The reptile fauna of Romania comprises 23 species, out of which 12 species reach here the limit of their geographic range. We compiled and updated a national database of the reptile species occurrences from a variety of sources including our own field surveys, personal communication from specialists, museum collections and the scientific literature. The occurrence records were georeferenced and stored in a geodatabase for additional analysis of their spatial patterns. The spatial analysis revealed a biased sampling effort concentrated in various protected areas, and deficient in the vast agricultural areas of the southern part of Romania. The patterns of species richness showed a higher number of species in the warmer and drier regions, and a relatively low number of species in the rest of the country. Our database provides a starting point for further analyses, and represents a reliable tool for drafting conservation plans.
Reptilia; species distribution; species range; biodiversity data; species richness; rarity
Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna.
Anthozoa; Veracruz Reef System; Cayo Arenas; Alacranes Reef; Banco de Campeche; Yucatán
sp. n. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Athysanini), a new bamboo-feeding leafhopper species, is described and illustrated from Shaanxi Province of China. Checklist, host plants and distribution for each species of Bambusananus is given along with a key to all known species.
Bamboo leafhopper; Cicadomorpha; distribution; Homoptera; taxonomy
One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham) is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of Erechthias minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae,new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable in having wing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of Erechthias grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated.
Brachyptery; distribution; genital morphology; larval case
There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets.
Opiliones; Arthropoda; Iberian Peninsula; entomological collections; biodiversity collections; distribution; datasets; Spain; Portugal
Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10).
Antarctica; Ross Sea; Mollusca; Gastropoda; Bivalvia; Monoplacophora; Aplacophora; Polyplacophora; Scaphopoda; Italica 2004; Rauschert dredge; Latitudinal Gradient Program
The following taxonomic or nomenclatural changes are proposed: Themus (s.str.) regalis (Gorham, 1889), nom. rest.; Themus (s.str.) scutulatus Wittmer, 1983 = Themus (s.str.) hmong Kazantsev, 2007, syn. n.; Themus (Telephorops) coelestis (Gorham, 1889) = Themus violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992, syn. n.; Themus (Telephorops) uniformis Wittmer, 1983, stat. n. = Themus (Telephorops) cribripennis Wittmer, 1983, syn. n.; Themus (Haplothemus) licenti Pic, 1938, stat. rev., resurrected from synonymy with Themus coriaceipennis (Fairmaire, 1889); Lycocerus aenescens (Fairmaire, 1889) = Lycocerus tcheonanus (Pic, 1922), syn. n.; Lycocerus asperipennis (Fairmaire, 1891) = Lycocerus wangi (Švihla, 2004), syn. n.; Lycocerus borneoensis
nom. n. for Athemellus atricolor (Wittmer, 1972); Lycocerus bilineatus (Wittmer, 1995) = Lycocerus amplus (Wittmer, 1995), syn. n.; Lycocerus fairmairei
nom. n. et stat. rev. for Athemus dimidiaticrus (Fairmaire, 1889), originally in Telephorus, resurrected from synonymy with Lycocerus orientalis (Gorham, 1889); Lycocerus confossicollis (Fairmaire, 1891), comb. n. hereby transferred from Cantharis = Lycocerus multiimpressus (Wittmer, 1997), syn. n.; Lycocerus inopaciceps (Pic, 1926) = Athemus (Athemellus) bimaculicollis (Švihla, 2005), syn. n.; Lycocerus nigratus
nom. n. for Lycocerus nigricolor (Wittmer, 1972), originally in Podabrinus; Lycocerus plebejus (Kiesenwetter, 1874) = Lycocerus brunneonotaticeps (Pic, 1922), syn. n. = Cantharis rufonotaticeps Pic, 1921 syn. n.; Lycocerus swampingatus (Pic, 1916), comb. n., hereby transferred from Cantharis. The neotypes of Themus violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992 and Athemus (s.str.) maculithorax Wang & Yang, 1992 are designated respectively.
Coleoptera; Cantharidae; Themus; Lycocerus; synonym; homonym; new name; restoration name; new combination; new status; resurrection
The genus Lasinus Sharp, 1874 of the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini: Tyrina) is revised. The three so far known species, Lasinus mandarinus Raffray, 1890, Lasinus monticola Sawada, 1961 and Lasinus spinosus Sharp, 1874 are redescribed. Eight new species, Lasinus sinicus
sp. n. from China, Lasinus mikado
sp. n., Lasinus yamamotoi
sp. n., Lasinus inexpectatus
sp. n., Lasinus yakushimanus
sp. n., Lasinus amamianus
sp. n., Lasinus saoriae
sp. n., and Lasinus okinawanus
sp. n. from Japan, are described. And all species are illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Lasinus mandarinus and Lasinus spinosus. An identification key to species of the genus Lasinus is provided.
Tyrini; taxonomy; revision; new species; Russia - Kuril Islands; China; Vietnam; Japan
sp. n., an endemic species of the Fiji islands, is described from the worker, ergatoid queen, alate queen and male castes. The alate queen and male castes of Pristomyrmex mandibularis Mann are also described for the first time. The ergatoid queens for both species appear to be morphologically intermediate between the worker and alate queen castes. Pristomyrmex tsujii is readily distinguished from Pristomyrmex mandibularis by the lack of well-developed propodeal spines. Although both species occur across the Fijian archipelago, they are rarely encountered and workers are most often collected from sifted litter. The descriptions are illustrated with specimen photographs, line drawings and a distribution map.
Myrmicinae; Pristomyrmex; Fiji; taxonomy; ergatoid; islands; Pacific; new species
Two new species are described from caves in several Greek islands in the Aegean Sea: Galliocookia gracilis
sp. n., a presumed troglobite from Rhodes, Dodecanese Islands, and Sphaeroparia simplex
sp. n., likely a troglophile from Kithnos, Cyclades, and Chios, Eastern Sporades. These genera are assigned to the family Trichopolydesmidae Verhoeff, 1910. Because Sphaeroparia Attems, 1909, an Afrotropical genus, nicely bridges the gap, both morphologically and geographically, between the Euro-Mediterranean Trichopolydesmidae and the much more diverse, pantropical Fuhrmannodesmidae Brölemann, 1916, the latter family is considered as a new junior subjective synonym of the former, syn. n. Thus expanded, the family Trichopolydesmidae is rediagnosed and its position within the superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea refined. Because the families Mastigonodesmidae Attems, 1914, Macrosternodesmidae Brölemann, 1916 and Nearctodesmidae Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1950 are also formally synonymized with Trichopolydesmidae, syn. n., the Trichopolydesmoidea currently contains only two families, Trichopolydesmidae and Opisotretidae Hoffman, 1980.
Diplopoda; Trichopolydesmidae; Fuhrmannodesmidae; taxonomy; new species; cave; Greece
This work treats species of the genus Microsternus Lewis, 1887 from Asia and North America. A new genus is described: Neosternus (type species Microsternus higonius Lewis, 1887). A new species is described: Microsternus pengzhongi. A new synonym is provided: Microsternus tricolor taiwanicus Nakane (=Microsternus tricolor Lewis). Three species previously placed in Microsternus Lewis, 1887 are transferred to Neosternus resulting in the following three new combinations: Neosternus higonius (Lewis, 1887), Neosternus taiwanus (Chûjô, 1976), and Neosternus hisamatsui (Nakane, 1981).
Coleoptera; Erotylidae; Dacnini; Microsternus; Neosternus; identification key; new Genus; new species; new synonym; Asia; China
The imago and soldier castes of the Neotropical Termitinae species Genuotermes spinifer Emerson are redescribed. The gut anatomy of the worker is described in detail for the first time, and morphological variations in the soldier are noted and illustrated. The known geographical distribution of Genuotermes spinifer is greatly expanded.
Taxonomy; morphology; worker gut anatomy; new distributional records; Neotropical region
Representatives of the fish genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Middle East and North Africa were previously placed in 14 different genus-group taxa (Barbellion, Barbus, Barynotus, Capoeta, Carasobarbus, Cyclocheilichthys, Kosswigobarbus, Labeobarbus, Luciobarbus, Pseudotor, Puntius, Systomus, Tor and Varicorhinus). The generic assignment of several species changed frequently, necessitating a re-evaluation of their taxonomic status. In this study, the genus Carasobarbus is revised based on comparative morphological examinations of about 1300 preserved specimens from collections of several museums and freshly collected material. The species Carasobarbus apoensis, Carasobarbus canis, Carasobarbus chantrei, Carasobarbus exulatus, Carasobarbus fritschii, Carasobarbus harterti, Carasobarbus kosswigi, Carasobarbus luteus and Carasobarbus sublimus form a monophyletic group that shares the following combination of characters: medium-sized barbels with a smooth last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, nine or 10 branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched anal fin-rays; scales large, shield-shaped, with many parallel radii; the lateral line containing 25 to 39 scales; the pharyngeal teeth hooked, 2.3.5-5.3.2 or 2.3.4-4.3.2; one or two pairs of barbels. The species are described in detail, their taxonomic status is re-evaluated and an identification key is provided. A lectotype of Systomus luteus Heckel, 1843 is designated. Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971, Kosswigobarbus Karaman, 1971, and Pseudotor Karaman, 1971 are subjective synonyms, and acting as First Reviser we gave precedence to the name Carasobarbus.
Cyprinidae; SW Asia; NW Africa; taxonomy
Two new species of oribatid mites, Lepidozetes acutirostrum
sp. n. and Scutozetes clavatosensillus
sp. n., are described from Nepal. The genera Lepidozetes and Scutozetes are recorded for the first time for the Oriental region. The identification keys to the known species of these genera are provided.
Oribatida; new species; description; Lepidozetes; Scutozetes; key; Nepal
The Australian fauna of Ceratocanthinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae) is revised. Two genera are present, both shared with Asia, with a total of seven species, all localized in eastern Queensland and all except one, endemic to Australia. Cyphopisthes is comprised of three species, two of them new (Cyphopisthes yorkensis
sp. n. and Cyphopisthes monteithi
sp. n., the latter, together with Cyphopisthes descarpentriesi Paulian, 1977 displaying an unusual ecology, with occurrence in the southern Queensland dry rainforest/scrub habitats), and Pterorthochaetes is comprised of four species, two of them new (Pterorthochaetes danielsi
sp. n. and Pterorthochaeres storeyi
sp. n.). Descriptions, distribution, ecological remarks and a key to species are provided.
Queensland; Pterorthochaetes; Cyphopisthes; Mastotermes; taxonomy; identification key
Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. from Thrace, Greece, is described. The new species is morphologically most similar and probably closely related to Lethrus (Lethrus) apterus (Laxmann, 1770) and Lethrus (Lethrus) ares Král, Rejsek & Schneider, 2001. Diagnostic characters (shape of mandibles, ventral mandible processes, pronotum and parameres) are illustrated. Character matrix for separation of males of the Lethrus species closely related to Lethrus schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. and geographic ranges for all species studied are mapped.
Lethrus; new species; Geotrupidae; Lethrinae; Mediterranean; Palaearctic region
Placobdella cryptobranchii (Johnson & Klemm, 1977) was originally described from specimens collected from Ozark Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) from the North Fork of the White River in Missouri, U.S.A. Leeches collected during August 2009 to August 2011 from five localities in Missouri (including the type locality) facilitated a redescription and molecular characterization of Placobdella cryptobranchii. Placobdella cryptobranchii has a rusty, reddish-brown dorsum with 2 lateral rows of unpigmented papillae, two unpigmented nuchal bands, unpigmented patches, and pair of four pre-anal papillae. Molecular comparison of CO-I sequence data from Placobdella cryptobranchii revealed a 93–94% similarity to Placobdella ornata and 10–17% difference among other species of Placobdella.
Placobdella cryptobranchii; Batracobdella; Desserobdella; Cryptobranchus bishopi; Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi; Ozark Hellbender; Glossiphoniidae; Hirudinea; Rhychobdellida; Clitellata; leech
Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri
sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis
sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas.
Porifera; Demospongiae; Halichondrida; Axinellidae; northeast Pacific; Auletta krautteri; Dragmacidon kishinensis
sp. n. is described from eastern China. Its DNA barcodes are sequenced and compared to the similar species of the genus. Hesperentomon yangi
sp. n. is characterized by 12 posterior setae on tergites II–VI, 8 posterior setae on sternites IV–VI (seta Pc absent), absence of seta sd4 on head, absence of seta P2a on tergite VII, 6 and 8 anterior setae on mesosternum and metasternum respectively, and few teeth on comb. It differs from Hesperentomon xiningense Bu & Yin, 2007 and Hesperentomon nanshanensis Bu & Yin, 2007 in the chaetotaxy of mesosternum and metanotum, maxillary gland, length and shape of some sensilla on foretarsus, as well as the body porotaxy. The genetic divergences of DNA barcodes sequences between Hesperentomon yangi
sp. n., Hesperentomon xiningense and Hesperentomon nanshanensis are 24.1% on average, which is distinctly higher than the divergences between individuals of the new species (0.5%). Molecular data provide a solid evidence of the new species identified by the morphological characters.
Protura; Hesperentomon; molecular data; genetic divergence; chaetotaxy
A new species of the calanoid copepod genus Pseudodiaptomus was collected from the Prasae River Estuary, Rayong Province, on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Thailand. This species is definitely assigned to the lobus species group sensu Walter (1986a). The female of the new species differs from other congeners in the elongate genital double-somite with a blunt process ventrally and the second urosomite about 2.54 times as long as wide. The male is also easily distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the right fifth leg.
The present new species is a euryhaline species and occurred in brackish waters with salinity ranging from 0.7 to 23.3. Its breeding season may be from June to October, as indicated by the presence of egg-sacs.
Copepoda; Calanoida; Gulf of Thailand; Prasae River; Pseudodiaptomus; new species
Taibai Mountain is the highest peak of Qinling Mountain Ridge, a climate and geographical demarcation of the southern and northern China. Collembolan species of family Entomobryidae are reported from this region for the first time in this paper. Two new species, Homidia taibaiensis
sp. n. and Sinella triseta
sp. n. of Entomobryinae are described. Illustrations and differences with similar species are provided.
Entomobryinae; new species; chaetotaxy; Qinling
A new species of Numbakulla Guţu & Heard, 2002 (Tanaidacea) is described from Heron Island (southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland) collected during the Census of Coral Reefs Ecosystem (CReefs) program. The new species is the third member of the family and can be recognized by the combination of characters as: length/width ratio of the body, which is 6:7, pereonite 4 longer than the rest, the presence of eyes, a blunt rostrum, antenna article 2 elongated, cheliped carpus with row of inner setae, pereopod 6 carpus with spines, pleopod endopod with denticles.
Tanaidacea; Numbakullidae; Numbakulla; Australia; CReefs; coral reefs
sp. n., a new species of cicada found in the Sacramento Mountains of southcentral New Mexico, is described. Tibicen neomexicensis closely resembles Tibicen chiricahua Davis morphologically, but males of the two species have highly distinct calling songs that differ in phrasal structure, amplitude burst rates, and pulse structure. Unlike Tibicen chiricahua, male Tibicen neomexicensis use conspicuous dorso-ventral abdominal movements to modulate the amplitude and frequency of their calls. Tibicen neomexicensis is also smaller on average than Tibicen chiricahua, and differences in the color patterns of the wing venation identify these two species morphologically. Both species are dependent on pinyon-juniper woodlands and have similar emergence phenologies. These species appear to be allopatric, with Tibicen chiricahua found west of the Rio Grande in New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico, and Tibicen neomexicensis so far known only from New Mexico, east of the Rio Grande. Tibicen chiricahua and Tibicen neomexicensis males share a common genitalic structure that separates them from all other species of Tibicen, and the possible evolutionary and biogeographic history of these likely sister species is also discussed.
Cicadidae; Tibicen; bioacoustics; cicada; cryptic species
We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, Chaco costai,via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species.
Spiders; Taxonomy; Cladistics; Chaco; Nemesiidae; Natural history
Three new species of Symploce Hebard from China are described: Symploce sphaerica
sp. n., Symploce paramarginata
sp. n. and Symploce evidens
sp. n. Two known species are redescribed and illustrated based on types. A key is given to identify all species of Symploce from mainland China.
Insecta; Dictyoptera; Ectobiidae; Episymploce; new species; cockroaches