descriptor showed good predictability when tested with a dataset of thirty-one steroids commonly used to benchmark stereochemistry descriptors (r2 = 0.89, q2 = 0.78). Additionally, EMAS improved enrichment of 4.38 versus 3.94 without EMAS in a simulated virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) for inhibitors and substrates of cytochrome P450 (PUBCHEM AID891).
QSAR; CADD; stereochemistry; enantiomer; molecular asymmetry; chirality
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of their target genes. NRs play important roles in many human diseases, including metabolic diseases and cancer, and are therefore a key class of therapeutic targets. Steroids play important roles in regulating nuclear receptors; in addition to being ligands of steroid receptors, steroids (and their metabolites) also regulate other NRs, such as the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor (termed xenobiotic receptors), which participate in steroid metabolism. Xenobiotic receptors have promiscuous ligand-binding properties, and their structurally diverse ligands include steroids and their metabolites. Therefore, steroids, their metabolism and metabolites, xenobiotic receptors, steroid receptors, and the respective signaling pathways they regulate have functional interactions. This review discusses these functional interactions and their implications for activities mediated by steroid receptors and xenobiotic receptors, focusing on steroids that modulate pathways involving the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. The emphasis of the review is on structure-function studies of xenobiotic receptors bound to steroid ligands.
nuclear receptors; pregnane X receptor; constitutive androstane receptor; steroid
This review describes recent advances in strategies for tuning the water-exchange rates of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Water-exchange rates play a critical role in determining the efficiency of contrast agents; consequently, optimization of water-exchange rates, among other parameters, is necessary to achieve high efficiencies. This need has resulted in extensive research efforts to modulate water-exchange rates by chemically altering the coordination environments of the metal complexes that function as contrast agents. The focus of this review is coordination-chemistry-based strategies used to tune the water-exchange rates of lanthanide(III)-based contrast agents for MRI. Emphasis will be given to results published in the 21st century, as well as implications of these strategies on the design of contrast agents.
magnetic resonance imaging; contrast agents; PARACEST; water-exchange rate
We have developed a set of DNA circuits that execute during gel electrophoresis to yield immobile, fluorescent features in the gel. The parallel execution of orthogonal circuits led to the simultaneous production of different fluorescent lines at different positions in the gel. The positions of the lines could be rationally manipulated by changing the mobilities of the reactants. The ability to program at the nanoscale so as to produce patterns at the macroscale is a step towards programmable, synthetic chemical systems for generating defined spatiotemporal patterns.
reaction-diffusion; electrophoresis; chemical reaction networks; DNA circuits; strand displacement reactions
With the rapidly increasing availability of High-Throughput Screening (HTS) data in the public domain, such as the PubChem database, methods for ligand-based computer-aided drug discovery (LB-CADD) have the potential to accelerate and reduce the cost of probe development and drug discovery efforts in academia. We assemble nine data sets from realistic HTS campaigns representing major families of drug target proteins for benchmarking LB-CADD methods. Each data set is public domain through PubChem and carefully collated through confirmation screens validating active compounds. These data sets provide the foundation for benchmarking a new cheminformatics framework BCL::ChemInfo, which is freely available for non-commercial use. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models are built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Decision Trees (DTs), and Kohonen networks (KNs). Problem-specific descriptor optimization protocols are assessed including Sequential Feature Forward Selection (SFFS) and various information content measures. Measures of predictive power and confidence are evaluated through cross-validation, and a consensus prediction scheme is tested that combines orthogonal machine learning algorithms into a single predictor. Enrichments ranging from 15 to 101 for a TPR cutoff of 25% are observed.
virtual screening; machine learning; quantitative structure-activity relations (QSAR); high-throughput screening (HTS); cheminformatics; PubChem; BCL
Two bioactive xanthones from Hypericum perforatum have been synthesized by direct routes. Benzo[c]xanthone 5 can be prepared from intermediate 4.
photoacylation; green chemistry; xanthones
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exhibit a broad array of activities, some catalytic and some non-catalytic in nature. An overall lack of selectivity has rendered small molecule, active site targeted MMP inhibitors problematic in execution. Inhibitors that favor few or individual members of the MMP family often take advantage of interactions outside the enzyme active site. We presently focus on peptide-based MMP inhibitors and probes that do not incorporate conventional Zn2+ binding groups. In some cases, these inhibitors and probes function by binding only secondary binding sites (exosites), while others bind both exosites and the active site. A myriad of MMP mediated-activities beyond selective catalysis can be inhibited by peptides, particularly cell adhesion, proliferation, motility, and invasion. Selective MMP binding peptides comprise highly customizable, unique imaging agents. Areas of needed improvement for MMP targeting peptides include binding affinity and stability.
matrix metalloproteinase; protease inhibitor; secondary binding site; cyclic peptide; phage display; triple-helix
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of heme enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including most of the drugs currently on the market. Inhibitors of CYP enzymes have important roles in the treatment of several disease conditions such as numerous cancers and fungal infections in addition to their critical role in drug-drug interactions. Structure activity relationships (SAR), and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationships (3D-QSAR) represent important tools in understanding the interactions of the inhibitors with the active sites of the CYP enzymes. A comprehensive account of the QSAR studies on the major human CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and a few other CYPs are detailed in this review which will provide us with an insight into the individual/common characteristics of the active sites of these enzymes and the enzyme-inhibitor interactions.
3D-QSAR; SAR; binding/active site; CoMFA; pharmacophore
Symmetrical and unsymmetrical 3-halo- or 3-methoxy- substituted 2-dibenzoylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone analogs were synthesized with an average yield of 45% via sodium hydride promoted bis-acylation of 2-amino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-amino-3-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone.
1,4-naphthoquinone; imide synthesis; sodium hydride-promoted bis-acylation; unsymmetrical imide
Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a synthetic derivative of oleanolic acid, a triterpene, with apoptosis-inducing activity in a wide range of cancer cells. Induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of telomerase activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of ROS in inhibition of telomerase by CDDO-me. Treatment of MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines with CDDO-Me induced the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions and inhibited the telomerase activity. Pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcycsteine, a general purpose antioxidant or overexpression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) or superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) blocked the telomerase inhibitory activity of CDDO-Me. Furthermore, blocking ROS generation also prevented the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT protein production and expression of a number of hTERT–regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me (e.g., c-Myc, Sp1, NF-κB and p-Akt). Data also showed that Akt plays an important role in the activation of telomerase activity. Together, these data suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity by CDDO-Me is mediated through a ROS-dependent mechanism; however, more work is needed to fully understand the role of ROS in down-regulation of hTERT gene and hTERT-regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me.
pancreatic cancer; CDDO-Me; ROS; hTERT; telomerase activity
During mitosis, protein kinases coordinate cellular reorganization and chromosome segregation to ensure accurate distribution of genetic information into daughter cells. Multiple protein kinases contribute to mitotic regulation, modulating molecular signaling more rapidly than possible with gene expression. However, a comprehensive understanding of how kinases regulate mitotic progression remains elusive. The challenge arises from multiple functions and substrates, a large number of “bystander” phosphorylation events, and the brief window in which all mitotic events transpire. Analog-sensitive alleles of protein kinases are powerful chemical genetic tools for rapid and specific interrogation of kinase function. Moreover, combining these tools with advanced proteomics and substrate labeling has identified phosphorylation sites on numerous protein targets. Here, we review the chemical genetic tools available to study kinase function and identify substrates. We describe how chemical genetics can also be used to link kinase function with cognate phosphorylation events to provide mechanistic detail. This can be accomplished by dissecting subsets of kinase functions and chemical genetic complementation. We believe a complete “chemical genetic toolbox” will ultimately allow a comprehensive understanding of how protein kinases regulate mitosis.
chemical biology; protein kinases; separation of function; mitosis; cell division
Efforts to discover new drugs for Alzheimer’s disease emphasizing multiple targets was conducted seeking to inhibit amyloid oligomer formation and to prevent radical formation. The tryptoline and tryptamine cores of BACE1 inhibitors previously identified by virtual screening were modified in silico for additional modes of action. These core structures were readily linked to different side chains using 1,2,3-triazole rings as bridges by copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions. Three compounds among the sixteen designed compounds exerted multifunctional activities including β-secretase inhibitory action, anti-amyloid aggregation, metal chelating and antioxidant effects at micromolar levels. The neuroprotective effects of the multifunctional compounds 6h, 12c and 12h on Aβ1–42 induced neuronal cell death at 1 μM were significantly greater than those of the potent single target compound, BACE1 inhibitor IV and were comparable to curcumin. The observed synergistic effect resulting from the reduction of the Aβ1–42 neurotoxicity cascade substantiates the validity of our multifunctional strategy in drug discovery for Alzheimer’s disease.
multifunction drugs; BACE1 inhibitor; anti-amyloid aggregation; chelator; antioxidant; neuroprotection
Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is an synthetic oleanane triterpenoid with strong antiprolifertive and proapoptotic activities in cancer cells. However, the effect of CDDO-Me on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and its telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells has not been studied. We investigated the role of hTERT in mediating the anticancer activity of CDDO-Me in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines was associated with the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT telomerase activity and a number of proteins that regulate hTERT transcriptionally and post-translationally. Furthermore, ablation of hTERT protein increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to CDDO-Me, whereas its overexpression rendered them resistant to CDDO-Me. In addition, inhibition of progression of preneoplastic lesions (i.e., low and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasms, PINs) to adenocarcinoma of the prostate by CDDO-Me in TRAMP mice was associated with significant decrease in TERT and its regulatory proteins in the prostate gland. These data provide evidence that telomerase is a potential target of CDDO-Me for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.
CDDO-Me; hTERT; telomerase activity; apoptosis; prostate cancer
Atherosclerosis remains one of the leading causes of death in western populations. Subsequent to the discovery that oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, vitamins C and E, along with other antioxidants, were studied as potential therapies for the disease. However, while in vitro and in vivo studies showed promising antiatherogenic effects for vitamins C and E, clinical trials in which high doses of vitamin E or C were provided showed no benefit and even possible harm. This review will attempt to summarize the known mechanistic data regarding the biochemical effects of vitamins C and E and their relevance to atherosclerosis, and offer an explanation for the failure of clinical trials to show that supplementation with these vitamins provides any benefit when given indiscriminately. We provide one example of how pharmacogenomics may be used to identify a sub-population which may indeed benefit from antioxidant supplementation.
Vitamin E; Antioxidants; Vitamin C; atherosclerosis; CVD
The potential of enzyme catalysis in organic solvents for synthetic applications has been overshadowed by the fact that their catalytic properties are affected by organic solvents. In addition, it has recently been shown that an enzyme’s initial activity diminishes considerably after prolonged exposure to organic media. Studies geared towards understanding this last drawback have yielded unclear results. In the present work we decided to use electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) to study the motion of an active site spin label (a nitroxide free radical) during 96 h of exposure of the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg to four different organic solvents. Our EPR data shows a typical two component spectra that was quantified by the ratio of the anisotropic and isotropic signals. The isotropic component, associated with a mobile nitroxide free radical, increases during prolonged exposure to all solvents used in the study. The maximum increase (of 43%) was observed in 1,4-dioxane. Based on these and previous studies we suggest that prolonged exposure of the enzyme to these solvents provokes a cascade of events that could induce substrates to adopt different binding conformations. This is the first EPR study of the motion of an active-site spin label during prolonged exposure of an enzyme to organic solvents ever reported.
subtilisin Carlsberg; organic solvents; EPR spectroscopy; enzyme kinetics in organic solvents
The improvement of therapeutic efficacy for cancer agents has been a big challenge which includes the increase of tumor selectivity and the reduction of adverse effects at non-tumor sites. In order to achieve those goals, prodrug approaches have been extensively investigated. In this report, the potential activation enzymes for 5′-amino acid/dipeptide monoester floxuridine prodrugs in pancreatic cancer cells were selected and the feasibility of enzyme specific activation of prodrugs was evaluated. All prodrugs exhibited the range of 3.0–105.7 min of half life in Capan-2 cell homogenate with the presence and the absence of selective enzyme inhibitors. 5′-O-L-Phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-floxuridine exhibited longer half life only with the presence of pepstatin A. Human cathepsin B and D selectively hydrolized 5′-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine and 5′-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-glycylfloxuridine compared to the other tested prodrugs. The wide range of growth inhibitory effect by floxuridine prodrugs in Capan-2 cells was observed due to the different affinities of prodrug promoieties to enyzmes. In conclusion, it is feasible to design prodrugs which are activated by specific enzymes. Cathepsin D might be a good candidate as a target enzyme for prodrug activation and 5′-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine may be the best candidate among the tested floxuridine prodrugs.
prodrugs; Capan-2 cell; cathepsin; enzymatic activation; cell proliferation assay
The many virtues that made the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a dominant model organism for genetics and molecular biology, are now establishing its role in chemical genetics. Its experimental tractability (i.e., rapid doubling time, simple culture conditions) and the availability of powerful tools for drug-target identification, make yeast an ideal organism for high-throughput phenotypic screening. It may be especially applicable for the discovery of chemical probes targeting highly conserved cellular processes, such as metabolism and bioenergetics, because these probes would likely inhibit the same processes in higher eukaryotes (including man). Importantly, changes in normal cellular metabolism are associated with a variety of diseased states (including neurological disorders and cancer), and exploiting these changes for therapeutic purposes has accordingly gained considerable attention. Here, we review progress and challenges associated with forward chemical genetic screening in yeast. We also discuss evidence supporting these screens as a useful strategy for discovery of new chemical probes and new druggable targets related to cellular metabolism.
yeast; forward chemical genetics; chemogenomic profiling; glycolysis; cancer metabolism; Warburg effect; mitochondria; methotrexate; leucovorin
To gain further insight into the structural requirements of the aliphatic group at position 2 for their antimycobacterial activity, some N-alkyl-4-(1H)-quinolones bearing position 2 alkynyls with various chain length and triple bond positions were prepared and tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against rapidly-growing strains of mycobacteria, the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, EMRSA-15 and -16. The compounds were also evaluated for inhibition of ATP-dependent MurE ligase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lowest MIC value of 0.5 mg/L (1.2-1.5 μM) was found against M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis. These compounds displayed no or only weak toxicity to the human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 at 100 μM concentration. The quinolone derivatives exhibited pronounced activity against the epidemic MRSA strains (EMRSA-15 and -16) with MIC values of 2-128 mg/L (5.3-364.7 μM), and M. bovis BCG with an MIC value of 25 mg/L (66.0-77.4 μM). In addition, the compounds inhibited the MurE ligase of M. tuberculosis with moderate to weak activity showing IC50 values of 200-774 μM. The increased selectivity towards mycobacterial bacilli with reference to MRC-5 cells observed for 2-alkynyl quinolones compared to their corresponding 2-alkenyl analogues serves to highlight the mycobacterial specific effect of the triple bond. Exploration of a terminal bromine atom at the side chain of N-alkyl-2-(E)-alkenyl-4-(1H)-quinolones showed improved antimycobacterial activity whereas a cyclopropyl residue at N-1 was suggested to be detrimental to antibacterial activity.
N-alkyl-2-alkynyl/(E)-alkenyl-4(1H)-quinolone; antimycobacterial; MRSA; cytotoxicity
Selenium (Se) deficiency has been known for many years to be associated with disease, impaired growth and a variety of other metabolic disorders in mammals. Only recently has the major role that Se-containing proteins, designated selenoproteins, play in many aspects of health and development begun to emerge. Se is incorporated into protein by way of the Se-containing amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). The synthesis of selenoproteins is dependent on Sec tRNA for insertion of Sec, the 21st amino acid in the genetic code, into protein. We have taken advantage of this dependency to modulate the expression of Sec tRNA that in turn modulates the expression of selenoproteins by generating transgenic, conditional knockout, transgenic/standard knockout and transgenic/conditional knockout mouse models, all of which involve the Sec tRNA gene, to elucidate the intracellular roles of this protein class.
models selenium; selenocysteine tRNA; selenoproteins
The tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozyme is centrally involved in the control of normal skeletal mineralization and pathophysiological abnormalities that lead to disease states such as hypophosphatasia, osteoarthritis, ankylosis and vascular calcification. TNAP acts in concert with the nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase-1 (NPP1) and the Ankylosis protein to regulate the extracellular concentrations of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent inhibitor of mineralization. In this review we describe the serial development of two miniaturized high-throughput screens (HTS) for TNAP inhibitors that differ in both signal generation and detection formats, but more critically in the concentrations of a terminal alcohol acceptor used. These assay improvements allowed the rescue of the initially unsuccessful screening campaign against a large small molecule chemical library, but moreover enabled the discovery of several unique classes of molecules with distinct mechanisms of action and selectivity against the related placental (PLAP) and intestinal (IAP) alkaline phosphatase isozymes. This illustrates the underappreciated impact of the underlying fundamental assay configuration on screening success, beyond mere signal generation and detection formats.
diethanolamine (DEA); absorption spectroscopy; luminescence; high throughput screening; CDP-Star®; Molecular Libraries; tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase; alkaline phosphatase; chemical library; para-nitrophenylphosphate
The reactions between several derivatives of 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and different ruthenium starting materials [i.e., RuCl2(PPh3)3 and RuCl2(pcymene)(L), where L is tricyclohexylphosphine di-t-butylmethylphosphine, dicyclohexylphenylphosphine, triisobutylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, or tri-npropylphosphine] are described. Several of these reactions allow for the easy, in-situ and atom-economic preparation of olefin metathesis catalysts. Organic precursor 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol led to the formation of active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complexes, while 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol did not. It was also found that a bulky and strong σ-donor phosphine ligand was required to impart good catalytic activity to the new ruthenium complexes.
olefin metathesis; ring-closing metathesis; ruthenium indenylidene; ruthenium alkylidene
We designed and synthesized two analogous pentacationic fullerenyl monoadducts, C60(>ME1N6+C3) (1) and C60(>ME3N6+C3) (2), with variation of the methoxyethyleneglycol length. Each of these derivatives bears a well-defined number of cationic charges aimed to enhance and control their ability to target pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cells for allowing photodynamic inactivation. The synthesis was achieved by the use of a common synthon of pentacationic N,N’,N,N,N,N-hexapropyl-hexa(aminoethyl)amine arm (C3N6+) having six attached propyl groups, instead of methyl or ethyl groups, to provide a well-balanced hydrophobicity–hydrophilicity character of pentacationic precursor intermediates and better compatibility with the highly hydrophobic C60 cage moiety. We demonstrated two plausible synthetic routes for the preparation of 1 and 2 with the product characterization via various spectroscopic methods.
Pentacationic C60 monoadducts; decacationic C60 monoadduct; N,N’,N,N,N,N-hexapropyl-hexa(aminoethyl)amine; photosensitizer
We developed a screening procedure to identify ligands from a phage display random peptide library that are selective for circulating bone marrow derived cells homing to angiogenic tumors. Panning the library on blood outgrowth endothelial cell suspension in vitro followed by in vivo selection based on homing of bone marrow-bound phage to angiogenic tumors, yielded the peptide QFPPKLTNNSML. Upon intravenous injection phage displaying this peptide homed to Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors in vivo whereas control phage did not localize to tumor tissue. Phage carrying the QFPPKLTNNSML peptide labeled with 64Cu radionuclide when administered intravenously into a tumor bearing mouse was detected noninvasively with positron emission tomography (PET) around the tumor. These proof-of-principle experiments demonstrate the ability of the QFPPKLTNNSML peptide to deliver payload (radiolabeled phage conjugates) in vivo to sites of ongoing angiogenesis and point to its potential clinical utility in a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes where neovascular growth is a critical component.
in vivo phage display; circulating bone marrow derived tumor homing cells; tumor-associated peptides; targeting neovascular growth; positron emission tomography (PET) imaging