Due to a diversity of habitats and its geologic history, the US state of California hosts a spectacular assemblage of darkling beetle species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). In addition to being part of the California Floristic Province, one of 34 global biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation International, California also has additional areas which are parts of the Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran deserts. California is divided into nine floristic regions. Each region is assessed in terms of faunal composition and endemism. A “snapshot” of our present knowledge of the Tenebrionidae indicates that 447 currently recognized species, representing 108 genera, occur in California of which one hundred and ninety are endemic. California is compared to other nearby regions in diversity and endemism. An analysis of currently valid species vs a more realistic species account based on unpublished records of likely synonyms and known species yet to be described in the scientific literature is presented. The California Floristic Region, rather than other more arid parts of California, has the highest number of total and endemic species. Because of their high diversity and endemism, tenebrionids could potentially provide a valuable tool for monitoring the environment for conservation purposes.
California; Floristic Regions; Tenebrionidae; Biodiversity; Hotspots; Conservation
The North American (north of Mexico) species of the tenebrionid genus Paratenetus Spinola are reviewed and a key is presented for their identification. Five species are recognized, P. gibbipennis Motschulsky, P. fuscus LeConte, P. punctatus Spinola and two sp. n., P. exutus [type locality: Tabusintac, Nova Scotia] and P. texanus [type locality: Port Isabel, Cameron County, Texas]. Two syn. n. are proposed: P. cribratus Motschulsky, 1868 with P. gibbipennis Motschulsky, 1868 and P. crinitus Fall, 1907 with P. fuscus LeConte, 1850. A lectotype is selected for Paratenetus punctatus Spinola. A type species is designated for Storthephora Mäklin, 1875 (Storthephora denticollis Mäklin, 1875).
Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae; North America; key
A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented.
Taxonomy; Pimeliinae; Praociini; Praocis; key; diversity; South America
On the basis of a newly performed cladistic analysis a new classification of the representatives of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera, Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 sensu Iwan 2002a, is provided. Eleoselinus is described as a new genus. The genus Monodius, previously synonymized with Selinus by Iwan (2002), is redescribed and considered as a separate genus. Following new combinations are proposed: Ectateus calcaripes (Gebien, 1904), Monodius laevistriatus (Fairmaire, 1897), Monodius lamottei (Gridelli, 1954), Monodius plicicollis (Fairmaire, 1897), Eleoselinus villiersi (Ardoin, 1965) and Eleoselinus ursynowiensis (Kamiński, 2011). Neotype for Ectateus calcaripes and lectotypes for E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897), E. ghesquierei Koch, 1956 and Monodius malaisei malaisei Koch, 1956 are designated to fix the taxonomic status of these taxa. The following synonymies are proposed: Selinus monardi Kaszab, 1951 and Ectateus latipennis Koch, 1956 with E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897). Identification keys are provided to all known species of Ectateus
sensu novum, Eleoselinus, Monodius and Selinus
Africa; ecoregions; cladistics; identification key; new genus; taxonomy; Pedinini
New Caledonia is an important biodiversity hotspot with much undocumented biodiversity, especially in many insect groups. Here we used an integrative approach to explore species diversity in the tenebrionid genus Uloma (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Ulomini), which encompasses about 150 species, of which 22 are known from New Caledonia. To do so, we focused on a morphologically homogeneous group by comparing museum specimens with material collected during several recent field trips. We also conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a concatenated matrix of four mitochondrial and three nuclear genes for 46 specimens. The morphological study allowed us to discover and describe four new species that belong to the group of interest, the Uloma isoceroides group. Molecular analyses confirmed the species boundaries of several of the previously described species and established the validity of the four new species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided additional information on the evolutionary history of the group, highlighting that a species that was thought to be unrelated to the group was in fact a member of the same evolutionary lineage. Molecular species delimitation confirmed the status of the sampled species of the group and also suggested some hidden (cryptic) biodiversity for at least two species of the group. Altogether this integrative taxonomic approach has allowed us to better define the boundaries of the Uloma isoceroides species group, which comprises at least 10 species: Uloma isoceroides (Fauvel, 1904), Uloma opacipennis (Fauvel, 1904), Uloma caledonica Kaszab, 1982, Uloma paniei Kaszab, 1982, Uloma monteithi Kaszab, 1986, Uloma robusta Kaszab, 1986, Uloma clamensae
sp. n., Uloma condaminei
sp. n., Uloma jourdani
sp. n., and Uloma kergoati
sp. n. We advocate more studies on other New Caledonian groups, as we expect that much undocumented biodiversity can be unveiled through the use of similar approaches.
Biodiversity hotspot; New Caledonia; New species; Phylogenetics; Taxonomy; Systematics; Tenebrionidae; Uloma
All species of the genus Alphitobius Stephens, 1829 (Alphitobiini Reitter, 1917, subfamily Tenebrioninae Latreille, 1802) from Africa and adjacent islands are revised. New species: Alphitobius capitaneus
sp. n. from Kenya. New synonyms: Cryptops ulomoides Solier, 1851, syn. n. of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1796); Alphitobius rufus Ardoin, 1976, syn. n. of Alphitobius hobohmi Koch, 1953); Peltoides (Micropeltoides) crypticoides Pic, 1916, syn. n. of Peltoides (Micropeltoides) opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871), comb. n. Homonym: Alphitobius ulomoides Koch, 1953 = Alphitobius arnoldi
nom. n. New combinations from Alphitobius: Ulomoides basilewskyi (Ardoin, 1969), comb. n.; Peltoides (Micropeltoides) opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871), comb. n. Figures of all examined species are added and a species key is compiled.
Tenebrionidae; Alphitobiini; Alphitobius; taxonomy; new species; new synonym; new combination; Africa; species key
Helopini is a diverse tribe in the subfamily Tenebrioninae with a worldwide distribution. The New World helopine species have not been reviewed recently and several doubts emerge regarding their generic assignment as well as the naturalness of the tribe and subordinate taxa. To assess these questions, a preliminary cladistic analysis was conducted with emphasis on sampling the genera distributed in the New World, but including representatives from other regions. The parsimony analysis includes 30 ingroup species from America, Europe and Asia of the subtribes Helopina and Cylindrinotina, plus three outgroups, and 67 morphological characters. Construction of the matrix resulted in the discovery of morphological character states not previously reported for the tribe, particularly from the genitalia of New World species. A consensus of the 12 most parsimonious trees supports the monophyly of the tribe based on a unique combination of characters, including one synapomorphy. None of the subtribes or the genera of the New World represented by more than one species (Helops Fabricius, Nautes Pascoe and Tarpela Bates) were recovered as monophyletic. Helopina was recovered as paraphyletic in relation to Cylindrinotina. One Nearctic species of Helops and one Palearctic species of Tarpela (subtribe Helopina) were more closely related to species of Cylindrinotina. A relatively derived clade, mainly composed by Neotropical species, was found; it includes seven species of Tarpela, seven species of Nautes, and three species of Helops, two Nearctic and one Neotropical. Our results reveal the need to deeply re-evaluate the current classification of the tribe and subordinated taxa, but a broader taxon sampling and further character exploration is needed in order to fully recognize monophyletic groups at different taxonomic levels (from subtribes to genera).
External morphology; Holarctic genera; Neotropical clade; Neotropical genera; male and female genitalia; polyphyly; polytomy; paraphyletic Helopini
Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state.
Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix.
Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae.
Tenebrionidae; larvae; matrix-based descriptions; Eleodes
The species of the genus Charisius Champion, from Mexico and Central America are reviewed. The flightless genus Narses Champion, with one included species, N. subalatus Champion, is placed in synonymy with the genus Charisius. Four new species are described and illustrated, C. granulatus and C. punctatus (from Guatemala) and C. apterus and C. howdenorum (from Mexico). Charisius subalatus (Champion) is redescribed and illustrated. The species C. interstitialis Champion is placed in synonymy with C. zunilensis Champion. The genus is redescribed to include the four new species and N. subalatus. New distributional records are presented for all other species of the genus and a revised key is presented for identification of all the species of the genus.
Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae; Alleculinae; Narses; Charisius; Mexico; Central America; Systematics; New synonymy; New species; New Combination
Two species, Hymenorus bifurcatus, and H. excavatus are described as new from Guatemala and the new species H. balli from both the state of Chiapas in southern Mexico and Guatemala. These three species are unique among the species of Hymenorus Mulsant, 1851 in the unusual and highly modified fifth ventrites of the male and the modified shape of the female ninth tergites. The unusual sexual characters of the males and females are illustrated with photographs. The usage of the generic names Hymenorus Mulsant versus Hymenophorus Mulsant is discussed.
Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae; Alleculinae; Hymenophorus; Hymenorus; Guatemala; Chiapas; taxonomy; new species
This study describes and illustrates the larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in the subfamily Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte from the southeastern United States, and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim from California. Both species inhabit forested regions where adults and larvae occur in soft rotten dry wood of dead branches on living trees or in sections recently fallen from them. Species identity was confirmed by rearing of adults and pupae and the discovery of both in pupal cells with associated exuvia. Specimen label data and notes on habitats are provided. Antipredator defense structures and behaviour are noted for larvae and pupae of both species.
Antipredator defense; identification; immature stages; North America; pinching organs; rotten wood; saproxylic insects; urogomphi
A checklist of 29 brachypterous species in the tenebrionid tribe Stenochiini is given for China and neighboring countries. A new species is described and illustrated under the name of Strongylium liangi
sp. n. (CHINA: Yunnan). Also, some new distribution data is provided for S. claudum (Gebien, 1914), and a distribution map of all Strongylium species in the checklist is presented.
Tenebrionidae; Stenochiini; Strongylium; new species; China
The Malagasy giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus de Saussure & Zehntner, 1902 is revised. Seven new species, S. titanus
sp. n., S. vatovavy
sp. n., S. lavasoa
sp. n., S. andohahela
sp. n., S. ivohibe
sp. n., S. saintelucei
sp. n., and S. andrahomana
sp. n. were discovered, in one case with the help of sequence data, in the rainforests of southeastern Madagascar. The species are described using light- and scanning electron microscopy. A key to all 10 species of the genus is presented. All but one (S. andohahela) of the newly discovered species are microendemics each occurring in isolated forest fragments. The mitochondrial COI barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 18 Sphaeromimus specimens, and a dataset containing COI sequences of 28 specimens representing all Sphaeromimus species (except S. vatovavy) was analyzed. All species are genetically monophyletic. Interspecific uncorrected genetic distances were moderate (4–10%) to high (18–25%), whereas intraspecific variation is low (0–3.5%). Sequence data allowed the correct identification of three colour morphs of S. musicus, as well as the identity of a cave specimen, which although aberrant in its morphology and colouration, was genetically identical to the holotype of S. andrahoma.
COI; Barcoding; soil arthropods; microendemism; Andrahomana; Lavasoa; Sainte Luce; Manombo
Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European Union to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights.
We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information.
Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an impediment to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge. Such differences should be removed by unifying exceptions and limitations for research purposes in a binding, Europe-wide regulation.
Biodiversity knowledge; taxonomy; intellectual property rights; European copyright; European database protection right; data use agreement; Open Access to data and information
A replacement name is proposed for genus Dayus Gerken, 2001 (Crustacea: Peracarida: Cumacea), preoccupied by Dayus Mahmood, 1967 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The following changes are proposed: Jennidayus
new replacement name = Dayus Gerken, 2001 (nec Mahmood 1967); Jennidayus pharocheradus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus pharocheradus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus acanthus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus acanthus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus makrokolosus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus makrokolosus Gerken, 2001.
Crustacea; Peracarida; Cumacea; homonym; replacement name
Recent survey work in the Seychelles has revealed two new species of Paraparatrechina that are here described: P. illusio
sp. n. and P. luminella
sp. n. A revised key to the workers of Paraparatrechina for the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions is provided. The taxonomy of the hypogaeic weissi species-group is also reviewed in light of recent field collections. The species P. sordida is revived from synonymy and given new status (as a full species) and a discussion of the morphologically peculiar species-group is provided. With the description of the two species and the removal of another species from weissi synonomy there are now 16 Paraparatrechina species known from the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions.
Ants; Formicinae; Prenolepis genus-group; Seychelles; new species
The earthworm family Hormogastridae shows a remarkable disjunction in its distribution in the Iberian Peninsula, with the Hormogaster elisae species complex isolated from the rest of the species. Hormogaster joseantonioi
sp. n., a new species found in the intermediate area between the main ranges (in Teruel, Aragón), was described following the integrative approach, as it is suitable for earthworms due to their highly homoplasic morphology. The phylogenetic analysis of the molecular markers placed the new species as a sister taxon to H. elisae, thus showing the colonizing lineage of Central Iberian Peninsula could have originated near the H. joseantonioi
sp. n. current range. External morphological characters revealed some degree of overlap with previously described species, but internal characters presented configurations/states unknown from other members of the family. These traits make the new species a key piece to understand the evolution of Hormogastridae.
Species description; earthworm; integrative taxonomy; phylogeny; disjunct distribution
In the Oriental Region, the large, basically Northern Hemisphere family Trichopolydesmidae is shown to currently comprise 18 genera and 43 species. Based mainly on gonopod structure, all of them, as well as the whole family, are (re)diagnosed, including five new genera and seven new species. These new taxa are keyed, also being the first to be described from Indochina in general and from Vietnam in particular: Aporodesmella
gen. n., with three species: A. securiformis
sp. n. (the type species), A. similis
sp. n. and A. tergalis
sp. n., as well as the following four monotypic genera: Deharvengius
gen. n., with D. bedosae
sp. n., Gonatodesmus
gen. n., with G. communicans
sp. n., Helicodesmus
gen. n., with H. anichkini
sp. n., and Monstrodesmus
gen. n., with M. flagellifer
sp. n. In addition, Cocacolaria hauseri Hoffman, 1987, hitherto known only from New Ireland Island, Papua New Guinea, is redescribed based on material from Vanuatu whence it is recorded for the first time. One of the new genera, Gonatodesmus
gen. n., provides a kind of transition or evolutionary bridge between Trichopolydesmidae and Opisotretidae, thus reinforcing the assignment of these two families to the single superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea.
Diplopoda; Trichopolydesmoidea; taxonomy; new genera; new species; key; Vietnam; Vanuatu
The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti
sp. n., T. dalek
sp. n., T. enkidu
sp. n., T. gilgamesh
sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri
sp. n., T. hobbit
sp. n., T. gollum
sp. n., T. mars
sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis
sp. n., T. camelliae
sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya
sp. n., T. gladius
sp. n., T. karthala
sp. n., T. myrmidon
sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo
sp. n., and T. tenuinode
sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina
sp. n., T. monticola
sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan
sp. n., T. pseudogladius
sp. n., T. rala
sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum
sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps.
Comoros; Madagascar; Reunion; taxonomy; Tetramoriini
The genus Microcriodes Breuning is newly recorded from China upon the discovery of M. sikkimensis Breuning, 1943 and M. wuchaoi
sp. n. from Motuo, Southeast Xizang. Illustrations of the habitus, genitalia including non-everted endophallus, as well as diagnostic features are provided.
Microcriodes; new record; new species; taxonomy; Oriental region
Four species of Gnathusa Fenyes (G. alfacaribou Klimaszewski & Langor, G. caribou Lohse, G. eva Fenyes, and G. tenuicornis Fenyes) occur in the Nearctic and in Canada. Three species of Ocyusa Kraatz (O. asperula Casey, O. californica Bernhauer, O. canadensis Lohse), and three species of Mniusa Mulsant and Ray (M. minutissima (Klimaszewski & Langor), M. yukonensis (Klimaszewski & Godin), and M. odelli Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n.), are known from the Nearctic and all but O. californica occur in Canada. The recently described Gnathusa minutissima Klimaszewski and Langor and Ocyusa yukonensis Klimaszewski and Godin, are transferred here to the genus Mniusa Mulsant & Rey. New provincial and state records are reported for: G. eva (Alberta), G. tenuicornis (Alberta, Oregon, and New Brunswick), O. canadensis (New Brunswick and Newfoundland), M. minutissima (New Brunswick), and M. yukonensis (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and British Columbia). The female of M. yukonensis was discovered and is illustrated for the first time. The genus Mniusa is reported for the first time from Canada and represents the first confirmed generic record for North America. Keys for identification of all Canadian species, images of body and genital structures, maps showing distribution mainly in Canada, and new bionomics data are provided.
Staphylinidae; Gnathusa; Mniusa; Ocyusa; Taxonomy; Canada
We describe a new species of amblyopsid cavefish (Percopsiformes: Amblyopsidae) in the genus Amblyopsis from subterranean habitats of southern Indiana, USA. The Hoosier Cavefish, Amblyopsis hoosieri
sp. n., is distinguished from A. spelaea, its only congener, based on genetic, geographic, and morphological evidence. Several morphological features distinguish the new species, including a much plumper, Bibendum-like wrinkled body with rounded fins, and the absence of a premature stop codon in the gene rhodopsin. This is the first new cavefish species described from the United States in 40 years and exemplifies how molecular data can alert us to the presence of otherwise cryptic biodiversity.
Cryptic diversity; GenSeq; new species; subterranean; taxonomy
Three new species of Salganea Stål, 1877 are described and illustrated: S. quinquedentata
sp. n., S. anisodonta
sp. n. and S. flexibilis
S. taiwanensis Roth, 1979, S. guangxiensis (Feng & Woo, 1990), S. incerta (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893) and S. raggei Roth, 1979 are redescribed. Panesthia concinna Feng & Woo, 1990 is synonymized with S. taiwanensis Roth, 1979 and Panesthia guangxiensis Feng & Woo, 1990 is transferred to the genus Salganea for the first time. As well, a key to species from China is presented.
New species; new synonym; new combination; cockroaches; Panesthia
The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.
Alien; altitude; colour morphs; spatial occurrence; spread