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1.  Process and Outcomes of a Skin Protection Intervention for Young Adults 
Journal of health psychology  2012;18(4):561-573.
Background
Efforts to reduce skin cancer risk behaviors using appearance-oriented interventions (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] light photos showing skin damage) or Motivational Interviewing (MI) have shown promise in recent trials.
Method
A randomized 2 (UV photo versus no UV photo) × 2 (MI versus no MI) factorial design with longitudinal follow up.
Results
Progression in stage of change (SOC) was significantly more likely in the photo than the education condition. Treatment credibility as rated by participants and counselor perceived positive therapeutic alliance predicted SOC progression. There was also preliminary evidence for differential intervention effectiveness by baseline SOC.
Conclusions
Implications are discussed.
doi:10.1177/1359105312449193
PMCID: PMC3485419  PMID: 22843632
randomized controlled trial; skin protection; UV photos; motivational interviewing; young adults; stage of change
2.  Examining the use of message tailoring to promote physical activity among medically underserved adults 
Journal of health psychology  2012;18(4):470-476.
The purpose of this study was to examine if messages tailored to an individual’s regulatory focus (i.e. their tendency to focus on prevention or promotion) increased exercise intentions and behavior in a medically underserved sample. Adult English as a Second Language students (N = 58) were presented with tailored exercise messages. There was a significant main effect for message type; participants who received promotion messages reported greater exercise intentions than those who received prevention messages. Intentions and behavior were not higher among those who received messages matching their regulatory focus. Implications for message tailoring frameworks are discussed.
doi:10.1177/1359105312445798
PMCID: PMC3565037  PMID: 22689590
Hispanic; medically underserved; physical activity; regulatory focus
3.  Judging Risk for Multiple Diseases: The Role of Disease Worry 
Journal of health psychology  2012;18(4):554-560.
Risk perceptions and disease worry of 1,959 healthy adults were measured in a telephone-based survey. In the model for each of eight health conditions, people’s perceived risk was related to their worry for that condition (p < .0001) and their worry for the other seven conditions (p < .001). There was also an interaction indicating that the less people were worried about a certain condition, the more their worry about the other seven conditions increased their risk perception for that condition (p < .0001). The results are important for preventing biased risk perceptions in multiple-disease contexts.
doi:10.1177/1359105312437263
PMCID: PMC3595370  PMID: 22843634
Disease risk; disease worry; affect heuristic; genetic testing
4.  When do condom use intentions lead to actions? Examining the role of sexual communication on safer sexual behavior among people living with HIV 
Journal of health psychology  2012;18(4):507-517.
This study investigated the moderating role of sexual communication in the association between intentions to use condoms and unprotected sex in a sample of 358 individuals living with HIV (233 men, 125 women, M age = 43). Longitudinal analyses revealed a significant interaction between condom intentions and sexual communication: individuals who were high in both condom intentions and safer sex communication engaged in less unprotected sex with all partners and with partners of HIV negative or unknown serostatus over 6 months of follow-up. Among individuals low in communication, intentions were not associated with unprotected sex. Implications for interventions are discussed.
doi:10.1177/1359105312446769
PMCID: PMC3612384  PMID: 22689591
Safer sex; HIV/AIDS; condom intentions; sexual communication
5.  Alcohol-related injury among Greek-letter college students: Defining a target population for secondary prevention 
Journal of health psychology  2012;18(4):10.1177/1359105312446767.
Members of Greek-letter societies are the heaviest drinkers on college campuses, and experience more alcohol-related problems than their peers. This study reports the results of a web-based survey administered to stratified random samples of college students from ten North Carolina universities. Greek-letter status was a significant independent risk factor for increased injury (both experienced and caused to others), even after adjusting for drinking behaviors. Prevention, screening, and intervention strategies are discussed in the context of these results.
doi:10.1177/1359105312446767
PMCID: PMC3859135  PMID: 22689586
alcohol counseling; college students; Greek-letter; injury prevention
6.  Psychological aspects and hospitalization for pain crises in youth with sickle-cell disease 
Journal of health psychology  2013;19(3):407-416.
Sickle-cell disease is a genetic disorder characterized by severe pain episodes or “vaso-occlusive crises” that may require hospitalization. This study examined the associations among emotion regulation, somatization, positive and negative affect, and hospitalizations for pain crises in youth with sickle-cell disease. Multivariate analyses indicated that emotional suppression and somatization were significantly associated with more frequent hospitalizations for pain crises in the previous year after controlling for sickle-cell disease type and pain. These results suggest that efforts to reduce emotional suppression and somatization may assist in decreasing the frequency of hospitalizations for pain crises among youth with sickle-cell disease.
doi:10.1177/1359105312471570
PMCID: PMC3744610  PMID: 23407129
adolescence; children; emotion regulation; health-care utilization; somatization
7.  Peer Crowd Identification and Indoor Artificial UV Tanning Behavioral Tendencies 
Journal of health psychology  2008;13(7):940-945.
In this study, the relation between peer crowd identification and indoor tanning behavioral tendencies was examined. Participants were 174 undergraduate students at a large university in the USA. Results indicated peer crowd identification was significantly associated with indoor artificial UV tanning behavioral tendencies (attitudes, normative beliefs, past year use and intentions) independent of gender and skin type. Participants who identified with the popular peer crowd were at the greatest risk for indoor tanning UV exposure while identification with the brain crowd was protective against such behavior. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for future skin cancer intervention efforts.
doi:10.1177/1359105308095068
PMCID: PMC3933223  PMID: 18809645
artificial tanning; attitudes; peer crowd; skin cancer; tanning salons
8.  Illustrated Medication Instructions as a Strategy to Improve Medication Management Among Latinos: A Qualitative Analysis 
Journal of health psychology  2012;18(2):187-197.
Although illustrated medication instructions may improve medication management among vulnerable populations, little prior research has evaluated their use among Latinos. We conducted focus groups and interviews with Latino patients with diabetes at two safety net clinics in Tennessee to understand medication taking practices and perceptions of illustrated medication instructions. Patients reported confidence in being able to take medications, but demonstrated a lack of understanding of medication instructions. On further probing, they described several barriers to effective medication management rooted in poor communication. Patients expressed preference for illustrated medication instructions which could address several of the challenges raised by patients.
doi:10.1177/1359105312440300
PMCID: PMC3603345  PMID: 22453163
Adherence; communication; culture; health education; medication; patient satisfaction; qualitative methods
9.  The structure of coping among older adults living with HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms 
Journal of health psychology  2012;18(2):198-211.
One-third of adults living with HIV/AIDS are over the age of 50. This study evaluated the structure of coping among 307 older adults living with HIV/AIDS. Participants completed 61 coping items and measures of anxiety, depression, loneliness, and coping self-efficacy. Exploratory factor analyses retained 40 coping items loading on five specific first order factors (Distancing Avoidance, Social Support Seeking, Self-Destructive Avoidance, Spiritual Coping, and Solution-Focused Coping) and two general second order factors (Active and Avoidant Coping). Factors demonstrated good reliability and validity. Results suggest that general coping factors should be considered with specific factors when measuring coping among older adults.
doi:10.1177/1359105312440299
PMCID: PMC3653185  PMID: 22453164
aging; coping; exploratory factor analysis; HIV/AIDS; older adults
10.  Social Correlates of Distress Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Exploring the Role of Loneliness and Cognitive Processing 
Journal of health psychology  2012;17(7):1022-1032.
This study investigated whether loneliness and cognitive processing explain the influence of negative (social constraints) and positive (emotional support) relationship qualities on cancer survivors’ distress. Participants were 195 cancer survivors who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Path analysis supported the hypothesis that loneliness and cognitive processing would mediate the association between social constraints and distress. Only loneliness mediated the association between emotional support and distress—an indirect effect significant only when support came from family and friends rather than a partner. Findings suggest that addressing social constraints may enhance cancer survivors’ adjustment.
doi:10.1177/1359105311432490
PMCID: PMC3760721  PMID: 22253329
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; cancer survivorship; loneliness; psychological distress; social support; social constraints
11.  Mental Representations of HPV in Appalachia: Gender, Semantic Network Analysis, and Knowledge Gaps 
Journal of health psychology  2011;17(6):917-928.
Media coverage has emphasized human papillomavirus (HPV) as a vaccine-preventable, sexually transmitted virus causing cervical cancer. Appalachian undergraduate students (N = 309, 50% female) were surveyed on their knowledge of HPV; analyses of mental representations were similar to content analyses of media coverage of HPV, suggesting media cultivation. Semantic network analysis revealed linkages between vaccine, disease causation and prevention, women's centrality in the representations, and structural differences that varied between vaccinated women, unvaccinated women, and men. The findings provided insights into gaps in the public's understanding of HPV, potential stigmatization of those testing HPV+, and future challenges in vaccinating men.
doi:10.1177/1359105311428534
PMCID: PMC3772554  PMID: 22169895
human papillomavirus; semantic network analysis; belief systems; stigma; media coverage
12.  Psychological Adjustment among Women Living with Genital Herpes 
Journal of health psychology  2010;16(1):12-21.
This study investigated the psychosocial factors that influence psychological adjustment among women with genital herpes, while taking into account the physical factors. Women with herpes (N = 105, age 18–30) completed an on-line survey about factors related to their diagnosis and herpes-related quality of life. Perceived stigma, acceptance coping, denial coping, support from the Internet, and support from religious/spiritual figures accounted for 65.9 percent of the variance in quality of life scores. The findings reveal the importance of specific coping strategies and sources of support on psychological adjustment to herpes. Furthermore, a significant interaction between stigma and acceptance coping suggests a complex relationship between these two psychosocial factors that warrants future research.
doi:10.1177/1359105310367527
PMCID: PMC3759227  PMID: 20709880
coping; herpes; psychological adjustment; stigma; women
13.  Indoor Tanning, Mental Health, and Substance Use among College Students: The Significance of Gender 
Journal of health psychology  2010;15(6):819-827.
This study examined relations among indoor tanning frequency, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance use. A total of 421 college students (68% female) completed self-report measures on one occasion. Among men, indoor tanning was positively associated with symptoms of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, whereas indoor tanning was unrelated to these symptoms among women. Among women, indoor tanning was positively associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances. Further research is needed to explore contextual and coping processes that may underlie these gender differences.
doi:10.1177/1359105309357091
PMCID: PMC3756883  PMID: 20453052
indoor tanning; skin cancer; depression; anxiety; substance use
14.  Support and Influence in the Context of Diabetes Management: Do Racial/Ethnic Differences Exist? 
Journal of health psychology  2011;16(5):711-721.
This study examined the sources and frequency of, and dietary behavioral responses to, health-related social support and control in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 1,361 adults with type 2 diabetes. Spouses were the most frequently reported sources of support/control for all racial/ethnic groups examined. Mexican Americans and Vietnamese Americans received more support/control compared to non-Hispanic whites. All types of social involvement were associated with good dietary behavior for Mexican Americans, whereas only support was associated with good dietary behavior for non-Hispanic whites. The findings underscore the importance of considering racial/ethnic differences in examining social network members’ involvement in chronic disease management.
doi:10.1177/1359105310388320
PMCID: PMC3725286  PMID: 21444731
social support; health-related social control; type 2 diabetes; chronic disease management; race/ethnicity
15.  Long-term patterns of depression and associations with health and function in a panel study of rheumatoid arthritis 
Journal of health psychology  2011;16(4):667-677.
Long-term patterns of depression, and associations with health and function were examined among 1115 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, using 18 years of panel data, summarized in 9653 interviews. Depression was defined by scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (6 or above). Participants were classified, using cluster analysis, into three distinct patterns of depression over repeated assessments: nondepressed (65.8%), intermittent (25.2%), and chronic (9.0%). GEE analyses assessed outcomes over time as a function of patterns of depression; controlling for demographic and clinical factors. Results indicated that patterns of depression had significant adverse effects on health and function over time.
doi:10.1177/1359105310386635
PMCID: PMC3705774  PMID: 21421646
depression; rheumatoid arthritis
17.  Conceptualizing the Role of Research Literacy in Advancing Societal Health 
Journal of health psychology  2011;17(5):724-730.
Purpose
To provide a conceptual formulation for “research literacy” and preliminary evidence for the utility of the construct in enhancing knowledge of and ethical participation in research.
Methods
Examined the impact of a brief educational intervention on parents’ research knowledge and their research participation decisions.
Results
Research-related knowledge was improved. Parents with greater knowledge were more comfortable with their research participation decisions. Enhanced understanding of child volition increased parents’ willingness to enroll their children in research.
Conclusion
The proposed research literacy model identifies methods to enhance population knowledge and appreciation of research, strengthening links between scientific advancement and health.
doi:10.1177/1359105311425273
PMCID: PMC3643813  PMID: 22021275
18.  The Southampton Initiative for Health: a complex intervention to improve the diets and increase the physical activity levels of women and children from disadvantaged communities 
Journal of health psychology  2010;16(1):178-191.
The ‘Southampton Initiative for Health’ (SIH) is a training intervention with Sure Start Children’s Centre staff designed to improve the diets and physical activity levels of women of child-bearing age. Training aims to help staff to support women in making changes to their lifestyles by improving three skills: reflection on current practice; asking ‘open discovery’ questions; and goal setting. The impact of the training on staff practice is being assessed. A before and after non-randomised controlled trial is being used to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention in improving women’s diets and increasing their physical activity levels.
doi:10.1177/1359105310371397
PMCID: PMC3685267  PMID: 20709878
diet; physical activity; reflexive practice; goal setting; self-efficacy; intervention, disadvantage
19.  Factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with patients with chronic fatigue syndrome 
Journal of health psychology  2011;17(6):799-808.
This study examined the properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in a sample of 111 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors. The mean score for the Somatic-Affective factor was significantly higher than the Cognitive factor. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed for BDI-II total score, the two factor scores, and the BDI for Primary Care (BDI-PC). The BDI-PC and Cognitive factor demonstrated superior validity. Results suggest patients endorse BDI-II somatic items that overlap with CFS symptoms at a high rate. Factor scores should be evaluated separately, or the BDI-PC should be utilized with this population.
doi:10.1177/1359105311424470
PMCID: PMC3655435  PMID: 22104663
Beck Depression Inventory-II; Beck Depression inventory for primary care; Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; depression; exploratory factor analysis
20.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3646509  PMID: 19383653
21.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3643297  PMID: 22427174
22.  A Comparison of Autonomous Regulation and Negative Self-Evaluative Emotions as Predictors of Smoking Behavior Change among College Students 
Journal of health psychology  2011;17(4):600-609.
This study compared autonomous self-regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change in college student smokers (N=303) in a smoking cessation intervention study. Although the two constructs were moderately correlated, latent growth curve modeling revealed that only autonomous regulation, but not negative self-evaluative emotions, was negatively related to the number of days smoked. Results suggest that the two variables tap different aspects of motivation to change smoking behaviors, and that autonomous regulation predicts smoking behavior change better than negative self-evaluative emotions.
doi:10.1177/1359105311419542
PMCID: PMC3463229  PMID: 21911436
Autonomous self-regulation; Negative self-evaluative emotions; Self-determination theory; Smoking; College student
23.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3641188  PMID: 18987083
24.  Communicating about Self and Others within an Online Support Group for Women with Breast Cancer and Subsequent Outcomes 
Journal of health psychology  2008;13(7):930-939.
Research suggests communicating too much about one’s self within an online support group may amplify breast cancer patients’ focus on their own problems and exacerbate negative emotions while focusing on others may have the opposite effects. This study explored how pronoun usage within an online support group was associated with subsequent mental health outcomes. There were 286 patients recruited into the study who filled out the pre-test and 231 completed post-tests 4 months later with survey measures including breast cancer-related concerns and negative emotions. Messages were analyzed using a program counting first-person and relational pronouns. A positive relationship was found between use of first person pronouns and negative emotions.
doi:10.1177/1359105308095067
PMCID: PMC3632281  PMID: 18809644
Breast cancer; online support groups; pronouns; self focus; social support
25.  Non-conventional practices and immune functioning among individuals receiving conventional care for HIV 
Journal of health psychology  2011;16(8):1241-1250.
Objective
to examine the relationships among non-conventional practices, adherence and immune functioning in individuals with HIV.
Methods
92 participants completed an interview on non-conventional practices (complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), psychosocial therapies, and religious practice). They also completed the Psychiatric Symptom Index and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Adherence Follow-up Questionnaire. Medical chart reviews determined CD4 count and viral load.
Results
Hierarchical logistic regressions revealed religious practice was associated with adherence and CAM was associated with viral load.
Conclusion
Participation in non-conventional practices in HIV populations may lead to positive health and health behaviors. Clinical implications are discussed.
doi:10.1177/1359105311405350
PMCID: PMC3629919  PMID: 21551174
complementary and alternative medicines; HIV; immune functioning; psychological distress psychosocial therapies; religious practice

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