Many studies suggest optimal sleep duration for survival is seven to eight hours/night. We report the gender-specific independent association of all-cause mortality with nighttime sleep and daytime nap duration in older adults who were followed for up to 19 years.
Between 1984 and 1987, 2,001 community-dwelling, mostly retired, adults (1,112 women), age 60–96 years, answered questions about health, mood, medications, life-style, daytime napping, and nighttime sleep duration. Vital status was confirmed for 96% through July 2001.
At baseline, men reported significantly longer nighttime sleep and daytime napping than women. In both men and women, nighttime sleep
Mechanisms for these differences are unknown.
elderly; mortality; nap duration; prospective study; sleep duration
To evaluate whether eliciting repetitive cortical and autonomic arousals during sleep is able to induce the occurrence of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS).
Fifteen normal subjects underwent one night of uninterrupted and two sequential nights of experimental sleep fragmentation achieved by auditory and mechanical stimuli eliciting frequent EEG arousals. Sleep was polygraphically recorded and subsequently used to determine the frequency of arousals and occurrence of LM activity during the first (baseline) and the second fragmentation night. Also, heart rate variability parameters were obtained to assess the autonomic changes induced by the stimulation.
Sleep fragmentation was associated with an increase in the arousal index, percentage of sleep stage 1, and frequency of stage shifts. In addition, there was a decrease in sleep latency and in percentage of slow-wave sleep. Moreover, a significant increase in heart rate variability and especially of its sympathetic component, was also found. In contrast, parameters of the leg movement activity showed no significant change following experimental sleep fragmentation. The lack of an increase in leg movement activity was also observed in one subject who demonstrated PLMS at baseline.
Experimental sleep fragmentation is not associated with an increase in PLMS in normal young adults.
Periodic leg movement during sleep; PLMS; arousal; autonomic activation; sleep fragmentation; heart rate variability
The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was initially developed to measure daytime sleep propensity in patients affected by a variety of sleep disorders. Obstetrical research has measured sleepiness in pregnant women with the ESS, although a psychometric analysis and dimensionality evaluations have never been conducted with this population.
to perform a psychometric evaluation of the ESS in an obstetric population.
secondary data analysis of subjects enrolled in the Prenatal Exposures and Preeclampsia Prevention III (PEPP) study.
subjects who received prenatal care at Magee-Women’s Hospital UPMC in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
337 pregnant women in their first trimester who completed the ESS.
principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed using SPSS and M-Plus. Additionally, reliability was assessed and construct validity was measured using the Life Orientation Test (LOT). Lastly, a relationship between daytime sleepiness and snoring was investigated using Item 5e from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
PCA with varimax rotation yielded two factors that explained approximately 50% of the variance. CFA results verified the two-factor solution. An overall Cronbach’s alpha (0.751) revealed moderate reliability (Factor 1α = .754 ; Factor 2α = .524 ). Both convergent and discriminant validity were established.
The ESS is appropriate for use in an obstetric population to measure daytime sleepiness. Future work should include additional evaluations of the ESS in a diverse group of pregnant women.
Epworth Sleepiness Scale; pregnancy; psychometrics; sleepiness; sleep; Confirmatory Factor Analysis; Exploratory Factor Analysis
To explore the eventual connection between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy and altered leg movements during sleep in a 10-year follow-up study in children who did or did not have IDA in infancy.
Subjects and methods
Polysomnographic studies were performed in 32 10-year-old children (13 females and 19 males) who had IDA in infancy and 26 peers (10 females and 16 males) who were nonanemic controls. The time structure of their polysomnographically recorded leg movements (LM) was analyzed by means of an approach particularly able to consider their quantity, periodicity, and distribution during the night.
All LM indexes and those related to periodic LM during sleep (PLMS) were slightly higher in the former IDA group than in the control group, but not always significant. The Periodicity index during NREM sleep was higher and was reflected by a small but significant increase in PLMS separated by 10–50 s intervals. PLMS index tended to be higher in former IDA children than in controls throughout the whole night.
The association between IDA in infancy, despite iron therapy, and PLMS in childhood could lead to new research in this area. Indeed, transient infantile IDA, a common nutritional problem among human infants, may turn out to be important for understanding the mechanisms of PLMS or restless legs syndrome, which are common in adulthood.
Iron deficiency anemia in infancy; Periodic leg movements during sleep; Periodicity index; Non-REM sleep; Long-term effects of iron deficiency anemia in infancy; Children
To compare the polysomnography findings and cardiometabolic function among adolescent girls with PCOS and matched female and male controls.
Retrospective chart review of electronic medical records of 28 girls with PCOS (age: 16.8±1.9 yrs, BMI Z-score 2.4±0.4), 28 control females (age: 17.1±1.8, BMI Z-score 2.4±0.3) and 28 control males (age: 16.6±1.6, BMI Z-score 2.5±0.5) in a tertiary care center.
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was higher in girls with PCOS compared to control females (16/28 (57%) vs. 4/28(14.3%), p<0.01), however, was comparable to that of the control males (16/28(57%) vs. 21/28(75%), p=0.4). Girls with PCOS had a significantly higher prevalence of insulin resistance compared to control females and control males (20/28 (71.4%) vs. 9/22 (41.0%) (p=0.04) vs. 8/23 (34.8%) (p=0.01). Among girls with PCOS, those with OSA had significantly higher proportions of metabolic syndrome (9/16 (56.3% ) vs. 1/12 (8.3%) p=0.03), higher insulin resistance (13/16 (81.3%) vs. 5/12 (41.6%), p=0.03), elevated daytime systolic blood pressure (128.4±12.8 vs. 115.6±11.4, p<0.01), lower HDL (38.6±8.7 vs. 49±10.9, p=0.01) and elevated triglycerides (149.7±87.7 vs. 93.3±25.8, p=0.03) compared to those without OSA.
We report a higher prevalence of OSA and metabolic dysfunction in a selected group of obese girls with PCOS referred with sleep related complaints compared to BMI matched control girls without PCOS. We also report higher prevalence of cardiometabolic dysfunction in girls with PCOS and OSA compared to girls with PCOS without OSA.
AHI: Apnea hypopnea index; HDL: High density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR: Homeostatic model assessment a measure of Insulin resistance; MetS: Metabolic syndrome; OSA: Obstructive sleep apnea; PCOS: Polycystic ovary syndrome; TG: Triglyceride
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sleep insufficiency and sleep duration, particularly regarding negative cardiometabolic health outcomes already considered to be affected by reduced sleep time.
A total of N=30,934 participants from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) answered questions about their sleep duration as well as subjective feelings of sleep insufficiency. Outcomes included body mass index (BMI), obesity (BMI≥30), and history of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, heart attack, and stroke. Linear and logistic regression models examined whether cardiometabolic outcomes were associated with (1) sleep duration alone, (2) sleep insufficiency alone, and (3) the combined effect of sleep duration and sleep insufficiency.
Results indicated that, when examined alone, sleep duration <5 hours (vs 7 hours) was related to BMI (B=2.716, p<0.01), obesity (B=2.080, p<0.000001), diabetes (B=3.162, p<0.000001), hypertension (B=2.703, p<0.000001), hypercholesterolemia (B=1.922, p<0.00001), heart attack (B=4.704, p<0.000001), and stroke (B=4.558, p<0.000001), and sleep insufficiency (days per week, continuous) was related to BMI (B=0.181, p<.01), obesity (B=1.061, p<0.000001), and hypercholesterolemia (B=1.025, p<.01). All of these relationships remained significant after adjustment for covariates, except for diabetes and sleep duration. Also, after adjustment, a significant relationship between insufficient sleep and hypertension emerged (B=1.039, p<.001). When evaluated together, after adjustment for covariates, significant relationships remained between sleep duration <5 hours (vs 7 hours) and BMI (B=1.266, p<0.05), obesity (B=1.389, p<.05), hypertension (B=1.555, p<0.01), heart attack (B=2.513, p<0.01)and stroke (B=1.807, p<0.05). It should be noted that relationships between sleep duration >9 hours (vs 7 hours) were seen for heart attack (B=1.863, p<0.001) and stroke (B=1.816, p<0.01). In these models, sleep insufficiency was associated with hypercholesterolemia (B=1.031, p<0.01)and hypertension (B=1.027, p<0.05).
These analyses show that both sleep duration and insufficiency are related to cardiometabolic health outcomes, and that when evaluated together, both variables demonstrate unique effects.
Sleep; Obesity; Cardiovascular Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension
To test the hypothesis that non-frail older men with poorer sleep at baseline are at increased risk for frailty and death at follow-up.
In this prospective cohort study, subjective (questionnaires) and objective sleep parameters (actigraphy and in-home overnight polysomnography) were measured at baseline in 2,505 non-frail men aged ≥67 years. Repeat frailty status assessment was performed an average of 3.4 years later; vital status was assessed every four months. Sleep parameters were expressed as dichotomized predictors using clinical cut-points. Statuses at follow-up exam were classified as robust, intermediate (pre-frail) stage, frail, or died in interim.
None of the sleep disturbances were associated with the odds of being intermediate/frail/dead (vs. robust) at follow-up. Poor subjective sleep quality (multivariable odds ratio [MOR] 1.26, 95%CI 1.01–1.58), greater nighttime wakefulness (MOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04–1.66), and greater nocturnal hypoxemia (MOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02–2.10) were associated with a higher odds of frailty/death at follow-up (vs. robust/intermediate). Excessive daytime sleepiness (MOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03–2.47), greater nighttime wakefulness (MOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.12–2.20), severe sleep apnea (MOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.04–2.89), and nocturnal hypoxemia (MOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.45–3.58) were associated with higher odds of death (vs. robust/intermediate/frail at follow-up). The association between poor sleep efficiency and mortality nearly reached significance (MOR 1.48, 95% CI 0.99–2.22). Short sleep duration and prolonged sleep latency were not associated with frailty/death or death at follow-up.
Among non-frail older men, poor subjective sleep quality, greater nighttime wakefulness, and greater nocturnal hypoxemia were independently associated with a higher odds of frailty or death at follow-up, while excessive daytime sleepiness, greater nighttime wakefulness, severe sleep apnea, and greater nocturnal hypoxemia were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality.
sleep disturbances; frailty; mortality; men; elderly
Limited evidence links atypical antipsychotics (AAs) use to sleep related respiratory dysfunction and greater severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The present paper reviews the published evidence and examines the impact of AA use on the presence and severity of OSA among subjects with clinically suspected OSA after adjusting for several confounds.
Archives of the University of Iowa Sleep Laboratory from 2005 to 2009 were searched for patients using AAs at the time of diagnostic polysomnogram (PSG). PSG data of the 84 AA users with heterogeneous psychiatric disorders (of these 20 diagnosed only with depression) were subsequently compared to PSG data of two randomly selected, non-AA user groups from the same patient pool: (i) 200 subjects with a depressive disorder as the only psychiatric diagnosis, and (ii) 331 mentally healthy controls. PSG data were analyzed adjusting for known demographic, medical, and psychiatric risk factors for OSA.
Prevalence and severity of OSA did not differ significantly across three groups. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and neck circumference (NC) independently predicted OSA. Odds ratio for OSA in the subset of AA users carrying the diagnosis of depression (n = 20) compared with subjects without mental illness was 4.53 (p < .05). By contrast, AA users without depression or those with multiple psychiatric diagnoses including depression did not show a statistically significantly elevated OSA risk.
AA use in subjects with depression appears to increase the risk of OSA after controlling for known predisposing factors.
Atypical antipsychotics; Depression; Obstructive sleep apnea; Psychosis; Schizophrenia; Sleep related breathing disorder
Alterations in circadian rhythms can have profound effects on mental health. High co-morbidity for psychiatric disorders has been observed in patients with circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and in those with an evening-type circadian preference. The aim of this study was to systematically determine the prevalence and type of DSM IV AXIS-I disorders in those with DSPD compared to evening-type controls.
Forty-eight DSPD and 25 evening-type participants took part in this study. Sleep and wake parameters were assessed with actigraphy, diary and questionnaires (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ)). Evening-type preference was defined by the Horne-Ostberg questionnaire. DSPD was determined by interview according to International Classification of Sleep Disorders criteria. Current and past diagnosis of psychiatric disorders were assessed with a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders.
DSPD was associated with a later wake time, longer sleep time, higher PSQI score, lower Horne-Ostberg and FOSQ scores compared to evening-types. There were no significant differences in the prevalence or type of AXIS-I disorders between those with DSPD or evening type preference. Over 70% of participants met criteria for at least one past AXIS-I disorder. Approximately 40% of both the DSPD and evening-types met criteria for a past diagnosis of mood, anxiety (most frequently phobia) or substance use disorders. Evening types were more likely to have a past diagnosis of more that one AXIS-I disorder.
These results highlight the important link between circadian rhythms and mental disorders. Specifically, an evening circadian chronotype regardless of DSPD status is associated with a risk for anxiety, depressive or substance use disorders.
circadian; sleep; depression; delayed sleep phase disorder
Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women.
Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression.
The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6–79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6–8 hours per day, 11.5% slept five hours or less, and 8.7% slept nine hours or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around seven hours/day (6.5–7.4 hours/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status.
In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of these associations so that recommendations can be developed to reduce sleep problems in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. It also provides important information on potential confounders for investigation of sleep duration on health outcomes in this population.
Sleep duration; socio-economic factor; lifestyle; health status; BMI; correlation; Chinese
To determine the prevalence of personality disorders and their relation to insomnia parameters among persons with chronic insomnia with hypnotic dependence.
Eighty-four adults with chronic insomnia with hypnotic dependence completed the SCID-II personality questionnaire, two-weeks of sleep diaries, polysomnography, and measures of insomnia severity, impact, fatigue severity, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Frequencies, between-subjects t-tests and hierarchical regression models were conducted.
Cluster C personality disorders were most prevalent (50%). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) was most common (n=39). These individuals compared to participants with no personality disorders did not differ in objective and subjective sleep parameters. Yet, they had poorer insomnia-related daytime functioning. OCPD and Avoidant personality disorders features were associated with poorer daytime functioning. OCPD features were related to greater fatigue severity, and overestimation of time awake was trending. Schizotypal and Schizoid features were positively associated with insomnia severity. Dependent personality disorder features were related to underestimating time awake.
Cluster C personality disorders were highly prevalent in patients with chronic insomnia with hypnotic dependence. Features of Cluster C and A personality disorders were variously associated with poorer insomnia-related daytime functioning, fatigue, and estimation of nightly wake-time. Future interventions may need to address these personality features.
insomnia; hypnotic-dependence; personality disorders; Cluster C personality disorders; sleep-wake perception; daytime functioning
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited data are available from large African American cohorts.
We examined the prevalence, burden, and correlates of sleep symptoms suggestive of SDB and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), an all-African-American cohort of 5,301 adults. Data on selected daytime and nighttime sleep symptoms were collected using a modified Berlin questionnaire during the baseline examination. Risk of OSA was calculated according to published prediction model. Age and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between potential risk factors and measures of sleep.
Sleep symptoms, burden, and risk of OSA were high among men and women in the JHS and increased with age and obesity. Being married was positively associated with sleep symptoms among women. In men, poor to fair perceived health and increased levels of stress were associated with higher odds of sleep burden, whereas prevalent hypertension and CVD were associated with higher odds of OSA risk. Similar associations were observed among women with slight variations. Sleep duration <7 hours was associated with increased odds of sleep symptoms among women and increased sleep burden among men. Moderate to severe restless sleep was consistently and positively associated with odds of adverse sleep symptoms, sleep burden, and high risk OSA.
Sleep symptoms in JHS had a strong positive association with features of visceral obesity, stress, and poor perceived health. With increasing obesity among younger African Americans, these findings are likely to have broad public health implications.
African-American; epidemiology; Jackson Heart study; health status; obesity; sleep; sleep apnea syndromes; sleep disordered breathing
Sleep disturbance is common during critical illness, yet little is known about its prevalence or role in post-discharge quality of life among high-risk acute lung injury (ALI) patients.
In a prospective cohort of 61 mechanically ventilated ALI patients, we examined the association between insomnia symptoms and quality of life six months after discharge. Subjects completed surveys rating quality of life (MOS SF-36), post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL), and depression (PHQ-9). Using an individual item from the PCL, we defined insomnia symptoms as moderate or greater trouble falling or staying asleep in the past month. We performed multivariable linear regression to examine the association between insomnia symptoms and SF-36 physical and mental component scores, adjusting for PTSD and depression.
Forty subjects (85% of eligible) completed six-month questionnaires; 20 (50%) met criteria for insomnia symptoms. After adjustment for PTSD and depression, insomnia symptoms remained significantly associated with worse physical component scores (adjusted mean difference = -8.8; 95% CI: -15.0, -2.5; P<0.01).
Post-discharge insomnia symptoms were common and significantly associated with physical quality of life impairment among six-month ALI survivors, even after adjustment for PTSD and depression symptoms. Further studies are needed to validate these results and to characterize sleep disturbance after ALI using sleep-specific metrics.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome; Adult/therapy; Quality of Life; Insomnia; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Intensive Care Units
To examine the association between nocturnal sleep duration and weight and caloric intake outcomes among preschool-aged children who are obese and enrolled in a family-based weight management program.
Forty-one preschool-aged children who were obese (BMI ≥95th percentile) and enrolled in a weight management program completed pre- and posttreatment assessments of body mass, caloric intake, and sleep. Separate linear regression analyses examined the relationship between nocturnal sleep duration and posttreatment body mass index relative to ageand sex-linked norms (BMIz) and caloric intake.
After controlling for pretreatment BMIz, longer posttreatment nocturnal sleep was significantly associated with lower posttreatment BMIz (β=-0.21, p=0.02) and explained a significant proportion of unique variance in posttreatment BMIz (ΔR2=0.04). Similarly, after controlling for pretreatment caloric intake, longer nocturnal sleep duration at posttreatment was significantly associated with lower caloric intake at posttreatment (β=-0.45, p=0.003) and explained a significant proportion of unique variance in posttreatment caloric intake (ΔR2=0.19).
These findings extend the literature on the sleep and weight relationship and suggest that adequate sleep may be an important element in interventions for preschoolers with obesity.
obesity; weight management; sleep; pediatrics; diet; children; behavior; intervention
There are limited data about the role of gender on the relationship between sleep duration and blood pressure (BP) from rural populations.
We conducted a cross-sectional rural population-based study. This report includes 1,033 men and 783 women aged 18–65 years from a cohort of twins enrolled in Anhui, China, between 2005 and 2008. Sleep duration was derived from typical bedtime, wake-up time, and sleep latency as reported on a standard sleep questionnaire. Primary outcomes included measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). High blood pressure (HBP) was defined as SBP≥130 mmHg, DBP ≥85 mmHg, or physician diagnosed hypertension. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess gender-specific associations between sleep duration and BP or HBP, respectively, with adjustment for known risk factors including adiposity and sleep-related disorder risk from the questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for intra-twin pair correlations.
Compared with those sleeping 7 to less than 9 hours, women sleeping <7 hours had a higher risk of HBP (odds ratios [ORs] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–6.6); men sleeping ≥9 hours had a higher risk of HBP (ORs=1.5, 95%CI: 1.1–2.2).
Among rural Chinese adults, a gender-specific association of sleep duration with BP exists such that HBP is associated with short sleep duration in women and long sleep duration in men. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine the temporal relationship and biological mechanisms underlying sleep duration and BP in this population. Our findings underscore the potential importance of appropriate sleep duration for optimal blood pressure.
sleep duration; high blood pressure; gender difference; rural Chinese
Diagnosis of insomnia disorder by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV, and as proposed by DSM-V, includes criteria for impairment in occupational- or social functioning due to sleep complaints. This study evaluated the clinical and polysomnographic correlates of impairment in daytime functioning in older adults with insomnia.
In older adults with DSM-IV chronic insomnia (n=68), clinical and demographic information, and measures of health functioning, medical co-morbidity, and polysomnographic sleep were obtained. Four questions that evaluated difficulties or distress in occupational- or social functioning related to sleep complaints were used to code DSM threshold criteria for impairment in daytime functioning. Stepwise regression was used to identify predictors of impairment in daytime functioning.
Impairment in daytime functioning was significantly associated with younger age (p<0.05), and the amount of wake time after sleep onset as assessed by polysomnography (p<0.001), controlling for health functioning and minority racial status.
Amount of wake time after sleep onset uniquely contributes to criteria symptoms of impairment in daytime functioning among older adults with insomnia. Treatments that target sleep maintenance have the potential to improve social and occupational functioning in older adults with sleep complaints.
Background and purpose
The purpose of this study was to compare two parent completed questionnaires, the Modified Simonds & Parraga Sleep Questionnaire (MSPSQ), and the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), used to characterize sleep disturbances in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Both questionnaires have been used in previous work in the assessment and treatment of children with ASD and sleep disturbance.
Participants and methods
Parents/caregivers of a sample of 124 children diagnosed with ASD with an average age of six years completed both sleep questionnaires regarding children’s sleep behaviors. Internal consistency of the items for both measures was evaluated as well as the correlation between the two sleep measures. A Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was also conducted to examine the predictive power of the MSPSQ.
More than three quarters of the sample (78%) were identified as poor sleepers on the CSHQ. Cronbach’s alpha for the items on the CSHQ was 0.68 and Cronbach’s alpha for items on the MSPSQ was 0.67. The total scores for MSPSQ and CSHQ were significantly correlated (r =.70, p<.01). After first identifying the poor sleepers based on the CSHQ, an area under the curve was 0.89 for the MSPSQ. Using a cut off score of 56 on the MSPSQ, sensitivity was .86 and specificity was .70.
In this sample of children with ASD, sleep disturbances were common across all cognitive levels. Preliminary findings suggest that, similar to the CSHQ, the MSPSQ has adequate internal consistency. The two measures were also highly correlated. A preliminary cut off of 56 on the MSPSQ offers high sensitivity and specificity commensurate with the widely used CSHQ.
Autism spectrum disorder; sleep disturbance; sleep disturbances; sleep questionnaires; Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire; Modified Simonds and Parraga Sleep Questionnaire
The effects of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep restriction, dyssomnias, and parasomnias on daytime behavior in children have been previously assessed. However, the potential relationship(s) between sleep hygiene and children’s daytime behavior remain to be explored. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep hygiene and problematic behaviors in non-snoring and habitually snoring children.
Parents of 100 5- to 8-year-old children who were reported to snore “frequently” to “almost always,” and of 71 age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched children who were reported to never snore participated in this study. As part of a larger, ongoing study, children underwent nocturnal polysomnography and parents were asked to complete the Children’s Sleep Hygiene Scale (CSHS) and the Conners’ Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CPRS-R:L).
In the snoring group, strong negative correlations (r = −.39, p <.001) between the CSHS overall sleep hygiene score and the CPRS-R:L DSM-IV total scores emerged. Additionally, several subscales of the CSHS and CPRS-R:L were significantly correlated (p-values from <.000 to .004) in snoring children. No significant correlations were observed between the CSHS and the CPRS-R:L in the non-snoring children.
Parental reports of behavioral patterns in snoring children indicate that poorer sleep hygiene is more likely to be associated with behavior problems, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and oppositional behavior. In contrast, no significant relationships between sleep hygiene and problem behaviors emerged among non-snoring children. These results indicate that children at risk for sleep disordered breathing are susceptible to daytime behavior impairments when concurrently coupled with poor sleep hygiene practices.
sleep hygiene; behavior problems; children; snoring
Although the epidemiology of insomnia in the general population has received considerable attention in the past 20 years, few studies have investigated the prevalence of insomnia using operational definitions such as those set forth in the ICSD and DSM-IV, specifying what proportion of respondents satisfied the criteria to reach a diagnosis of insomnia disorder.
This is a cross-sectional study involving 25,579 individuals aged 15 years and over representative of the general population of France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Finland. The participants were interviewed on sleep habits and disorders managed by the Sleep-EVAL expert system using DSM-IV and ICSD classifications.
At the complaint level, too short sleep (15.8%), light sleep (16.6%), and global sleep dissatisfaction (8.5%) were reported by 37% of the subjects. At the symptom level (difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep and non-restorative sleep at least 3 nights per week), 34.5% of the sample reported at least one of them. At the criterion level, (symptoms + daytime consequences), 9.8% of the total sample reported having them. At the diagnostic level, 6.6% satisfied the DSM-IV requirement for positive and differential diagnosis. However, many respondents failed to meet diagnostic criteria for duration, frequency and severity in the two classifications, suggesting that multidimensional measures are needed.
A significant proportion of the population with sleep complaints do not fit into DSM-IV and ICSD classifications. Further efforts are needed to identify diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures that will lead to insomnia diagnoses and thus provide a more reliable, valid and clinically relevant classification.
Insomnia; Epidemiology; classifications; mental disorders
Studies suggest that sleep quality and duration are significantly associated with mortality risk and health conditions, yet such studies are seldom conducted among very old adults. The objective of this study was to examine associations between self-reported sleep quality/duration and subsequent mortality/health among very old adults in China. A second objective determines whether these associations vary by age and gender.
This study used data of the 2005 and 2008 waves from a large, representative survey with a total of 12,671 individuals in 22 provinces in mainland China, in which 3158 respondents were aged 90–99 and 2293 were centenarians. Two self-reported questions about sleep quality and duration were examined while adjusting for numerous socio-demographic, family/social support, health practices, and baseline health factors.
Hazard regressions showed that, when demographic factors are controlled for, Chinese elders who report poor and fair quality of sleep have 26% and 10% higher risk of death over the next three years compared to those with good sleep quality; those who sleep either 6 h or less or 10 h or more per day have an 18–22% higher mortality risk as compared to those who sleep 8 h per day. The increased mortality risks of poorer sleep and too short or too long sleep duration are larger in men than in women and more robust in the oldest-old than in young elders. Logistic regressions show that poor sleep and daily sleep durations of 5 h or less or 10 h or more are also associated with worse health three years later.
Poorer sleep quality and too short or too long sleep duration are associated with higher subsequent mortality risk and lower odds of being in a healthy state among very old Chinese.
China; Healthy longevity survey; Mortality; Gender differentials; Older adults; Oldest-old; Quality of sleep; Sleep duration
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely used measure of subjective sleep disturbance in clinical populations, including individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the severity of sleep disturbance is generally represented by a global symptom score, recent factor analytic studies suggest that the PSQI is better characterized by a two- or three-factor model than a one-factor model. This study examined the replicability of two- and three-factor models of the PSQI, as well as the relationship between PSQI factors and health outcomes, in a female sample with PTSD.
The PSQI was administered to 319 women with PTSD related to sexual or physical assault. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the relative fit of one-, two-, and three-factor solutions. Bivariate correlations were performed to examine the shared variance between PSQI sleep factors and measures of PTSD, depression, anger, and physical symptoms.
Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor model with Sleep Efficiency, Perceived Sleep Quality, and Daily Disturbances as separate indices of sleep quality. The severity of symptoms represented by the PSQI factors was positively associated with the severity of PTSD, depression, and physical symptoms. However, these health outcomes correlated as much or more with the global PSQI score as with PSQI factor scores.
These results support the multidimensional structure of the PSQI. Yet, the global PSQI score has as much or more explanatory power as individual PSQI factors in predicting health outcomes.
factor analysis; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; sleep; PTSD; depression; anger; physical symptoms
To determine whether an accurate circadian phase assessment could be obtained from saliva samples collected by patients in their home.
Twenty-four individuals with a complaint of sleep initiation or sleep maintenance difficulty were studied for two evenings. Each participant received instructions for collecting 8 hourly saliva samples in dim light at home. On the following evening they spent 9h in a laboratory room with controlled dim (<20 lux) light, where hourly saliva samples were collected. Circadian phase of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was determined using both an absolute threshold (3pg/mL) and a relative threshold (2 standard deviations above the mean of 3 baseline values).
Neither threshold method worked well for one participant who was a `low-secretor'. In four cases the participant's in-lab melatonin levels rose much earlier and/or were much higher than their at-home levels, and one participant appeared to take the at home samples out of order. Overall, the at-home and in-lab DLMO values were significantly correlated using both methods, and differed on average by 37 (±19) minutes using the absolute threshold and by 54 (±36) minutes using the relative threshold.
The at-home assessment procedure was able to determine an accurate DLMO using an absolute threshold in 62.5% of the participants. Thus, an at-home procedure for assessing circadian phase could be practical for evaluating patients for circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
DLMO; circadian phase; melatonin; circadian rhythm sleep disorders