The purpose of this study was to determine the factors related to changes in the burden of caregivers who look after the elderly at home, as well as factors related to the institutionalization of the elderly who require care. The types of care services associated with reducing caregivers’ burden and continuing in-home care were also studied.
The study subjects were adults aged ≥65 years who used the services of in-home care management centres located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, and their caregivers. This 2-year longitudinal study began in October 2007, with a total of three surveys undertaken once a year. The survey methods included self-administered questionnaires and the review of clinical records.
Dementia and its accompanying behavioural disturbances were found to be significantly related to the increased burden of caregivers and the institutionalization of those requiring care. A significantly higher proportion of caregivers with an increasing burden or those who maintained a high level of burden used day care services compared to those in the other groups.
Preventive intervention against dementia and its accompanying behavioural disturbances should be considered in the day care service to reduce caregivers’ burden and to decrease institutionalization.
Caregiver; Caregiving; Elderly; Caregiver burden; Institutionalization
Salivary chromogranin A (CgA) levels and salivary flow rates were measured to evaluate the stress relief effect of laughter on the young and the elderly.
Thirty healthy volunteers (15 aged 20–25 years; 15 aged 62–83 years) performed a serial arithmetic task for 15 min and then watched a comedy video for 30 min. On a different day, as a control, they watched a non-humorous video after performing a task similar to the first one. Saliva samples were collected immediately before and after the arithmetic task, 30 min after completing the task (immediately after watching the film), and 30 min after watching the film (60 min after completing mental task). Salivary CgA levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
In the elderly group, salivary flow rates, which had declined by the end of the arithmetic task, were statistically significantly higher after watching the comedy video. In the young group, salivary CgA levels, which had increased by the end of the task, had statistically significantly declined after watching the comedy video. No such post-task changes were apparent in control results; in the young group, there was a statistically significant interprotocol difference in salivary CgA levels.
These findings suggest that laughter may relieve stress, particularly in the young people.
Chromogranin A; Laughter; Salivary flow rates; Stress; The elderly
Endometriosis is a chronic disease caused by the presence of endometrial tissue in ectopic locations outside the uterus. Chronic exposure to the environmental pollutant dioxin has been correlated with an increased incidence in the development of endometriosis in non-human primates. We have therefore examined whether there is an association between the polymorphisms of ten dioxin detoxification genes and endometriosis in Japanese women.
This was a pilot study in which 100 patients with endometriosis and 143 controls were enrolled. The prevalence of five microsatellite and 28 single nucleotide polymorphism markers within ten dioxin detoxification genes (AhR, AHRR, ARNT, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT2) was examined.
Taking into account that this analysis was a preliminary study due to its small sample size and genetic power, the results did not show any statistically significant difference between the cases and controls for any of the allele and genotype frequency distributions examined. In addition, no significant associations between the allele/genotype of all polymorphisms and the stage (I–II or III–IV) of endometriosis were observed.
Based on the findings of this pilot study, we conclude the polymorphisms of the ten dioxin detoxification genes analyzed did not contribute to the etiology of endometriosis among our patients.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12199-012-0281-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Endometriosis; Dioxin detoxification genes; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Microsatellite; Association study
The aim of this study was to examine social isolation development among elderly persons living in a rapidly aging housing estate community in terms of the frequency of activities of daily living outside the home and social contact with neighbors and to identify associated factors.
A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in 2007 (102 subjects) and 2010 (104 subjects) involving elderly residents living on a suburban housing estate. The data collected on the 87 subjects who responded to both surveys were analyzed. The survey investigated physical, psychological, and social factors regarded as being associated with social isolation. The subjects were divided into four social types according to the frequency of activities of daily living outside the home and social contact with neighbors. Multiple logistic regression analysis involved would-be-isolated and non-isolated groups as dependent variables and each factor as an independent variable.
Isolated group subjects increased from 2.3 to 7.0 % during the study period, with the would-be-isolated group accounting for 33.7 % of the study population in both years. Factors strongly associated with the would-be-isolated group were a low subjective sense of well-being and socioeconomic status were identified in 2007, and an older age, low subjective sense of socioeconomic status, and no provision of emotional support in 2010.
The health condition and social well-being of the elderly on a rapidly aging housing estate community tended to decline, revealing that the number of isolated and would-be-isolated subjects is increasing. Taking preventive action against social isolation among the elderly population is essential, suggesting the need to combine community health promotion and social communication interventions and to develop programs aimed at providing opportunities for elderly persons to be emotional support providers.
Housing estate; Elderly; Social isolation; Prevention of social isolation; Social support
The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced steatohepatitis and associated liver fibrosis progression in a novel stroke-prone, spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr (SHRSP5/Dmcr) rat model.
SHRSP5/Dmcr rats were given the control or HFC-diet for 2, 8, and 16 weeks. Plasma and hepatic gene expression of key molecules involved in fatty acid oxidation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were subsequently analyzed.
Rats fed the HFC-diet showed increased plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and hepatic p50/p65 signals, but reduced hepatic Cu2+/Zn2+-superoxide dismutase across the treatment period and reduced plasma total adiponectin at 8 weeks. In HFC-diet-fed rats, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was elevated prior to the appearance of obvious liver fibrosis pathology at 2 weeks, followed by elevations in platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), corresponding to evident liver fibrosis, at 8 weeks and by α1 type I collagen production at 16 weeks. The HFC-diet increased hepatic total cholesterol accumulation, although hepatic triglyceride declined by 0.3-fold from 2 to 16 weeks due to reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis, as suggested by the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 measurements.
TNF-α and p50/p65 molecular signals appeared to be major factors for HFC-diet-induced hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress facilitating liver disease progression. While the up-regulation of TGF-β1 prior to the appearance of any evident liver fibrosis could be an early signal for progressive liver fibrosis, elevated PDGF-B and α-SMA levels signified evident liver fibrosis at 8 weeks, and subsequent increased α1 type I collagen production and reduced triglyceride synthesis indicated extensive liver fibrosis at 16 weeks in this novel SHRSP5/Dmcr model.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12199-012-0273-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Steatohepatitis; Inflammation; TNF-α; NF-κb; Fibrosis
Fluoride is a serious health hazard across several nations, and chronic intake of fluoride deranges the carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolism in general. As there are limited remedial measures to prevent fluorosis, we investigated the role of tamarind leaf as a food supplement in restoration of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolism in fluoride-exposed albino rats.
Albino rats were exposed to fluoride (100 ppm sodium fluoride) through drinking water and fed diet supplemented with tamarind leaf powder (2.5, 5 and 10 g %) for 4 weeks. Carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were investigated in both controls and fluoride-exposed animals.
While 4-week exposure to fluoride elevated plasma glucose and lipid profiles, simulating diabetic and hyperlipidaemic conditions, the antioxidant defence mechanisms of fluoride-exposed rats were compromised, with elevation and decline in lipid peroxidation and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, respectively. When the diet was supplemented with tender tamarind leaves (used in southern India as a replacement for tamarind or other sour food ingredients), significant improvements in carbohydrate and lipid profiles occurred as evidenced by decreased plasma glucose and lipid levels, lipid peroxidation, increased hepatic glycogen content, hexokinase activity and cholesterol excretion, with simultaneous improvement in antioxidant profiles of both hepatic and renal tissues.
These findings are significant in view of the need for cost-effective approaches to tackle fluorosis as an environmental hazard and use of food supplements as ameliorative measures.
Fluoride; Tamarind leaves; Carbohydrate metabolism; Lipid metabolism; Oxidative stress
To evaluate the usefulness of self-rated health (SRH) as a comprehensive indicator of lifestyle-related health status by examining the relationships between SRH and: (1) history of cancer and cardiovascular disease; (2) treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia; (3) abnormalities in clinical parameters including blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipids; and (4) lifestyle habits.
3744 health-check examinees at Tokai University Hachioji Hospital seen between April 2009 and March 2010 were enrolled. SRH was graded as “good,” “relatively good,” “relatively poor,” or “poor.” For statistical comparison, the differences among “healthy” (=good), “relatively healthy” (=relatively good), and “unhealthy” (=relatively poor plus poor) groups were examined. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios were calculated to remove the confounding effect of age, using the healthy group as the reference. The Mantel-extension method was used as a trend test.
1049 subjects rated their health as good, 2194 as relatively good, 428 as relatively poor, and 73 as poor. The prevalence of all diseases showed significant odds ratios and trends as SRH deteriorated. Obesity, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipids deteriorated significantly as SRH became poorer, and a trend was observed in all parameters. Weight change, exercise, smoking, and rest showed significant odds ratios and trends as SRH deteriorated.
SRH appears useful as a comprehensive indicator of lifestyle-related health status.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12199-012-0274-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Self-rated health; Lifestyle-related disease; Health status; Indicator; Health examination
Lead has long been known to be a neurotoxic heavy metal, particularly in the context of occupational health. However, its adverse effect on the cognitive development of children at lower exposure levels has only recently received attention. Although the exposure level of contemporary Japanese children is among the lowest in the world, it is desirable to reduce exposure as much as reasonably possible due to the absence of a threshold of exposure for adverse effects. In this review, information on lead levels in milieus of our proximate environment, such as the atmosphere, drinking water, soil, house dust, diet and others, of contemporary Japan was compiled with the aim of updating our knowledge on lead distribution. Monitoring data demonstrates that lead concentrations in the atmosphere and lead intake from food consumption have decreased substantially from the 1970s. Lead was hardly detectable in tap water in a recent nation-wide monitoring survey. To the contrary, elevated lead concentrations were detected in surface soil and house dust in one of the studies on daily exposure to lead from all potential sources, and both of these sources were regarded by the authors as significant contributors of lead exposure to general Japanese children. A similar study indicated that diet is the sole major source of lead for Japanese children. A significant difference was present in the estimated dietary lead intake levels in different studies, resulting in significant discrepancies in the current knowledge on lead in our environment. Further studies are warranted to identify the major source(s) of lead exposure in Japanese children in order to establish an effective countermeasure to reduce lead exposure to children.
Lead; Environment; Children; Daily exposure; Exposure source
It is unclear whether gait speed can be used to predict bone status or to diagnose osteopenia or osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to determine whether the measurement of physical performance predicts bone strength in community-dwelling postmenopausal Japanese women.
We measured speed of sound (SOS), weight bearing index (WBI), maximum or usual gait speed, step length of each gait, single leg balance time with or without eyes closed, and grip strength among 1,061 postmenopausal women (mean age ± standard deviation 68 ± 8 years).
After adjustments for age and body mass index, SOS was associated with maximum or usual gait speed and with step length during maximum speed gait, but not with WBI, grip strength, single-leg balance time with or without eyes closed, or step-length time during usual gait speed. When subjects were divided into quartile groups based on WBI (a marker of lower extremity strength), significant associations between usual or maximum gait speed and SOS were found only in the lowest and second lowest groups (first and second quartiles). Finally, analysis of sensitivity and specificity at various cut-off points of maximum gait speed to predict decreased SOS showed relatively high specificity compared with the corresponding sensitivity among those with low gait speed.
Maximum gait speed together with WBI may be a useful and specific test to predict bone status in postmenopausal older women.
Weight bearing index; Speed of sound; Gait speed; Postmenopausal women; Physical function
The aim of the study was to test whether estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene polymorphisms are correlated with the risk of the development of endometriosis in Japanese women, as a preliminary study.
To compare allelic frequencies and genotype distributions, a case-control study of 100 affected women and 143 women with no evidence of disease was performed using 10 microsatellite repeat markers and 66 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR1 gene region.
Although our results might be insufficient to detect genetic susceptibility, owing to the small sample size and low genetic power, statistical analysis of the differences in allelic frequency between the cases and controls at each microsatellite locus demonstrated that no microsatellite locus in the ESR1 gene displayed a significant association with the disease when multiple testing was taken into account. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in the SNP allele frequencies and genotypes between the cases and controls when multiple testing was taken into account.
The findings in our pilot study suggest that ESR1 polymorphisms do not contribute to endometriosis susceptibility.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12199-011-0259-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Endometriosis; Estrogen receptor-alpha gene; Endocrinology; Association study
The mitochondrial DNA 5178 cytosine/adenine (Mt5178 C/A) polymorphism is reportedly associated with longevity in the Japanese population, and the Mt5178A genotype may exert anti-atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were longitudinal differences in serum lipid levels between carriers of the Mt5178C genotype and those of the Mt5178A genotype and to assess the impact of these genotypes on serum cholesterol levels.
The serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) were measured and the Mt5178 C/A genotypes determined in 110 Japanese men aged 41–66 (mean 52.3) years who had received medical checkups twice in the period 1999–2005. The longitudinal changes of TC, HDLC, and LDLC were calculated according to genotype.
The serum levels of TC at baseline and follow-up were significantly different, whereas those of HDLC and LDLC were not. The changes in HDLC differed significantly between the two Mt5178 C/A genotype groups, with the changes in HDLC level being significantly greater in the Mt5178A genotype group than in the Mt5178C group (p = 0.015).
The Mt5178 C/A genotype may modify longitudinal changes in serum TC and HDLC levels in middle-aged Japanese men.
Mitochondrial polymorphism; Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Follow-up study
To analyze and assess health risk awareness of youth migrants in China and the factors that influence it, and to provide evidence for making health promotion interventions and decreasing health risks among Chinese youth migrants.
This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009 among rural-to-urban migrants aged 15–24 years in Tianjin and Xi’an, China. A total of 1,838 youth migrants were enrolled by the stratified cluster sampling method. An anonymous questionnaire was self-administered to investigate health risk awareness. The t test and χ2 test were used to analyze differences between different groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the influence of various sociodemographic, living condition, and occupational factors.
The smoking rate of men (66.8%) was higher than that of women (6.8%; P < 0.05), the rate of sexual intercourse in men was higher than in women (56.8 vs 27.7%; P < 0.05), and 75.7% of participants had written into medical care systems with 40.4% of them having undergone a physical examination during the last year. Only 438 of the participants (26% of 1,647) were considered to have a satisfactory level of health risk awareness [273 (32.4% of 958) from Tianjin and 165 (28.8% of 689) from Xi’an]. No significant difference was found between the youth migrant populations of the two cities. The percentage of youth migrants with a satisfactory level of health risk awareness who thought they had a good health status was higher than that with an unsatisfactory health risk awareness who thought they had a good health status (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, education, reading the newspaper, and occupation significantly influenced on health risk awareness.
Youth migrants in China have a low health risk awareness. Combined and targeted health education interventions should be promoted to increase their health risk awareness.
Youth; Migrant; Health risk; Health education; Health promotion
To investigate breakfast eating habits on daily energy and fish, vegetable, and fruit intake in Japanese adolescents.
This study was completed as part of the Shunan Child Health Cohort Study. Two types of questionnaires, one on lifestyle habits and the other a brief-type, self-administered questionnaire on diet history, were administered to second-year junior high school students (1,876 boys and 1,759 girls) in Shunan City, Yamaguchi, Japan. The different breakfast habits were compared using the general linear model and the estimated means and P value for trend were calculated, with energy-adjusted food intake as the dependent variable and body mass index, gender, age, residential areas, and living status as covariates.
In both males and females, the proportion of those who ate breakfast irregularly was about 10%. The daily intake of fish, vegetables, and fruit was significantly higher in those who ate breakfast with their guardians than in those who ate breakfast alone (P for trend <0.01). The daily intake of fish, seafood, and vegetables was significantly higher in those who less frequently ate cooked foods for breakfast (P for trend <0.01). Those who ate rice more frequently than bread at breakfast had a higher daily intake of fish, seafood, and vegetables (P for trend <0.01).
Eating breakfast with the family, reducing the intake of cooked foods at breakfast, and eating breakfast with rice as a main staple food are suggested to contribute to an improved quality of diet in adolescents.
Breakfast styles; Daily energy/food intake; Japanese adolescents; Cross-sectional study; Dietary education
It is well known that manganese (Mn) exposure is involved in parkinsonism. The aim of our study was to test the hypotheses that Mn affects nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) activity, increases the metabolism of nicotinamide (NA) to 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA), and leads to neurocytotoxicity.
Following demonstration of the effects of Mn concentrations on the survival rate of Mouse CD1 brain striatum neuronal cells (MS cells), the effect of Mn on NNMT activity was investigated by comparing the difference in the amount of MNA produced after various Mn concentrations were added to mouse brain cytosol fractions as an enzyme solution. Toxicity induced by MNA and its precursor NA on MS cells was measured.
The survival rate of MS cells decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of Mn in the culture medium. With respect to the influence of Mn on NNMT activity, NNMT activity increased significantly at Mn concentrations of 1 μmol/mg protein. MNA and NA neurotoxicity were compared by comparing cell survival rate. Cell survival rate dropped significantly when the cells were cultivated with 10 mM of MNA. There was also a tendency for the survival rate to fall following the addition of 10 mM NA; however, the difference with the control was not significant.
Our study suggests the possibility that Mn causes increased NNMT activity, thereby increasing MNA levels in the brain and bringing about neuron death. Daily absorption of Mn and NA may thus contribute to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinson’s disease; Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase; Manganese; Mouse CD1 brain striatum neuronal cells; Cytotoxicity
To clarify the effects of forced or voluntary exercise on autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system, we monitored changes in autonomic nervous activity in a mature rat by spectral analysis of the heart rate (HR) during a 10-week training period.
Male Wistar rats implanted with a radio-telemetry system were divided into three groups at 18 weeks of age: (1) Control group (n = 8); (2) Voluntary group (n = 6), which were housed separately in a cage with a running wheel; (3) Forced group (n = 6), which were exercised on a treadmill (35 m/min, 15 min/day, 5 days/week). The electrocardiogram was analyzed by the maximum entropy method into two main oscillations, low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) oscillations, respectively. LF and HF are considered to be markers of both sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations and parasympathetic modulation, respectively.
Average running distances of the Voluntary group were more than twofold higher than those of the Forced group. HR levels in the Forced group were lower than those in the Control group. LF and HF levels in the Control and the Forced groups were almost the same during the experiment, and those in the Voluntary group showed a tendency to decrease.
The results in the Voluntary and the Forced groups suggest that cardiovascular adjustments are not simply caused by the quantity of exercise. In the Voluntary group, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity may decrease with a predominance of sympathetic activity. Conversely, in the Forced group, the baroreflex may be hyper-activated by the undesired treadmill running and handling stress.
Autonomic modulation; Exercise; Heart rate; Rat; Spectral analysis
The relationship between the incidence of cardiovascular disease and the state of oxidative stress in blood has been studied to some extent. Several lines of evidence underscore the importance of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. However, little is known about the current state of oxidative stress in childhood. This study was carried out to determine the current state of the level of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) in serum of early teenagers.
This study enrolled 595 healthy junior high school students from the town of Nanbu located in northern Japan. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the serum level of ROM, and antioxidant capacity was evaluated by measuring the serum level of biological antioxidant potential (BAP).
Although the ROM level in female students [308.6 ± 63.1 Carratelli units (U.CARR)] was slightly higher than that in males (299.9 ± 55.2 U.CARR), the difference was not statistically significant. The BAP level in males was significantly higher than that in females. The levels of ROM and BAP detected in males in the first grade were higher than those in the other grades. In females, only first-graders’ BAP was higher than that in other grades.
The current study found that the ROM level in males was negatively correlated with grade. These results suggest the presence of factor(s) that increase oxidative stress in Japanese puberty.
Oxidative stress; Gender; Healthy puberty; Primary prevention
This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of physical and chemical environmental control measures for house dust mites (HDM) in controlling bronchial asthma in children.
A total of 160 asthmatic children who were sensitized to HDM underwent clinical and environmental assessment. The children were randomly allocated into one of four groups according to the intervention (chemical, physical, both chemical and physical, none) and the effectiveness of the intervention was assessed at 8 and 16 weeks.
The group for which physical control measures were used showed significant improvement in all outcome measures, including mean differences of forced expiratory volume after 1 s (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), which were 2.05% and 4.65 l/min, respectively, at the 8-week follow-up evaluation. The percentage of severe asthma decreased from 45 to 22%. Similar results were obtained for the group with both chemical (tannic acid) and physical interventions (p < 0.05 for all measures). In the group where tannic acid was used as a chemical measure, the number of children with moderate and severe asthma decreased from 15 in each category to 11 and 7, respectively. In the control group, only the mean difference of PEFR (1.62 l/min) was significant after 16 weeks. Despite these promising findings, only the FEV1 was significantly different (p = 0.014) when the four groups were compared.
Based on these results, we conclude that simple physical control measures have the potential to contribute to the control of asthma symptoms in asthmatic children sensitized to HDM allergen.
House dust mite; Asthma; Children; Environmental intervention; Control
Inherited impairment of xenobiotic metabolism is a postulated mechanism underlying environmentally associated pathogeneses such as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). Using the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI), we defined people who have a strong response to chemical substances as “chemical sensitive populations (CSP).” The aim of this study is to evaluate the condition of subjects sensitive to chemicals and to analyze their genotypes in order to identify susceptibility factors in CSPs in Japanese populations.
A total of 1,084 employees of Japanese companies were surveyed using the QEESI, history of MCS, and sick house syndrome. The common genotypes of the participants were analyzed for glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTT1, aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2), and paraoxonase1 (PON1) in order to identify factors in the susceptibility to sensitivity to chemicals.
Four subjects had history of diagnosis of MCS; no subjects had diagnosis of sick house syndrome. The subjects were divided into four levels according to scores of 0, 1–19, 20–39, and 40 or more on three of the QEESI subscales. In addition, we used the MCS criteria by Hojo to differentiate between cases (CSP) and controls. No significant differences in the allelic distribution of genetic polymorphisms in the GSTM1, GSTT1, ALDH2 or PON1 genes were found among the four levels of each subscale, or between cases and controls.
Our findings suggest that the common genotypes of GSTM1, GSTT1, ALDH2, and PON1 are of little importance to CSP in a Japanese population.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12199-011-0260-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Genetic susceptibility; Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS); Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI); Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI); Logistic regression analysis
Recent increases in the number of obese individuals and individuals suffering from lifestyle-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, that accompany obesity have become a serious social problem. White adipose tissue (WAT) is more than a mere organ for storage of energy; it is also a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ that secretes physiologically active substances collectively known as adipokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and adiponectin. Dysregulated expression of adipokines in WAT that is hypertrophied by obesity has been closely associated with the phenomenon of insulin resistance. Therefore, WAT is currently considered to be one of the tissues that promote lifestyle-related diseases. Reduction of excess WAT that results from obesity is seen as an important strategy in preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. This review shows that exercise training as well as intake of supplements, such as polyphenols, is one strategy for this, because this regimen can result in reduction of WAT mass, which affects the expression and secretory response of adipokines.
Exercise training; Polyphenol; White adipose tissue; Obesity; Lifestyle-related diseases
We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that the presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight increases the risks of lifestyle-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease) in outpatients with mood disorders.
In this cross-sectional survey, using data from 213 outpatients with mood disorders (95 men, 118 women), we calculated the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipedemia, and cardiovascular disease, using a binary logistic regression model; we then calculated the adjusted OR values for smokers and non-smokers with body mass indexes (BMIs) of <25 or ≥25 kg/m2. Next, we examined the data for the presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight, using three measures of additive interaction: relative excess risk due to the interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to the interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S).
Smokers with BMI <25 kg/m2 had a significantly lower risk of hypertension (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09–0.81) than non-smokers with BMI <25 kg/m2 (reference group). Compared with the reference group, overweight non-smokers had a significantly higher risk (2.82, 1.34–6.19) of hypertension, and overweight smokers had a higher risk (4.43, 1.28–15.26) of hypertension and very high risks of diabetes (8.24, 2.47–27.42) and cardiovascular disease (13.12, 1.95–88.41). The highest RERI was derived from the relation with cardiovascular disease. The highest AP and S were derived from the relation with type 2 diabetes. There was no interaction of smoking and being overweight with dyslipidemia.
The presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight exacerbates the risks of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in outpatients with mood disorders.
Mood disorders; Lifestyle-related diseases; Interaction; Smoking; Body mass index
Measurement of released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, a commonly used marker of lethal cell injury in both in vitro and in vivo screenings, has been used to assess the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs), chemical compounds, and environmental factors. We have recently demonstrated that titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles bind to several serum proteins. In the present study we investigated the binding of TiO2 NPs to LDH.
Purified LDH was incubated with TiO2 NPs at 37°C for 1 h. The particles were then sedimented by centrifugation, and the activity and quantity of LDH in the supernatant and precipitated fraction were analyzed.
Incubation with TiO2 reduced the LDH activity in the supernatant in a dose-dependent manner, while LDH activity in the precipitated fraction increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a TiO2 dose-dependent reduction in the quantity of LDH protein in the supernatant and an increase of LDH in particulate re-suspensions.
These findings, although based on a purified form of LDH, suggest that TiO2 NPs bind to LDH, and consequently, TiO2 NP-induced toxicity could be underestimated by the LDH activity assay.
Titanium dioxide; Nanoparticle; Lactate dehydrogenase; Cytotoxicity; Protein binding