Development of innovative high throughput technologies has enabled a variety of molecular landscapes to be interrogated with an unprecedented degree of detail. Emergence of next generation nucleotide sequencing methods, advanced proteomic techniques, and metabolic profiling approaches continue to produce a wealth of biological data that captures molecular frameworks underlying phenotype. The advent of these novel technologies has significant translational applications, as investigators can now explore molecular underpinnings of developmental states with a high degree of resolution. Application of these leading-edge techniques to patient samples has been successfully used to unmask nuanced molecular details of disease vs healthy tissue, which may provide novel targets for palliative intervention. To enhance such approaches, concomitant development of algorithms to reprogram differentiated cells in order to recapitulate pluripotent capacity offers a distinct advantage to advancing diagnostic methodology. Bioinformatic deconvolution of several “-omic” layers extracted from reprogrammed patient cells, could, in principle, provide a means by which the evolution of individual pathology can be developmentally monitored. Significant logistic challenges face current implementation of this novel paradigm of patient treatment and care, however, several of these limitations have been successfully addressed through continuous development of cutting edge in silico archiving and processing methods. Comprehensive elucidation of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic networks that define normal and pathological states, in combination with reprogrammed patient cells are thus poised to become high value resources in modern diagnosis and prognosis of patient disease.
To determine the prevalence and types of persistent dyslipidemia in patients treated with different statins to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as well as to determine the proportion of high risk patients who did not reach the lipid target values and assess cardiologists' further treatment advice for these patients.
This cross-sectional, observational study recruited 1849 outpatients from all parts of Croatia between January and September 2011 (44.6% women), 19 to 90 years old (average age 63.13) treated with statins for at least 6 months. We analyzed how the potency and type of lipid-lowering treatment were correlated with CVD risk level and achieving treatment goals according to 2007 Joint European Guidelines on CVD prevention.
Most patients (81.3%) were at high risk for CVD. The most frequently used statin was atorvastatin (42.8%), followed by simvastatin (27.6%) and rosuvastatin (22.8%). Only 35.5% patients achieved low density lipoprotein-cholesterol treatment target. Patients treated with more potent statins had better results. A total of 22.3% of patients had high density lipoprotein-cholesterol below 1.0 mmol/L ( ~ 40 mg/dL) for men and below 1.2 ( ~ 45 mg/dL) for women and 46.4% had triglycerides above 1.7 mmol/L ( ~ 150 mg/dL) but there were no significant differences between statins in improving these parameters. Most of the patients on more potent statins were not advised by their cardiologists to change the type or dosage of statin, which was more common in patients on less potent statins.
A considerable number of patients treated with statins did not achieve the treatment goal values. The results were better in patients treated with more potent statins and cardiologists advised them much less frequently to change the type and dosage of statin. There is a need for more intensive treatment, especially for high-risk patients. This could be accomplished by optimizing patients’ adherence, using more potent statins, titrating current statin therapy to higher doses, or using a combined lipid-lowering treatment.
To determine the frequency of inherited and acquired prothrombotic risk factors in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) in Croatia.
We investigated 14 prothrombotic risk factors using blood samples from 124 children with AIS or TIA and 42 healthy children. Prothrombotic risk factors were classified into five groups: natural coagulation inhibitors (antithrombin, protein C, protein S), blood coagulation factors (FV Leiden and FII 20210), homocysteine, lipid and lipoprotein profile (lipoprotein (a), triglycerides, total, high- and low-density lipoprotein), and antiphospholipid antibodies (lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, and antiphosphatidylserine antibodies).
The most common prothrombotic risk factor was elevated lipoprotein (a), which was identified in about 31% of patients and in 24% of controls. Natural coagulation inhibitors were decreased in about 19% of patients, but not in controls. Pathological values of homocysteine, blood coagulation factor polymorphisms, and antiphospholipid antibodies were found in similar frequencies in all groups. Fourteen children with AIS and TIA (11.3%) and no children from the control group had three or more investigated risk factors.
The presence of multiple prothrombotic risk factors in children with cerebrovascular disorder suggests that a combination of risk factors rather than individual risk factors could contribute to cerebrovascular disorders in children.
To investigate whether patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) undergoing total hip or knee replacement have an increased risk for pulmonary embolism (PE).
We studied patients undergoing total hip or total knee replacement from January 2001 to April 2006. The diagnosis of PE was based on a positive finding with a chest CT or a lung scan. Components of MetS were defined as 1) BMI≥30 kg/m2, 2) non-fasting preadmission glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L or diagnosis of diabetes, 3) hypertension, and 4) dyslipidemia. MetS was diagnosed if at least three of these components were present.
Of 7282 patients, 107 (1.47%) were diagnosed with PE. The incidence of PE in patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 MetS components was respectively 0.85% (16/1888; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5%-1.4%), 1.24% (31/2500; 95% CI 0.9%-1.8%), 1.76% (34/1936; 95% CI 1.2%-2.5%), 2.64% (21/796; 95% CI 1.7%-4.1%), and 3.09% (5/162; 95% CI 1.1%-7.4%). The independent risk factors for PE were age ≥70, knee as opposite to hip replacement, bilateral knee surgery, congestive heart failure, and MetS or the number of MetS components. The odds of PE independently increased 1.6 times (95% CI 1.01-2.56; P = 0.043) for patients with MetS and 1.23 times (95% CI 1.02-1.48; P = 0.028) per each additional MetS component.
Patients with MetS are at increased risk for PE after total joint arthroplasty. The increasing number of MetS components significantly increased the incidence of PE.
To assess the effect of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on abnormal fetal growth.
The study group of 166 women in gestational week 6-8 exercised regularly three days per week at submaximal intensity during their entire pregnancy and the control group of 168 women received standard antenatal care. The main outcomes were macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction.
The study group had a lower frequency of macrosomia in newborns (6.0% vs 12.5%, P = 0.048) and gestational diabetes (1.8% vs 8.3%, P = 0.008) than the control-group, but there was no significant difference in intrauterine growth restriction (7.2% vs 6.5%). There was also no significant differences in other perinatal outcomes.
The beneficial effect of maternal physical activity on fetal growth may be caused the impact of aerobic exercise on glucose tolerance. Fitness trainers and kinesiologists, as well as health care providers, should be educated on the benefits of regular exercise during pregnancy and safe physical exercise for pregnant women.
To analyze the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality in Serbia.
The study covered the population of Serbia in the period 1991 to 2010. Mortality trends were assessed by the joinpoint regression analysis by age and sex.
Age-standardized mortality rates ranged from 5.93 to 8.57 per 100 000 in men and from 3.51 to 5.79 per 100 000 in women. Pancreatic cancer mortality in all age groups was higher among men than among women. It was continuously increasing since 1991 by 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.0) yearly in men and by 2.2% (95% CI 1.7 to 2.7) yearly in women. Changes in mortality were not significant in younger age groups for both sexes. In older men (≥55 years), mortality was increasing, although in age groups 70-74 and 80-84 the increase was not significant. In 65-69 years old men, the increase in mortality was significant only in the period 2004 to 2010. In ≥50 years old women, mortality significantly increased from 1991 onward. In 75-79 years old women, a non-significant decrease in the period 1991 to 2000 was followed by a significant increase from 2000 to 2010.
Serbia is one of the countries with the highest pancreatic cancer mortality in the world, with increasing mortality trend in both sexes and in most age groups.
To assess attitudes of students and their parents toward basic life support (BLS) training in primary schools, along with their perceptions of students’ fears toward applying and training BLS.
In October 2011, a specifically designed, voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 7th and 8th grade students and to their parents in two primary schools in Split, Croatia. Completed questionnaires were analyzed to determine the validity of the scale, and to determine sex and group differences in individual items and the whole scale.
The questionnaires were completed by 301 school children and 361 parents. Cronbach’s alpha of the whole scale was 0.83, indicating good internal consistency. The students’ score for the whole attitude scale was 73.7 ± 11.1 out of maximum 95, while the parents’ score was 68.0 ± 11.9. Students’ attitude was significantly more positive than that of the parents (U = 29.7, P < 0.001). The greatest perceived students’ fear toward applying BLS was that they would harm the person in need of BLS.
Our study showed that in Croatia both students in their last two years of primary school and their parents had a positive attitude toward BLS training in primary schools. Implementing compulsory BLS training in Croatia’s primary schools could help increase students’ confidence, quell their fears toward applying BLS, and possibly even increase the survival of bystander-witnessed cardiac arrests.
To evaluate the accuracy of eye color prediction based on six IrisPlex single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a Slovenian population sample.
Six IrisPlex predictor SNPs (HERC2 – rs12913832, OCA2 – rs1800407, SLC45A2 – rs16891982 and TYR – rs1393350, SLC24A4 – rs12896399, and IRF4 – rs12203592) of 105 individuals were analyzed using single base extension approach and SNaPshot chemistry. The IrisPlex multinomial regression prediction model was used to infer eye color probabilities. The accuracy of the IrisPlex was assessed through the calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the area under the receiver characteristic operating curves (AUC).
Blue eye color was observed in 44.7%, brown in 29.6%, and intermediate in 25.7% participants. Prediction accuracy expressed by the AUC was 0.966 for blue, 0.913 for brown, and 0.796 for intermediate eye color. Sensitivity was 93.6% for blue, 58.1% for brown, and 0% for intermediate eye color. Specificity was 93.1% for blue, 89.2% for brown, and 100% for intermediate eye color. PPV was 91.7% for blue and 69.2% for brown color. NPV was 94.7% for blue and 83.5% for brown eye color. These values indicate prediction accuracy comparable to that established in other studies.
Blue and brown eye color can be reliably predicted from DNA samples using only six polymorphisms, while intermediate eye color defies prediction, indicating that more research is needed to genetically predict the whole variation of eye color in humans.
To use forensic entomological approach to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI) in burnt remains.
Two experiments were performed in a field in the outskirts of Milan, in winter and summer 2007. Four 60-kg pigs were used: two for each experiment. One pig carcass was burnt until it reached the level 2-3 of the Glassman-Crow scale and the not-burnt carcass was used as a control. In order to describe the decomposition process and to collect the data useful for minimum PMI estimation, macroscopic, histological, and entomological analyses were performed.
In the winter part of the experiment, the first insect activity on the burnt carcass began in the third week (Calliphora vomitoria) and at the beginning of the fourth week an increase in the number of species was observed. In the summer part, adult flies and first instar maggots (Phormia regina) appeared a few minutes/hours after the carcass exposure. Both in winter and summer, flies belonging to the first colonization wave (Calliphoridae) appeared on burnt and control pigs at the same time, whereas other species (Diptera and Coleoptera) appeared earlier on burnt pigs.
In forensic practice, burnt bodies are among the most neglected fields of entomological research, since they are supposed to be an inadequate substratum for insect colonization. Entomological approach for PMI estimation proved to be useful, although further studies on larger samples are needed.
Although closure of an atrial septal defect (ASD II) with an occluding device in the first year of life is not a routine procedure, it is a feasible treatment, even in neonates. Case reports on the off-label use of Amplatzer devices have been repeatedly published, but there are no reports on using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder (ADO) to close an atrial septal defect in a neonate. We report on a successful catheter closure of an ASD II with ADO in a severely cyanotic neonate, seven days after surgical repair of common arterial trunk. Due to progressive cyanosis and clinical signs of right ventricular failure, which developed after common arterial trunk repair, the neonate underwent cardiac catheterization. Diastolic filling impairment of the right ventricle (right ventricle hypertrophy, pulmonary regurgitation, and residual right ventricle outflow tract obstruction) was thought to be the cause of impaired right ventricle diastolic filling, resulting in the right-to-left shunt at the atrial level. Under transesophageal echocardiographic guidance, ADO was delivered through a 5 French sheath into the atrial septal defect. Amplatzer duct occluder closed the defect and proved to be stable in position after disconnection. During the procedure, the child was stable and then transferred to the intensive care unit with significantly improved oxygen saturation. This is the first report on placing a duct occluder in the atrial septal position, which is a novel procedure for-small neonates.
The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.
To evaluate the influence of food habits, specifically adherence to the Mediterranean diet, on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the presence of plaques in HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and non-HIV-infected participants and to determine if HIV infection contributes independently to subclinical atherosclerosis.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of 110 HIV-infected patients on ART and 131 non-HIV-infected participants at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb, Croatia, from 2009-2011. CIMT measurement and determination of carotid plaque presence was detected by ultrasound. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by a 14-point food-item questionnaire. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined by CIMT≥0.9 mm or ≥1 carotid plaque.
In HIV-infected patients, subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with older age (P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test), higher body mass index (P = 0.051; Mann-Whitney test), hypertension (P < 0.001; χ2 test), and a lower Mediterranean diet score (P = 0.035; Mann-Whitney test), and in non-HIV-infected participants with older age (P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test) and hypertension (P = 0.006; χ2 test). Multivariate analysis showed that decreased adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher odds of subclinical atherosclerosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-4.72, P = 0.027) as was current smoking (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.28-6.40), hypertension (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.41-6.57), and male sex (OR 2.35, 95% CI 0.97-5.70). There was a significant interaction of age and HIV status, suggesting that older HIV-infected patients had higher odds of subclinical atherosclerosis than controls (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.24-8.71, P = 0.017 at the age of 60 years).
We confirmed the association between lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet and increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis and found that treated HIV infection was a risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis in older individuals.
The immortal HeLa cells case is an intriguing example of bio-objectification processes with great scientific, social, and symbolic impacts. These cells generate questions about representation, significance, and value of the exceptional, variety, individuality, and property. Of frightening (a lethal cancer) and emarginated (a black, poor woman) origins, with their ability to “contaminate” cultures and to “spread” into spaces for becoming of extraordinary value for human knowledge, well-being, and economy advancements, HeLa cells have represented humanity, and emphasized the importance of individual as a core concept of the personalized medicine. Starting from the process leading from HeLa “cells” to HeLa “bio-objects,” we focus on their importance as high quality bio-specimen. We discuss the tension between phenomenological characteristic of fundamental biological research and the variety of material and methodologies in epidemiology and personalized medicine. The emerging methodologies and societal changes reflect present EU policies and lead toward a new paradigm of science.
The aim of this paper is to describe our surgical procedure for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head using a minimally invasive technique. We have limited the use of this procedure for patients with pre-collapse osteonecrosis of the femoral head (Ficat Stage I or II). To treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head at our institution we currently use a combination of outpatient, minimally invasive iliac crest bone marrow aspirations and blood draw combined with decompressions of the femoral head. Following the decompression of the femoral head, adult mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the iliac crest and platelet rich plasma are injected into the area of osteonecrosis. Patients are then discharged from the hospital using crutches to assist with ambulation. This novel technique was utilized on 77 hips. Sixteen hips (21%) progressed to further stages of osteonecrosis, ultimately requiring total hip replacement. Significant pain relief was reported in 86% of patients (n = 60), while the rest of patients reported little or no pain relief. There were no significant complications in any patient. We found that the use of a minimally invasive decompression augmented with concentrated bone marrow and platelet rich plasma resulted in significant pain relief and halted the progression of disease in a majority of patients.
To type a set of 194 US African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic samples (self-declared ancestry) for 40 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers intended for human identification purposes.
Genotyping was performed on an automated commercial electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the PLEX-ID. The 40 SNP markers were amplified in eight unique 5plex PCRs, desalted, and resolved based on amplicon mass. For each of the three US sample groups statistical analyses were performed on the resulting genotypes.
The assay was found to be robust and capable of genotyping the 40 SNP markers consuming approximately 4 nanograms of template per sample. The combined random match probabilities for the 40 SNP assay ranged from 10−16 to 10−21.
The multiplex PLEX-ID SNP-40 assay is the first fully automated genotyping method capable of typing a panel of 40 forensically relevant autosomal SNP markers on a mass spectrometry platform. The data produced provided the first allele frequencies estimates for these 40 SNPs in a National Institute of Standards and Technology US population sample set. No population bias was detected although one locus deviated from its expected level of heterozygosity.
To establish allele frequencies and genetic parameters for 5 new European Standard Set short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the population of Romania and to compare them with those in other populations.
DNA was isolated using QIAamp 96 DNA Swab BioRobot Kit and Chelex 100 methods. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was done using Investigator ESSplexPlus Kit (D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D10S1248, D12S391, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, D22S1045, FGA, TH01, and vWA). For DNA typing, Applied Biosystems 3500/3500xL Genetic Analyzer was used. Statistical analysis was done using Powerstats, GDA, and Arlequin software.
Power of discrimination and polymorphism information content was highest for two new ESS loci, D1S1656 and D12S391. Comparison of allele frequencies for 5 new ESS loci in Romanian population with previously published population data showed significant differences for all compared populations, with the exception of Hungary. Geographically more distant populations, such as Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Germany, and Portugal differed more than closer populations.
New ESS STR loci are very useful for the analysis of forensic samples (persons or traces) due to their characteristics (shortness and high polymorphism). In comparisons with other common STR markers, they have a higher power of discrimination and also higher polymorphism information content, and could be used in any national DNA database.
To analyze 8 X-linked short tandem repeat (STR) markers in the population of central Croatia and to evaluate their forensic efficiency.
We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analyses, collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre ‘‘Ivan Vučetić.’’ Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR amplification kit was used for typing the data of 99 unrelated healthy women and 78 men from central Croatia. Haplotype frequencies were calculated only in male samples. Arlequin 3.5 software was used to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), observed and expected heterozygosity. Power of discrimination (PD) for men and women, polymorphism information content (PIC), power of exclusion, and mean exclusion chance for deficiency cases, normal trios, and duos were determined using online database ChrX-STR.org.
In female samples, deviations from HWE (P = 0.006) for each locus were not found. LD test performed both on female and male samples revealed no significant association between markers (P = 0.002). DXS10135 was the most polymorphic locus (PIC = 0.931). PD varied from 0.692 to 0.935 in male and from 0.845 to 0.992 in female samples. Combined PD reached 99.999999% in men and 99.9999999999% in women.
Performed analyses revealed that the studied marker set contained polymorphic markers with high power of discrimination. We can conclude that Mentype® Argus X-8 PCR kit is suitable for application in the population of central Croatia. Results of this study, together with collected allele and haplotype frequencies, are the first step in establishing a national reference X-STR database based on 8 X-STR loci.
To investigate the potential of false inclusion of a close genetic relative in paternity testing by using computer generated families.
10 000 computer-simulated families over three generations were generated based on genotypes using 15 short tandem repeat loci. These data were used in assessing the probability of inclusion or exclusion of paternity when the father is actually a sibling, grandparent, uncle, half sibling, cousin, or a random male. Further, we considered a duo case where the mother’s DNA type was not available and a trio case including the mother’s profile.
The data showed that the duo scenario had the highest and lowest false inclusion rates when considering a sibling (19.03 ± 0.77%) and a cousin (0.51 ± 0.14%) as the father, respectively; and the rate when considering a random male was much lower (0.04 ± 0.04%). The situation altered slightly with a trio case where the highest rate (0.56 ± 0.15%) occurred when a paternal uncle was considered as the father, and the lowest rate (0.03 ± 0.03%) occurred when a cousin was considered as the father. We also report on the distribution of the numbers for non-conformity (non-matching loci) where the father is a close genetic relative.
The results highlight the risk of false inclusion in parentage testing. These data provide a valuable reference when incorporating either a mutation in the father’s DNA type or if a close relative is included as being the father; particularly when there are varying numbers of non-matching loci.
To examine the influence of ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation on blood, saliva, semen, and naked DNA samples for preventing DNA cross-contamination on working surfaces in laboratories.
Blood, saliva, semen, and DNA isolated from buccal swab samples were obtained from a single male donor and applied to the laboratory working surfaces. UVC radiation was applied to these diluted and undiluted samples with or without previous decontamination of the working surfaces with 10% sodium hypochlorite and 20% ethanol. Genomic DNA was extracted using Chelex. After quantification, DNA was amplified using the AmpFlSTR® NGM™ PCR Amplification Kit. We tested and statistically analyzed DNA concentration, UVC dose, sample volume, radiation time, the number of correctly detected alleles on genetic loci, and the number of correctly detected alleles in four groups in which 16 loci were divided.
When working surfaces were not decontaminated and were treated only with UVC radiation in the laboratory, the genetic profile for naked DNA could not be obtained after 2 minutes of UVC radiation and for saliva after 54 hours. For blood and semen, a partial genetic profile was obtained even after 250 hours of UVC radiation in the laminar. When working surfaces were decontaminated with 10% sodium hypochlorite and 20% ethanol, genetic profile could not be obtained for naked DNA after 2 minutes, for saliva after 4 hours, for blood after 16 hours, and for semen after 8 hours of UVC radiation in the laboratory.
It is recommended to carefully and thoroughly clean working surfaces with 10% sodium hypochlorite and 20% ethanol followed by minimal 16-hour UVC exposure (dose approximately 4380 mJ/cm2) for complete and successful decontamination.
To investigate the usefulness of humerus measurement for sex determination in a sample of medieval skeletons from the Eastern Adriatic Coast. Additional aim was to compare the results with contemporary female population.
Five humerus measurements (maximum length, epicondylar width, maximum vertical diameter of the head, maximum and minimum diameter of the humerus at midshaft) for 80 male and 35 female medieval and 19 female contemporary humeri were recorded. Only sufficiently preserved skeletons and those with no obvious pathological or traumatic changes that could affect the measurements were included. For ten samples, analysis of DNA was performed in order to determine sex using amelogenin.
The initial comparison of men and women indicated significant differences in all five measures (P < 0.001). Discriminant function for sex determination indicated that as much as 85% of cases could be properly categorized, with better results in men (86%) than women (80%). Furthermore, the comparison of the medieval and contemporary women did not show significant difference in any of the measured features. Sex results obtained by anthropological and DNA analysis matched in all 10 cases.
The results indicate that humerus measurement in Croatian medieval population may be sufficient to determine the sex of the skeleton. Furthermore, it seems that secular changes have not substantially affected contemporary population, suggesting that the results of this study are transferable to contemporary population as well.
To find an association between Y chromosome polymorphisms and some ethnic groups.
Short tandem repeats (STR) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the Y chromosome were typed in 311 unrelated men from four different ethnic groups – Italians from northern Italy, Albanians, Africans from the Maghreb region, and Indo-Pakistanis, using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit and the SNaPshot Multiplex Kit.
STRs analysis found 299 different haplotypes and SNPs analysis 11 different haplogroups. Haplotypes and haplogroups were analyzed and compared between different ethnic groups. Significant differences were found among all the population groups, except between Italians and Indo-Pakistanis and between Albanians and Indo-Pakistanis.
Typing both STRs and SNPs on the Y chromosome could become useful in determining ethnic origin of a potential suspect.