Efforts to reduce skin cancer risk behaviors using appearance-oriented interventions (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] light photos showing skin damage) or Motivational Interviewing (MI) have shown promise in recent trials.
A randomized 2 (UV photo versus no UV photo) × 2 (MI versus no MI) factorial design with longitudinal follow up.
Progression in stage of change (SOC) was significantly more likely in the photo than the education condition. Treatment credibility as rated by participants and counselor perceived positive therapeutic alliance predicted SOC progression. There was also preliminary evidence for differential intervention effectiveness by baseline SOC.
Implications are discussed.
randomized controlled trial; skin protection; UV photos; motivational interviewing; young adults; stage of change
The purpose of this study was to examine if messages tailored to an individual’s regulatory focus (i.e. their tendency to focus on prevention or promotion) increased exercise intentions and behavior in a medically underserved sample. Adult English as a Second Language students (N = 58) were presented with tailored exercise messages. There was a significant main effect for message type; participants who received promotion messages reported greater exercise intentions than those who received prevention messages. Intentions and behavior were not higher among those who received messages matching their regulatory focus. Implications for message tailoring frameworks are discussed.
Hispanic; medically underserved; physical activity; regulatory focus
Risk perceptions and disease worry of 1,959 healthy adults were measured in a telephone-based survey. In the model for each of eight health conditions, people’s perceived risk was related to their worry for that condition (p < .0001) and their worry for the other seven conditions (p < .001). There was also an interaction indicating that the less people were worried about a certain condition, the more their worry about the other seven conditions increased their risk perception for that condition (p < .0001). The results are important for preventing biased risk perceptions in multiple-disease contexts.
Disease risk; disease worry; affect heuristic; genetic testing
This study investigated the moderating role of sexual communication in the association between intentions to use condoms and unprotected sex in a sample of 358 individuals living with HIV (233 men, 125 women, M age = 43). Longitudinal analyses revealed a significant interaction between condom intentions and sexual communication: individuals who were high in both condom intentions and safer sex communication engaged in less unprotected sex with all partners and with partners of HIV negative or unknown serostatus over 6 months of follow-up. Among individuals low in communication, intentions were not associated with unprotected sex. Implications for interventions are discussed.
Safer sex; HIV/AIDS; condom intentions; sexual communication
Members of Greek-letter societies are the heaviest drinkers on college campuses, and experience more alcohol-related problems than their peers. This study reports the results of a web-based survey administered to stratified random samples of college students from ten North Carolina universities. Greek-letter status was a significant independent risk factor for increased injury (both experienced and caused to others), even after adjusting for drinking behaviors. Prevention, screening, and intervention strategies are discussed in the context of these results.
alcohol counseling; college students; Greek-letter; injury prevention
Sickle-cell disease is a genetic disorder characterized by severe pain episodes or “vaso-occlusive crises” that may require hospitalization. This study examined the associations among emotion regulation, somatization, positive and negative affect, and hospitalizations for pain crises in youth with sickle-cell disease. Multivariate analyses indicated that emotional suppression and somatization were significantly associated with more frequent hospitalizations for pain crises in the previous year after controlling for sickle-cell disease type and pain. These results suggest that efforts to reduce emotional suppression and somatization may assist in decreasing the frequency of hospitalizations for pain crises among youth with sickle-cell disease.
adolescence; children; emotion regulation; health-care utilization; somatization
In this study, the relation between peer crowd identification and indoor tanning behavioral tendencies was examined. Participants were 174 undergraduate students at a large university in the USA. Results indicated peer crowd identification was significantly associated with indoor artificial UV tanning behavioral tendencies (attitudes, normative beliefs, past year use and intentions) independent of gender and skin type. Participants who identified with the popular peer crowd were at the greatest risk for indoor tanning UV exposure while identification with the brain crowd was protective against such behavior. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for future skin cancer intervention efforts.
artificial tanning; attitudes; peer crowd; skin cancer; tanning salons
Although illustrated medication instructions may improve medication management among vulnerable populations, little prior research has evaluated their use among Latinos. We conducted focus groups and interviews with Latino patients with diabetes at two safety net clinics in Tennessee to understand medication taking practices and perceptions of illustrated medication instructions. Patients reported confidence in being able to take medications, but demonstrated a lack of understanding of medication instructions. On further probing, they described several barriers to effective medication management rooted in poor communication. Patients expressed preference for illustrated medication instructions which could address several of the challenges raised by patients.
Adherence; communication; culture; health education; medication; patient satisfaction; qualitative methods
One-third of adults living with HIV/AIDS are over the age of 50. This study evaluated the structure of coping among 307 older adults living with HIV/AIDS. Participants completed 61 coping items and measures of anxiety, depression, loneliness, and coping self-efficacy. Exploratory factor analyses retained 40 coping items loading on five specific first order factors (Distancing Avoidance, Social Support Seeking, Self-Destructive Avoidance, Spiritual Coping, and Solution-Focused Coping) and two general second order factors (Active and Avoidant Coping). Factors demonstrated good reliability and validity. Results suggest that general coping factors should be considered with specific factors when measuring coping among older adults.
aging; coping; exploratory factor analysis; HIV/AIDS; older adults
This study investigated whether loneliness and cognitive processing explain the influence of negative (social constraints) and positive (emotional support) relationship qualities on cancer survivors’ distress. Participants were 195 cancer survivors who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Path analysis supported the hypothesis that loneliness and cognitive processing would mediate the association between social constraints and distress. Only loneliness mediated the association between emotional support and distress—an indirect effect significant only when support came from family and friends rather than a partner. Findings suggest that addressing social constraints may enhance cancer survivors’ adjustment.
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; cancer survivorship; loneliness; psychological distress; social support; social constraints
Media coverage has emphasized human papillomavirus (HPV) as a vaccine-preventable, sexually transmitted virus causing cervical cancer. Appalachian undergraduate students (N = 309, 50% female) were surveyed on their knowledge of HPV; analyses of mental representations were similar to content analyses of media coverage of HPV, suggesting media cultivation. Semantic network analysis revealed linkages between vaccine, disease causation and prevention, women's centrality in the representations, and structural differences that varied between vaccinated women, unvaccinated women, and men. The findings provided insights into gaps in the public's understanding of HPV, potential stigmatization of those testing HPV+, and future challenges in vaccinating men.
human papillomavirus; semantic network analysis; belief systems; stigma; media coverage
This study investigated the psychosocial factors that influence psychological adjustment among women with genital herpes, while taking into account the physical factors. Women with herpes (N = 105, age 18–30) completed an on-line survey about factors related to their diagnosis and herpes-related quality of life. Perceived stigma, acceptance coping, denial coping, support from the Internet, and support from religious/spiritual figures accounted for 65.9 percent of the variance in quality of life scores. The findings reveal the importance of specific coping strategies and sources of support on psychological adjustment to herpes. Furthermore, a significant interaction between stigma and acceptance coping suggests a complex relationship between these two psychosocial factors that warrants future research.
coping; herpes; psychological adjustment; stigma; women
This study examined relations among indoor tanning frequency, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance use. A total of 421 college students (68% female) completed self-report measures on one occasion. Among men, indoor tanning was positively associated with symptoms of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, whereas indoor tanning was unrelated to these symptoms among women. Among women, indoor tanning was positively associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances. Further research is needed to explore contextual and coping processes that may underlie these gender differences.
indoor tanning; skin cancer; depression; anxiety; substance use
This study examined the sources and frequency of, and dietary behavioral responses to, health-related social support and control in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 1,361 adults with type 2 diabetes. Spouses were the most frequently reported sources of support/control for all racial/ethnic groups examined. Mexican Americans and Vietnamese Americans received more support/control compared to non-Hispanic whites. All types of social involvement were associated with good dietary behavior for Mexican Americans, whereas only support was associated with good dietary behavior for non-Hispanic whites. The findings underscore the importance of considering racial/ethnic differences in examining social network members’ involvement in chronic disease management.
social support; health-related social control; type 2 diabetes; chronic disease management; race/ethnicity
Long-term patterns of depression, and associations with health and function were examined among 1115 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, using 18 years of panel data, summarized in 9653 interviews. Depression was defined by scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (6 or above). Participants were classified, using cluster analysis, into three distinct patterns of depression over repeated assessments: nondepressed (65.8%), intermittent (25.2%), and chronic (9.0%). GEE analyses assessed outcomes over time as a function of patterns of depression; controlling for demographic and clinical factors. Results indicated that patterns of depression had significant adverse effects on health and function over time.
depression; rheumatoid arthritis
To provide a conceptual formulation for “research literacy” and preliminary evidence for the utility of the construct in enhancing knowledge of and ethical participation in research.
Examined the impact of a brief educational intervention on parents’ research knowledge and their research participation decisions.
Research-related knowledge was improved. Parents with greater knowledge were more comfortable with their research participation decisions. Enhanced understanding of child volition increased parents’ willingness to enroll their children in research.
The proposed research literacy model identifies methods to enhance population knowledge and appreciation of research, strengthening links between scientific advancement and health.
The ‘Southampton Initiative for Health’ (SIH) is a training intervention with Sure Start Children’s Centre staff designed to improve the diets and physical activity levels of women of child-bearing age. Training aims to help staff to support women in making changes to their lifestyles by improving three skills: reflection on current practice; asking ‘open discovery’ questions; and goal setting. The impact of the training on staff practice is being assessed. A before and after non-randomised controlled trial is being used to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention in improving women’s diets and increasing their physical activity levels.
diet; physical activity; reflexive practice; goal setting; self-efficacy; intervention, disadvantage
This study examined the properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in a sample of 111 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors. The mean score for the Somatic-Affective factor was significantly higher than the Cognitive factor. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed for BDI-II total score, the two factor scores, and the BDI for Primary Care (BDI-PC). The BDI-PC and Cognitive factor demonstrated superior validity. Results suggest patients endorse BDI-II somatic items that overlap with CFS symptoms at a high rate. Factor scores should be evaluated separately, or the BDI-PC should be utilized with this population.
Beck Depression Inventory-II; Beck Depression inventory for primary care; Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; depression; exploratory factor analysis
This study compared autonomous self-regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change in college student smokers (N=303) in a smoking cessation intervention study. Although the two constructs were moderately correlated, latent growth curve modeling revealed that only autonomous regulation, but not negative self-evaluative emotions, was negatively related to the number of days smoked. Results suggest that the two variables tap different aspects of motivation to change smoking behaviors, and that autonomous regulation predicts smoking behavior change better than negative self-evaluative emotions.
Autonomous self-regulation; Negative self-evaluative emotions; Self-determination theory; Smoking; College student
Research suggests communicating too much about one’s self within an online support group may amplify breast cancer patients’ focus on their own problems and exacerbate negative emotions while focusing on others may have the opposite effects. This study explored how pronoun usage within an online support group was associated with subsequent mental health outcomes. There were 286 patients recruited into the study who filled out the pre-test and 231 completed post-tests 4 months later with survey measures including breast cancer-related concerns and negative emotions. Messages were analyzed using a program counting first-person and relational pronouns. A positive relationship was found between use of first person pronouns and negative emotions.
Breast cancer; online support groups; pronouns; self focus; social support
to examine the relationships among non-conventional practices, adherence and immune functioning in individuals with HIV.
92 participants completed an interview on non-conventional practices (complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), psychosocial therapies, and religious practice). They also completed the Psychiatric Symptom Index and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Adherence Follow-up Questionnaire. Medical chart reviews determined CD4 count and viral load.
Hierarchical logistic regressions revealed religious practice was associated with adherence and CAM was associated with viral load.
Participation in non-conventional practices in HIV populations may lead to positive health and health behaviors. Clinical implications are discussed.
complementary and alternative medicines; HIV; immune functioning; psychological distress psychosocial therapies; religious practice