sp. n., Bythinella
sp. n., Bythinella
sp. n., and Bythinella
sp. n. from western Turkey are described herein. Illustrations of the shell and genitalia of the newly described taxa, together with comparisons with previously known Bythinella taxa and a key to the species from western Turkey, are also provided.
Bythinella; new species; freshwater; springs; Turkey
Nineteen species of abundant gastropods were collected at Robben Island, including introduced dune snails and European brown garden snails. They were identified using morphology and DNA barcoding. It was expected that the species recorded would be similar to those from the Cape peninsula, South Africa, but we were surprised to find some exceptions: the very abundant invasive mussel species in South Africa, the South American bisexual mussel (Semimytilus
algosus), and the beaded topshells (Oxystele
impervia) were not found on Robben Island. Possible explanations are presented for these differences.
Mollusca; Gastropoda; mitochondrial gene COI; species identification
The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina.
Hyalella; taxonomy; freshwater amphipods; novel-species description; Argentina
The present paper gives a review of Solenysa species from Japan and provides a solution for the species bearing the generotype name Solenysa
mellotteei Simon, 1894. A total of six species are recorded, including two new species Solenysa
sp. n. and Solenysa
sp. n. The species collected from Kawasaki (NSMT-Ar 11154) and Hachioji should be the generotype Solenysa
mellotteei, with Solenysa
akihisai Tu, 2011, syn. n. as its junior synonym. To distinguish these congeneric species from each other, their genital characters are provided in detail based on images collected by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy.
Genitalia; morphology; new species; taxonomy
We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum
sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761) – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa
ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours), Euphorbia
virgata (3.45), Solanum
nigrum (3.32), Centauria
scabiosa (2.47), Lamium
album (2.41), Aristolochia
clematitis (1.76), Chenopodium
album (1.73), Arctium
lappa (1.51), Asperula
odorata (1.20). A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla
nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours), Lycopersicon
esculentum (3.75), Tropaeolum
majus (3.29), Nicotiana
tabacum (2.66), Rumex
acetosa (1.96), Beta
vulgaris (1.27). Opatrum
sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched.
sabulosum; Tenebrionidae; Food Preferences; Laboratory Experiments; Plant-eating Insects
The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands are reviewed. Ten species are recorded with certainty from this Archipelago, of which 6 namely, Trogoxylon
impressum (Comolli, 1837), Amphicerus
bimaculatus (A.G. Olivier, 1790), Heterobostrychus
aequalis (Waterhouse, 1884), Sinoxylon
unidentatum (Fabricius, 1801), Xyloperthella
picea (A.G. Olivier, 1790) and Apate
monachus Fabricius, 1775 are recorded for the first time. Two of the mentioned species (Heterobostrychus
aequalis and Sinoxylon
unidentatum) are alien and recorded only on the basis of single captures and the possible establishment of these species is discussed. Earlier records of Scobicia
pustulata (Fabricius, 1801) from Malta are incorrect and should be attributed to Scobicia
chevrieri (A. Villa & J.B. Villa, 1835). A zoogeographical analysis and an updated checklist of the 12 species of Bostrichidae recorded from the Maltese Islands and neigbouring Sicilian islands (Pantelleria, Linosa and Lampedusa) are also provided.
granulipennis Lesne in Beeson & Bhatia, 1937 from Uttarakhand (northern India) was overlooked by almost all subsequent authors. Its history is summarized and the following new synonymy is established: Rhizopertha
granulipennis Lesne in Beeson & Bhatia, 1937 = Rhyzopertha
dominica (Fabricius, 1792), syn. n.
Finally, records of Amphicerus
bimaculatus from Azerbaijan, of Bostrichus
capucinus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Jordan and Syria, of Scobicia
chevrieri from Jordan and Italy, of Xyloperthella
picea from Italy, and of Apate
monachus from Corsica (France) and Italy, are also provided.
Bostrichidae; new records; new synonym; alien species; Malta; Italy
The present study deals with the description of a new species of Rhinolekos. It can be distinguished from its congeners by having 31 vertebrae, the anterior portion of the compound supraneural-first dorsal-fin proximal radial contacting the neural spine of the 9th vertebra, the absence of transverse dark bands in the pectoral, pelvic and anal-fin rays, 24–28 plates in the dorsal series, the lack of odontodes on the ventral tip of the snout, the absence of accessory teeth, a greater prenasal length, a smaller head length, and by a greater snout length. Rhinolekos
capetinga is restricted to the headwaters of the rio Tocantins and it is the first species of this genus in the Amazon basin. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of a biogeographic scenario that may explain the dispersal of the new species from the rio Paranaíba to the rio Tocantins basin. We suggest that the ancestral lineage of Rhinolekos
capetinga reached the rio Tocantins from portions of the rio Paranaíba at the end of the Miocene, about 6.3 Mya (4.1–13.9 Mya 95% HPD), probably as a result of headwater capture processes among adjacent drainages.
Biodiversity; Freshwater; Neotropical fish; South America; Taxonomy
We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.
Specimen Manipulator; Entomology; Stage; Digitization; Imaging
Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia
sp. n., Setia
sp. n., Setia
sp. n., and Manzonia
sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.
Taxonomy; Caenogastropoda; Rissooidea; Setia; Manzonia; Eastern Atlantic
Two new species of Tetranychidae belonging to the genus Bryobia are reported from France. Bryobia
sp. n. and Bryobia
sp. n. collected on Genista
cinerea and Bituminaria
bituminosa, respectively, are described and illustrated in the present work. Additional data to the original description of Bryobia
cinereae are given and an identification key to known Bryobia species from France is also provided.
Acari; Tetranychidae; new species; Leguminosae; France
One new species Belisana
sp. n. (♂) is reported from northern Vietnam based on material collected by fogging the forest canopy. This species resembles Belisana
scharffi Huber, 2005, but can be distinguished by relatively long distance between proximal parts of proximo-lateral apophysis and distal apophysis on male chelicerae, by presence of a nearly saddle-shaped prolateral sclerite on procursus, and by different shape of retrolateral membranous flap on procursus. Type specimens are deposited in the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology in Hanoi.
Taxonomy; pholcid; Southeast Asia; fogging; canopy
A new species, Enochrus (Methydrus) limbourgi
sp. n., is described from Jiangxi Province, Southeast China, and illustrated. Subgenus Enochrus s. str. Thomson, 1859 is recorded for the first time in China, based on the record of Enochrus
melanocephalus (Olivier, 1792) from Inner Mongolia. The male of Enochrus (Hydatotrephis) liangi Jia & Zhao, 2007 is described for the first time.
Coleoptera; Hydrophilidae; Enochrinae; Enochrus; aquatic beetles; new species; Palearctic Region; Oriental Region; China
The genus Toxorhina Loew from China is reviewed. Seven species belonging to the subgenus Ceratocheilus Wesche are recognized, of which three species, Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) huanglica
sp. n., Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) omnifusca
sp. n. and Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) univirgata
sp. n., are described as new to science, Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) fuscolimbata Alexander is recorded from China for the first time, and three known species are redescribed and illustrated.
China; Diptera; Limoniidae; new species; Toxorhina
We describe a new species of Telmatobius from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in central Peru. Specimens were collected at 3900 m elevation near Huaytará, Huancavelica, in the upper drainage of the Pisco river. The new species has a snout–vent length of 52.5 ± 1.1 mm (49.3–55.7 mm, n = 6) in adult females, and 48.5 mm in the single adult male. The new species has bright yellow and orange coloration ventrally and is readily distinguished from all other central Peruvian Andean species of Telmatobius but Telmatobius
intermedius by having vomerine teeth but lacking premaxillary and maxillary teeth, and by its slender body shape and long legs. The new species differs from Telmatobius
intermedius by its larger size, flatter head, and the absence of cutaneous keratinized spicules (present even in immature females of Telmatobius
intermedius), and in males by the presence of minute, densely packed nuptial spines on dorsal and medial surfaces of thumbs (large, sparsely packed nuptial spines in Telmatobius
intermedius). The hyper-arid coastal valleys of Peru generally support low species richness, particularly for groups such as aquatic breeding amphibians. The discovery of a new species in this environment, and along a major highway crossing the Andes, shows that much remains to be done to document amphibian diversity in Peru.
Huancavelica; amphibian; Andean water frog; Huancavelica; anfibio; rana acuática Andina
Three new species of saddled hypostomine loricariids are described. According to a recent phylogenetic analysis, these species are members of the genus Peckoltia. The species differ from all described Peckoltia except Peckoltia
furcata and Peckoltia
sabaji by having the dentaries meet at an angle greater than 90°. The species also have similarities to Hemiancistrus, and can be separated from all described species by having dorsal saddles. We discuss the taxonomy of Peckoltia, Hemiancistrus, and allied genera and recognize Ancistomus as valid for Peckoltia
spilomma, and Hemiancistrus
spinosissimus. We recommend descriptions of genera for several clades of Hemiancistrus and restriction of Hemiancistrus to the type species of the genus, Hemiancistrus
macrops is transferred to Pseudancistrus and recognized as a junior synonym of Pseudancistrus
megacephalus. The Hemiancistrus
annectens group of species (Hemiancistrus
wilsoni) are recognized in Hypostomus. Multivariate analysis reveals that the newly described species differ from one another in shape space, but overlap broadly with other Peckoltia (Peckoltia
lujani), narrowly with other Peckoltia (Peckoltia
greedoi), or broadly with Etsaputu (Peckoltia
Ancistrini; Hypostominae; Peckoltia; Siluriformes; Systematics; Taxonomy
Accurate species identification is fundamental to biodiversity science, but the natural history skills required for this are neglected in formal education at all levels. In this paper we describe how the web application ispotnature.org and its sister site ispot.org.za (collectively, “iSpot”) are helping to solve this problem by combining learning technology with crowdsourcing to connect beginners with experts. Over 94% of observations submitted to iSpot receive a determination. External checking of a sample of 3,287 iSpot records verified > 92% of them. To mid 2014, iSpot crowdsourced the identification of 30,000 taxa (>80% at species level) in > 390,000 observations with a global community numbering > 42,000 registered participants. More than half the observations on ispotnature.org were named within an hour of submission. iSpot uses a unique, 9-dimensional reputation system to motivate and reward participants and to verify determinations. Taxon-specific reputation points are earned when a participant proposes an identification that achieves agreement from other participants, weighted by the agreers’ own reputation scores for the taxon. This system is able to discriminate effectively between competing determinations when two or more are proposed for the same observation. In 57% of such cases the reputation system improved the accuracy of the determination, while in the remainder it either improved precision (e.g. by adding a species name to a genus) or revealed false precision, for example where a determination to species level was not supported by the available evidence. We propose that the success of iSpot arises from the structure of its social network that efficiently connects beginners and experts, overcoming the social as well as geographic barriers that normally separate the two.
Biodiversity; Citizen Science; Crowdsourcing; Identification; Learning; Learning design; social networking
Benthic harpacticoids were collected for the first time at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, United States. Two species were identified as members of the genus Attheyella Brady, 1880. The genus Attheyella comprises about 150 species within six subgenera, but only twelve species have previously been reported from North American freshwater habitats. The two new species of Attheyella described here have a 3-segmented endopod on P1 and 2-segmented P2–P4 endopods, the distal segment of exopod of P2–P4 has three outer spines, and the P5 has five setae on the exopod and six setae on the baseoendopod. Attheyella (Attheyella) tahoensis
sp. n. most closely resembles Attheyella (Attheyella) idahoensis (Marsh, 1903) from Idaho, Montana, and Alaska (United States) and Attheyella (Attheyella) namkungi Kim, Soh & Lee, 2005 from Gosu Cave in South Korea. They differ mainly by the number of setae on the distal endopodal segment of P2–P4. In addition, intraspecific variation has been observed on the caudal rami. Attheyella (Neomrazekiella) tessiae
sp. n. is characterized by the extension of P5 baseoendopod, 2-segmented endopod of female P2–P3, and naked third seta of male P5 exopod. The two new species are likely endemic to Lake Tahoe, an isolated alpine lake within the Great Basin watershed in the western United States.
Benthic Harpacticoida; Canthocamptidae; Lake Tahoe; Nevada; California
Five species of Ooctonus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang Province, China, are reviewed. One species, Ooctonus
sp. n., is described as new, and four species, Ooctonus
orientalis Doutt, Ooctonus
saturn Triapitsyn, Ooctonus
sublaevis Förster and Ooctonus
vulgatus Haliday are reported as new to China. A key to the females of the 10 described Chinese species is given. All the specimens are deposited in the insect collections of Northeast Forestry University, China.
Chalcidoidea; Mymaridae; Ooctonus; taxonomy; new species; China
The paper integrates two independent studies of numeric morphology-based alpha-taxonomy of the cryptic ant species Temnothorax
crassispinus (Karavajev, 1926) and Temnothorax
sp. n. conducted by different investigators, using different equipment, considering different character combinations and evaluating different samples. Samples investigated included 603 individual workers from 203 nests – thereof 104 nest samples measured by Seifert and 99 by Csösz. The material originated from Europe, Asia Minor and Caucasia. There was a very strong interspecific overlap in any of the 29 shape characters recorded and subjective expert determination failed in many cases. Primary classification hypotheses were formed by the exploratory data analysis Nest Centroid (NC) clustering and corrected to final species hypotheses by an iterative linear discriminant analysis algorithm. The evaluation of Seifert’s and Csösz’s data sets arrived at fully congruent conclusions. NC-Ward and NC-K-means clustering disagreed from the final species hypothesis in only 1.9 and 1.9% of the samples in Seifert’s data set and by 1.1 and 2.1% in Csösz’s data set which is a strong argument for heterospecificity. The type series of Temnothorax
crassispinus and Temnothorax
sp. n. were allocated to different clusters with p = 0.9851 and p = 0.9912 respectively. The type series of the junior synonym Temnothorax
slavonicus (Seifert, 1995) was allocated to the Temnothorax
crassispinus cluster with p = 0.9927. Temnothorax
sp. n. and Temnothorax
crassispinus are parapatric species with a long contact zone stretching from the Peloponnisos peninsula across Bulgaria northeast to the southern Ukraine. There is no indication for occurrence of interspecifically mixed nests or intraspecific polymorphism. However, a significant reduction of interspecific morphological distance at sites with syntopic occurrence of both species indicates local hybridization. The results are discussed within the context of the Pragmatic Species Concept of Seifert (2014). The taxonomic description and a differential diagnosis of Temnothorax
sp. n. are given.
Numeric morphology-based alpha-taxonomy; Pragmatic Species Concept; parapatric species; hybridization; intraspecific dimorphism
The genus Exaesiopus Reichardt, 1926 is revised herein. It now contains seven species; one new combination is proposed: Pachylopus
glaucus = Exaesiopus
glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914), comb. n., and one species is described as new: Exaesiopus
sp. n. from Afghanistan. Subspecies Exaesiopus
berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 is sunk in synonymy with Exaesiopus
grossipes (Marseul, 1855), syn. n. Lectotypes and paralectotypes, respectively, for Saprinus
grossipes Marseul, 1855, Exaesiopus
berberus Peyerimhoff, 1936 and a neotype for Pachylopus
glaucus Bickhardt, 1914 are designated. Exaesiopus
grossipes is re-described; other species are provided with diagnostic descriptions and supplemented by SEM micrographs, colour images, and line drawings of their male genitalia. A key to species is given. Exaesiopus
glaucus (Bickhardt, 1914) is newly recorded from the Republic of South Africa; Exaesiopus
torvus Reichardt, 1926 is new to Uzbekistan and Russia; Exaesiopus
atrovirens Reichardt, 1926 is new to Ukraine and Tajikistan; and Exaesiopus
henoni (Schmidt, 1896) is new to Libya and Djibouti.
Exaesiopus; revision; Coleoptera; Histeridae; Saprininae; Palaearctic and Afrotropical Regions
Two new species of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae), Stenochironomus
sp. n. and Stenochironomus
sp. n., are described from China and the male imagines are illustrated. Stenochironomus
sp. n. can be separated from the so far known species by having very short and small, spatulate superior volsella with two long setae, whereas Stenochironomus
sp. n. is easily separated from the other species of Stenochironomus by the following characters: wings transparent, body yellow, superior volsella finger-like, with nine long setae, elongated inferior volsella with four long setae and one well developed terminal spine; tergite IX with 10−15 long setae medially. A key to the males of Stenochironomus occurring in China is given.
Stenochironomus; new species; key; China
The new species Telamoptilia
grewiae, reared from leafmines on Grewia
biloba (Malvaceae) is described with details on adult and immature stages. The larval head and the pupa are described for the first time in Telamoptilia Kumata & Kuroko, 1988, and are illustrated with scanning electron micrographs and line drawings. Photographs of adult habitus, wing venation, male and female genitalia, as well as host plant and mines are provided. The apomorphic adult and larval characters of the new species in Telamoptilia are discussed in relation to the recognition of the genera Telamoptilia and Spulerina Vári, 1961.
Lepidoptera; Telamoptilia; new species; immature stage; leaf miner; China
Two new species of zoantharians (Hexacorallia, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae), Palythoa
sp. n. and Palythoa
sp. n., are described from the Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. Unlike almost all other known Palythoa spp., both species are azooxanthellate and inhabit low-light environments such as floors or sides of caves, crevasses, or hollows of shallow coral reefs. The two species were initially considered to be the same species from their similar habitat environments and highly similar morphological features. However, phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA, mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences revealed that these two species have a genetically distant relationship within the genus Palythoa. Morphological characteristics, including polyp size, tentacle number, external/internal coloration, and types and sizes of cnidae were examined in this study. As a result, only tentacle coloration was found to be useful for the morphological distinction between the two species. Palythoa
mizigama possesses white tentacles with black horizontal stripes while Palythoa
umbrosa possesses white tentacles without any stripe patterns. Considering their distant phylogenetic relationship, it can be assumed that their unique yet similar morphological and ecological characteristics developed independently in each species as an example of parallel evolution.
Cave-dwelling; cryptic species; ITS-rDNA; Ryukyu Archipelago; zoantharian
Blood meal analysis (BMA) from ticks allows for the identification of natural hosts of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The aim of this study is to identify the blood meal sources of field collected on-host ticks using PCR analysis. DNA of four genera of ticks was isolated and their cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene was amplified to identify host blood meals. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on data of Cyt b sequences using Neighbor Joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) analysis using MEGA 5.05 for the clustering of hosts of tick species. Twenty out of 27 samples showed maximum similarity (99%) with GenBank sequences through a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) while 7 samples only showed a similarity range of between 91–98%. The phylogenetic trees showed that the blood meal samples were derived from small rodents (Leopoldamys
tiomanicus and Sundamys
muelleri), shrews (Tupaia
glis) and mammals (Tapirus
indicus and Prionailurus
bengalensis), supported by 82–88% bootstrap values. In this study, Cyt b gene as a molecular target produced reliable results and was very significant for the effective identification of ticks’ blood meal. The assay can be used as a tool for identifying unknown blood meals of field collected on-host ticks.
Ticks; Blood meal; Vector control; hosts; Cytochrome b
The Neotropical species of Asthenopodinae are revised in a formal phylogenetic context. The five known species of Asthenopus Eaton, 1871, together with other five new species were included in a cladistic analysis using morphological characters (continuous and discretes). Representatives of the Afro-Oriental group of the subfamily (Povilla Navás, 1912 and Languidipes Hubbard, 1984) were also included to test the monophyletic hypothesis traditionally accepted for the group. Additional taxa representing the other subfamilies of Polymitarcyidae were incorparated: Ephoron Williamson, 1802 (Polymitarcyinae) and Campsurus Eaton, 1868, Tortopus Needham & Murphy, 1924 and Tortopsis Molineri, 2010 (Campsurinae). A matrix of 17 taxa and 72 characters was analyzed under parsimony resulting in a single tree supporting the monophyly of the subfamily Asthenopodinae. Other results include the monophyly of the Afro-Oriental taxa (Povilla and Languidipes), the paraphyletic nature of Neotropical Asthenopodinae, and the recognition of four South American genera: Asthenopus (including Asthenopus
curtus (Hagen), 1861, Asthenopus
angelae de Souza & Molineri, 2012, Asthenopus
sp. n., Asthenopus
sp. n., Asthenopus
sp. n.), Asthenopodes Ulmer, 1924, stat. n. (including Asthenopus
picteti Hubbard, 1975, stat. n., Asthenopodes
sp. n., Asthenopodes
sp. n.), Priasthenopus
gen. n. (including Priasthenopus
gilliesi (Domínguez), 1988, comb. n.), and Hubbardipes
gen. n. (including Hubbardipes
crenulatus (Molineri et al.), 2011, comb. n.). Descriptions, diagnoses, illustrations and keys are presented for all Neotropical taxa of Asthenopodinae (adults of both sexes, eggs and nymphs). Additionally a key to the subfamilies and genera of Polymitarcyidae is included. A quantitative biogeographic analysis of vicariance is presented and discussed through the study of the “taxon history” of the group.
Ephemeroptera; Ephemeroidea; Fossoriae; vicariance; evolution; Neotropics; Campsurinae; Campsurus; Tortopus; Tortopsis; Povilla; Languidipes