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5.  Acknowledgement to reviewers who served in 2015 
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0492-0
PMCID: PMC4626454
6.  The association between depressive symptoms and physical status including physical activity, aerobic and muscular fitness tests in children 
Objectives
The aims of the study were to explore the association between depressive symptoms (DS), physical activity (PA), aerobic and muscular fitness in a sample of children.
Methods
Four hundred and fifty-six schoolboys aged 7–11-year-old underwent standard anthropometry and various physical fitness tests (e.g., aerobic fitness, strength, speed, power, agility and flexibility). DS and PA were obtained by questionnaires.
Results
After adjustment for potential confounders (e.g., age, socioeconomic status and adiposity), PA was significantly and negatively related to DS (P < 0.05). Among the physical fitness tests, just time in one-mile run/walk was significantly related to DS (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
Physical activity and aerobic fitness were significantly correlated with DS; however, no significant relationship was observed between DS and the muscular fitness tests in the children.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0484-0
PMCID: PMC4626455  PMID: 26264999
Depressive symptoms; Muscular fitness; One-mile run/walk
7.  Birth defects after assisted reproductive technology according to the method of treatment in Japan: nationwide data between 2004 and 2012 
Objectives
The purpose of the present study was to analyze birth defects (congenital anomalies) after assisted reproductive technology (ART) according to the method of treatment, namely in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET).
Methods
Individual lists of all ART pregnancies resulting in birth defects from birth year 2004 to 2012 presented in the annual reports by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology were used as the initial sources of information. Relative risks (RRs) with the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with IVF as the reference group when calculating RR of ICSI for IVF, and with FET as the reference group when calculating the RR of fresh embryo transfer for FET.
Results
In total, 2725 stillbirths or live births with birth defects were analyzed. The prevalence of birth defects was slightly yet significantly higher in ICSI compared with IVF throughout the study period (RR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.02–1.29) and in the 2004–2006 period (RR = 1.26, 95 % CI 1.00–1.58). The prevalence of birth defects was significantly higher for fresh embryo transfer compared with FET in the 2004–2006 period (RR = 1.39, 95 % CI 1.12–1.72). The prevalence of birth defects in multiple births was significantly lower in fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (RR = 0.70, 95 % CI 0.55–0.90, live births of 2007–2012).
Conclusions
The present descriptive epidemiological study suggests that the impacts of different ART methods on birth defects might differ.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0486-y
PMCID: PMC4626456  PMID: 26296807
Birth defects; In vitro fertilization (IVF); Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); Frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET); Nationwide multi-year data
8.  Caries prevalence and manganese and iron levels of drinking water in school children living in a rural/semi-urban region of North-Eastern Greece 
Objective
The aim of this study was to correlate different combinations of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) concentration in drinking water with prevalence of dental caries in both primary and permanent dentition, among school children with similar socio-demographic characteristics.
Methods
Evros region, in North-Eastern Greece, was divided into four areas, according to combinations of levels of Mn and Fe in drinking water (High Mn–high Fe; High Mn–low Fe; Low Mn–high Fe; Low Mn–low Fe). Children of similar socio-economic background, attending either first or sixth grade (primary or permanent dentition, respectively) of elementary schools, were clinically assessed for caries by three dentists. Caries was defined by the use of dmft/DMFT index. A questionnaire answered by the parents was also analysed.
Results
573 children were included. Caries prevalence was high in both age groups (64.2 % with mean dmft 3.3 ± 3.6 in primary and 60.7 % with mean DMFT 2.3 ± 2.5 in permanent dentition, respectively). Residence in a high Mn–low Fe area was associated with a significant OR for caries in both age groups [OR (95 % CIs) for primary and permanent dentition was, respectively, 3.75 (1.68–8.37), p = 0.001 and 3.09 (1.48–6.44), p = 0.003], independently of factors like sugar consumption or brushing frequency.
Conclusion
Prevalence of caries was high in general, and was associated with the combination of high Mn/low Fe levels in drinking water, independently of various socio-demographic factors.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0482-2
PMCID: PMC4626457  PMID: 26188911
Trace elements; Manganese; Iron; Drinking water; Dental caries
9.  Estimation of daily cadmium intake from cadmium in blood or cadmium in urine 
Objectives
It would be quite convenient if daily dietary cadmium intake (Cd-D) can be estimated either from Cd in blood (Cd-B) or from Cd in urine (Cd-U). The aim of the study was to examine if Cd-D can be estimated from Cd-B or Cd-U.
Methods
The data available in a previous publication were employed for regression analyses between Cd-D and Cd-B, and between Cd-D and Cd-U. 30 sites in various prefectures throughout Japan were surveyed and 20 adult women/site on average provided food duplicate, peripheral blood, and second morning urine samples. Geometric means were taken as representative values and employed in regression analyses.
Results
Cd-D, Cd-B, and Cd-Ucr [i.e., Cd-U after correction for creatinine (cr) concentration] distributed in ranges of 12.5–70.5 μg/day, 0.46–3.98 μg/l, and 1.16–11.02 μg/g cr, respectively. A close correlation was observed between Cd-D and Cd-B, and also between Cd-D and Cd-Ucr with r = 0.76 and r = 0.79 (p < 0.001 for both), respectively. Both regression lines passed close to the origins. Application of 1.23 μg Cd/l blood and 1.26 μg Cd/g cr in urine (average levels for adult Japanese women) to the regression equations gave 16.5 and 11.5 μg Cd/day.
Conclusions
The analyses suggested that it may be possible to estimate Cd-D from Cd-B or Cd-U. Cd-B-based estimation should be more respected. As variations in the estimation parameters and estimated values are inherent to field surveys, care should be taken in the application of the study results. Application on a group basis (and not on an individual basis) should be considered.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0479-x
PMCID: PMC4626458  PMID: 26173658
Cadmium in blood; Cadmium in urine; Dietary cadmium intake; Estimation; Japan
10.  Estimation of reproduction number and probable vector density of the first autochthonous dengue outbreak in Japan in the last 70 years 
Objectives
The first autochthonous case of dengue fever in Japan since 1945 was reported on August 27, 2014. Infection was transmitted by Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Tokyo’s Yoyogi Park. A total of 65 cases with no history of overseas travel and who may have been infected around the park were reported as of September 5, 2014. To quantify infection risk of the local epidemic, the reproduction number and vector density per person at the onset of the epidemic were estimated.
Methods
The estimated probability distribution and the number of female mosquitoes per person (MPP) were determined from the data of the initial epidemic.
Results
The estimated distribution R0i for the initial epidemic was fitted to a Gamma distribution using location parameter 4.25, scale parameter 0.19, and shape parameter 7.76 with median 7.78 and IQR (7.21–8.40). The MPP was fitted to a normal distribution with mean 5.71 and standard deviation 0.53.
Conclusions
Both estimated reproduction number and vector density per person at the onset of the epidemic were higher than previously reported values. These results indicate the potential for dengue outbreaks in places with elevated vector density per person, even in dengue non-endemic countries. To investigate the cause of this outbreak, further studies will be needed, including assessments of social, behavioral, and environmental factors that may have contributed to this epidemic by altering host and vector conditions in the park.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0488-9
PMCID: PMC4626459  PMID: 26298188
Dengue; Epidemic curve; Mathematical modeling; Urban; Behavioral and environmental factors
11.  Determinant factors of the difference between self-reported weight and measured weight among Japanese 
Objectives
To assess the difference between self-reported and measured weight values in Japanese men and women and to determine the underlying determinants of the differences between self-reported and measured values.
Methods
The data were collected from 363 general Japanese individuals aged 16–88 years living in Kumamoto prefecture. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire designed for this study with self-reported weight and height values. Measured weight and height were measured immediately after questionnaire completion. Paired t-tests identified differences between self-reported and measured values by sex. Multiple-stepwise regression analysis examined the independent variables’ effects on the differences between self-reported and measured weights.
Results
Significant differences were found between self-reported and measured values for both sexes (p < 0.001). There was a significant negative relationship between the difference in an individual’s self-reported and measured weight in each sex, with higher measured weight individuals more likely to underestimate their weight. Multiple-stepwise regression analysis models explained 12.1 % (p < 0.01), 11.3 % (p < 0.01), and 5.6 % (p < 0.01) of the variance in all participants, men, and women, respectively. Significant effects were found for age, weight measurement frequency, and measured weight in total participants, weight measurement frequency, and measured weight for men, and age for women.
Conclusions
In this study, the mean absolute value of the weight and height variances proved the unreliability of self-reported weight and height values. This study’s findings suggest self-reported weight inaccuracy especially for obese populations. This should be adjusted when using it in epidemiological studies and healthcare planning.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0489-8
PMCID: PMC4626460  PMID: 26349447
Obesity; Self-reported weight (SR-weight); Measured weight (M-weight); Self-reported height (SR-height); Measured height (M-height)
12.  The effect of prenatal education curriculum on mother’s prenatal examination utilization, delivery mode and recovery status: a cross-sectional survey in China 
Objectives
To examine the participation, implementation, and effect of the prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals in China, and to provide evidence for the improvement of prenatal education.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the hospitals in Hunan Province, China. Mothers aged 20–45 years who had given birth between 1 May 2011 and 1 May 2012 and not diagnosed with pregnancy-related complications were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to examine the effect of prenatal education curriculum on prenatal examination utilization, delivery mode, and recovery status from delivery.
Results
Among the total 604 respondents, only 175 (29.1 %) surveyed mothers participated in prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals during their latest delivery. These mothers had a higher rate of attending all the required prenatal examinations (57.9 vs. 48.3 %), and a higher rate of recovering very well and well (80 vs. 73.7 %) from the latest delivery, than those who did not participate in prenatal education curriculum (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in the delivery mode between mothers who participated and those who did not participate in the prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals.
Conclusions
Prenatal education is indispensable for the improvement of maternal and child health, and thus should be advocated. In China, a standard and convenient specification prenatal education curriculum provided by hospitals and their doctors is appropriated for providing prenatal education to pregnant women.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0480-4
PMCID: PMC4626461  PMID: 26201848
Effect; Prenatal education; Curriculum; China
13.  The impacts of occupational risks and their effects on work stress levels of health professional (The sample from the Southeast region of Turkey) 
Objectives
This study was performed to determine the occupational risks and their effects on the work stress of the health professionals working in state hospitals in the Southeast of Turkey.
Methods
This cross-sectional and descriptive study was composed of 360 health professionals of the Pazarcık, Ergani, and Şehitkamil State Hospitals between December 2014 and January 2015. The data of the study were obtained by performing the survey which was composed of questions related to the socio-demographic characteristics, factors that were thought to affect the occupational risks and job stress, as well as, the questions of the Work Stress Scale. The analyses of the data have been performed using Student’s t test and one-way analysis of variance.
Results
The working hours, the number of being on-duty, insomnia, and burnout in health professionals were determined to be with the highest mean scores among other stressful risks and hazards. The mean work stress level, which increases the success by creating the group-stimulus effect, was indicated as 2.4 and 2.5 for the health professionals in Pazarcık and Ergani State Hospital, respectively. However, the stress level which poses a threat for the group-health and efficiency was found to be 4.0 for the health professionals of the Şehitkamil State Hospital.
Conclusions
As the exposure of the occupational risks increases in the health professionals, the work stress scores also increase (p < 0.05). The occupational risks and work stress of the health professionals in the Şehitkamil State Hospital should be evaluated in terms of occupational health and safety.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0481-3
PMCID: PMC4626462  PMID: 26201849
Health professionals; Occupational risk; Occupational health and safety; Work stress; Southeast region
14.  Epidemiology, attitudes and perceptions toward cigarettes and hookah smoking amongst adults in Jordan 
Objectives
The aims of this study are to assess cigarette and hookah smoking rates amongst adult population in Jordan and to determine predictors of smoking status. Selected beliefs, perceptions and attitudes toward cigarettes and hookah smoking were also assessed.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted in five regional governorates of Jordan through face-to-face interviews on a random sample of adult population aged 18–79 years. Data was collected using a piloted questionnaire based on the Global Adult Tobacco Questionnaire.
Results
The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking in our sample (869) was 59.1 % amongst males and 23.3 % amongst females, while the overall prevalence of hookah smoking was 18.9 % amongst males and 23.1 % amongst females. Leisure and imitation were the most commonly reported reasons for smoking. Regardless of smoking status, people were aware of health risks associated smoking and also had negative perceptions toward smoking.
Conclusions
Smoking rates for both genders have reached alarmingly high rates in Jordan. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive national programme to target the country’s growing burden of smoking. Suggestions on leisure time activities should be included in such programmes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0483-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0483-1
PMCID: PMC4626463  PMID: 26194452
Smoking; Cigarettes; Hookah; Adult; Jordan
15.  Reference values for hand grip strength in Japanese community-dwelling elderly: a meta-analysis 
Objectives
Reference values for hand grip strength in Japanese community-dwelling elderly independent in activities of daily living (ADLs) were calculated by meta-analysis.
Methods
Papers reporting data on hand grip strength in elderly Japanese adults ≥60 years of age and independent in ADLs were retrieved from electronic databases. Data were extracted from the selected papers and the weighted mean for hand grip strength by sex was calculated by random effect model. The association of hand grip strength with age and body weight was also analyzed using meta-regression analysis.
Results
Data for 15,784 individuals (5216 men and 10,568 women; mean age 67.0–79.8 years) were extracted from 97 sets of data from 33 papers. The weighted mean for hand grip strength was calculated as 33.11 kg [95 % CI 32.27–33.96] in men and 20.92 kg [95 % CI 20.45–21.39] in women. A significant negative correlation was also seen between hand grip strength and age.
Conclusions
The mean hand grip strength of elderly people calculated in this study can be used as a reference value for the hand grip strength of Japanese community-dwelling elderly who are independent in ADLs. However, age needs to be considered in reference values for hand grip strength.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0485-z
PMCID: PMC4626464  PMID: 26253392
Japanese; Elderly; Hand grip strength; Reference values; Meta-analysis
16.  Evaluation of the Japanese Metabolic Syndrome Risk Score (JAMRISC): a newly developed questionnaire used as a screening tool for diagnosing metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in Japan 
Objectives
To prevent the onset of lifestyle-related diseases associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Japan, research into the development of a useful screening method is strongly desired. We developed a new screening questionnaire (JAMRISC) utilizing a logistic regression model and evaluated its ability to predict the development of MetS, type 2 diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese populace.
Methods
JAMRISC questionnaire was sent to 1,850 individuals in Rumoi, a small city in Hokkaido. We received a total of 1,054 valid responses. To maximize the target individuals accurately diagnosed with MetS, logistic regression analysis was used to generate a unique metabolic syndrome score calculation formula as taking into consideration the clinical relevance of each question item as individual coefficients.
Results
The results of our comparative research utilizing both JAMRISC and Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaires revealed the usefulness of JAMRISC for its ability to detect risks for MetS, pre-MetS, diabetes, and pre-diabetes. Study of disease risk detection via JAMRISC questionnaire targeting the 4283 residents of Rumoi indicated a high detection rate for pre-MetS (98.8 %), MetS (94.2 %), pre-diabetes (85.1 %) and type 2 diabetes (94.9 %). In addition, JAMRISC was useful not only as a MetS risk score test, but also as a screening tool for diagnosing insulin resistance.
Conclusions
JAMRISC questionnaire is a useful instrument for the detection of early risk of not only MetS and type 2 diabetes but also insulin resistance.
doi:10.1007/s12199-016-0568-5
PMCID: PMC5112197  PMID: 27699688
JAMRISC; Logistic regression model; Questionnaire; Postprandial hyperglycemia; Insulin resistance
18.  Comparison of coliform contamination in non-municipal waters consumed by the Mennonite versus the non-Mennonite rural populations 
Objectives
Mennonites reside in clusters, do not use modern sewage systems and consume water from non-municipal sources. The purpose of this study is to assess risk of Escherichia coli exposure via consumption of non-municipal waters in Mennonite versus non-Mennonite rural households.
Methods
Results were reviewed for non-municipal water samples collected by the local health department from Mennonite and non-Mennonite lifestyle households from 1998 through 2012. Water contamination was examined with the help of two study variables: water quality (potable, polluted) and gastrointestinal (GI) health risk (none, low, high). These variables were analyzed for association with lifestyle (Mennonite, non-Mennonite) and season (fall, winter, spring, summer) of sample collection. Data were split into two periods to adjust for the ceiling effect of laboratory instrument.
Results
From the entire cohort, 82 % samples were polluted and 46 % samples contained E. coli, which is consistent with high GI health risk. In recent years (2009 through 2012), the presence of total coliforms was higher in non-Mennonites (39 %, P = 0.018) and presence of E. coli was higher in Mennonites (P = 0.012). Most polluted samples were collected during summer (45 %, P = 0.019) and had high GI health risk (51 %, P = 0.008) as compared to other seasons.
Conclusions
Majority of non-municipal waters in this region are polluted, consuming those poses a high GI health risk and contamination is prevalent in all households consuming these waters. An association of E. coli exposure with the Mennonite lifestyle was limited to recent years. Seasons with high heat index and increased surface runoffs were the riskiest to consume non-municipal waters.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0472-4
PMCID: PMC4550604  PMID: 26068785
Water quality; Mennonites; Non-municipal waters; Gastrointestinal health risk
19.  Turkey Handwashing Survey: suggestion for taking the ecological model into better consideration 
Objectives
This study is aimed to find out the handwashing habits and their relations to the socio-economic variables.
Methods
The sampling is determined regarding the address-based population registration system of the country. The multi-staged stratified cluster sampling method was used. It is conducted by a face to face questionnaire with 6854 persons. 22 questions are asked whether they are washing their hands or not related to different situations, the results are graded and the “Handwashing Habits Score” (HHS) is obtained. The reasons for not handwashing were evaluated by categorizing as individual, environmental and combined reasons.
Results
The HHS is increasing in the older age groups (β = 0.148, p < 0.001), females (β = 0.306, p < 0.001), citizens of urban settlement (β = 0.061, p < 0.001), higher education levels (β = 0.191, p < 0.001). The reasons for not handwashing were found as 53.3 % individual, 39.2 % environmental, 7.5 % combined. The frequency of mentioning not washing hands because of the environmental reasons is getting higher in the older age groups, in the urban side, and in the higher education level (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
The handwashing habits are shaped by the determinant networks which form a complex structure by intertwining individual, socio-economic and environmental factors in different sub-groups with various weights. This result might contribute to the efforts of conceptualizing the health behaviors with ecological model.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0470-6
PMCID: PMC4550605  PMID: 26002374
Handwashing; Environmental factors; Ecological model; Health determinants; Turkey
20.  An evaluation of low back pain among female brick field workers of West Bengal, India 
Objectives
The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among brick field workers and to explore attributed causes of LBP, investigate the relationship between LBP and psychophysical and psychosocial factors and measure the impact of LBP.
Methods
A modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire along with Body Part Discomfort scale were administered to brick field workers (N = 148). Working posture of the participants was assessed using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) method.
Results
The study showed that 70 % of the female workers reported LBP due to awkward working posture for prolonged period of time. This was mainly reported by brick moulders. 45 % reported LBP due to manual material handling (MMH) and 40 % due to awkward lifting of heavy objects (brick). The study shows that the LBP is more prevalent (OR 1.59 and 95 % CI 0.411–6.207). 78 % of the female workers want the job rotation to relieve from their job monotony.
Conclusions
LBP occurred among female workers due to awkward posture, repetitive work and MMH. This study also stated that psychosocial cause of LBP is inadequacy income, monotony work, job dissatisfaction. Working posture analysis REBA suggests that all the working postures are high-risk level.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0476-0
PMCID: PMC4550606  PMID: 26154684
Low back pain; Psychosocial factors; Women; Brick field workers; Psychophysical factors
21.  Mesothelin (MSLN) methylation and soluble mesothelin-related protein levels in a Chinese asbestos-exposed population 
Objectives
This study investigated the mesothelin (MSLN) methylation and its relationship with soluble mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) levels in participants stratified by asbestos exposure scenarios and benign asbestos-related diseases (ARDs).
Methods
The presence of benign ARDs was confirmed through chest X-ray and the asbestos exposure history was obtained using a standardized questionnaire in this study, including 262 participants. Sera SMRP were measured using MESOMARK, and MSLN methylation in genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was detected by real-time methylation-specific PCR. Covariates were compared with SMRP concentrations using correlation analysis and the potential covariates affecting SMRP were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, and the distribution of methylation status was analyzed by Chi-square test.
Results
There was a trend toward elevation of SMRP values in healthy individuals exposed to asbestos as compared with those without asbestos exposure. The highest median level of SMRP was 1.3 nM in subjects with asbestosis, followed by cases with pleura plaque and asbestosis (1.2 nM), pleura plaque (0.9 nM), healthy subjects with occupational exposure (0.9 nM), non-occupational exposure (0.8 nM), and mixed exposure (0.8 nM). Within asbestosis cases, those with higher profusion scores had higher SMRP values than those with lower profusion scores (1.6 vs. 0.8 nM). Based on multi-regression analysis, the trend toward elevation of SMRP remained significant in subjects with occupational exposure or in those with asbestosis, as compared with healthy subjects without exposure (p < 0.01), although body mass index had an effect on SMRP (p < 0.0001). Regardless of the differences in SMRP levels among these subgroups, MSLN methylation ranged from 80.5 to 92.5 %, with no significant difference. The elevated level of SMRP in asbestosis with higher profusion scores could not be attributed to low MSLN methylation status.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that the elevation of SMRP is related to asbestos exposure and benign ARDs especially for cases with high profusion scores, which is independent of MSLN methylation.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0477-z
PMCID: PMC4550608  PMID: 26188910
Asbestos-exposed population; Asbestosis; Mesothelin; Pleural plaque; Promoter methylation
22.  Relationship between cigarette smoking and one leg with eyes closed balance in Japanese men 
Objective
To investigate the link between cigarette smoking and one leg with eyes closed balance in Japanese men.
Subjects and methods
We used data from 4224 Japanese men, aged 43.3 ± 13.9 years, in this cross-sectional study. Balance, such as one leg with eyes closed balance was measured. In addition, cigarette smoking habits were obtained by well-trained medical staff. The effect of cigarette smoking on one leg with eye closed balance was evaluated.
Results
A total of 1613 men (38.2 %) had smoking habit and 1471 men (34.8 %) regularly exercised. Age-related changes in one leg with eyes closed balance were noted. One leg with eyes closed balance in subjects with cigarette smoking (30.9 ± 31.8 s) was significantly lower than those in subjects without cigarette smoking (32.4 ± 33.5 s) even after adjusting for confounding factors i.e. age, body weight and exercise habits.
Conclusion
Cigarette smoking might be associated with one leg with eyes closed balance in Japanese men.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0457-3
PMCID: PMC4550609  PMID: 25821079
Cigarette smoking; One leg with eyes closed balance; Exercise habit; Balance; Japanese men
23.  The relationship between body mass index and uric acid: a study on Japanese adult twins 
Objectives
The present study aimed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (UA) using the twin study methodology to adjust for genetic factors.
Methods
The association between BMI and UA was investigated in a cross-sectional study using data from both monozygotic and dizygotic twins registered at the Osaka University Center for Twin Research and the Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine. From January 2011 to March 2014, 422 individuals participated in the health examination. We measured height, weight, age, BMI, lifestyle habits (Breslow’s Health Practice Index), serum UA, and serum creatinine. To investigate the association between UA and BMI with adjustment for the clustering of a twin within a pair, individual-level analyses were performed using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). To investigate an association with adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors, twin-pair difference values analyses were performed.
Results
In all analysis, BMI was associated with UA in men and women. Using the GLMMs, standardized regression coefficients were 0.194 (95 % confidence interval: 0.016–0.373) in men and 0.186 (95 % confidence interval: 0.071–0.302) in women. Considering twin-pair difference value analyses, standardized regression coefficients were 0.333 (95 % confidence interval: 0.072–0.594) in men and 0.314 (95 % confidence interval: 0.151–0.477) in women.
Conclusions
The present study shows that BMI was significantly associated with UA, after adjusting for both genetic and familial environment factors in both men and women.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0473-3
PMCID: PMC4550610  PMID: 26037073
Twin study; Genetics; Environment; Uric acid; Body mass index
24.  Oxidative DNA damage is involved in cigarette smoke-induced lung injury in rats 
Objective
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by exogenous toxicants are suggested to be involved in carcinogenesis by oxidative modification of DNA. 8-Hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been considered as a reliable biomarker for oxidative DNA damage both in vivo and in vitro studies. But the effect of smoking on oxidative damage has not yet been fully elucidated.
Methods
Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke at concentrations of 20 and 60 % for 30 min, twice/day for 45 weeks. Then the histopathology of lung tissues, levels of ROS, 8-OHdG, and total antioxidant (T-AOC), expression of DNA repair enzymes, e.g. 8-oxyguaine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), and MutThomolog 1 (Oxidized Purine Nucleoside Triphosphatase, MTH1) were determined in urine, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and lung tissue.
Results
The results showed that long-term cigarette smoke exposure can cause obvious damages of lung tissue in rats. In addition, a significant and cigarette smoke concentration-dependent increase in ROS and 8-OHdG were observed compared with the non-exposed control rats. In contrast, the expression of OGG1 and MTH1, and T-AOC levels were obviously decreased after long-term exposure to cigarette smoke.
Conclusion
These findings indicate that long-term exposure to cigarette smoker increases ROS levels, decreases total antioxidant capacity, and interferes DNA repair capacity that eventually induces oxidative DNA damage, which appears to play an important role in cigarette smoke-induced lung injury in rats, and determination of 8-OHdG levels might be a useful method for monitoring oxidative damage in cigarette smokers.
doi:10.1007/s12199-015-0469-z
PMCID: PMC4550611  PMID: 25967734
Cigarette smoke; Rats; 8-Hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; Reactive oxygen species; Oxidative stress

Results 1-25 (929)