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1.  Adipokines in Breast Milk: An Update 
Epidemiological surveys indicate that nutrition in infancy is implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity and that a longer duration of breastfeeding is associated with a protective effect against metabolic disorders later in life. However, the precise cause of this association is not well understood. Recent studies on the compounds present in human breast milk have identified various adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin, nesfatin, ghrelin and apelins. Some of these compounds are involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. The presence of these adipokines in breast milk suggests that they may be responsible for the regulation of growth in early infancy and that they could influence the energy balance and development of metabolic disorders in childhood and adulthood.
PMCID: PMC4293653  PMID: 25541889
Adipokines; breast milk; infant
2.  Novel Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Mutations in Turkish Children with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency 
Objective: Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is defined as a medical condition associated with growth failure due to insufficient production of GH or lack of GH action. Mutations in the gene encoding for GH-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) have been detected in patients with IGHD type IB. However, genetic defects on GHRHR causing IGHD in the Turkish population have not yet been reported. To identify mutations on GHRHR gene in a population of Turkish children with IGHD.
Methods: Ninety-six Turkish children with IGHD were included in this study. Exon1-13 and exon/intron boundaries of GHRHR were amplified by suitable primers. The polymerase chain reaction products for GHRHR gene were sequenced with primers.
Results: We analyzed the GHRHR gene for mutations in ninety-six patients with IGHD based on sequence results. We identified novel p.K264E, p.S317T, p.S330L, p.G369V, p.T257A and C base insertion on position 380 (c.380inserC) mutations. In 5 of the patients, the mutation was homozygote and in 1-heterozygote (p.S317T).
Conclusion: Six new missense mutations and one first case of insertion mutations for the GHRHR gene are reported.
PMCID: PMC4293654  PMID: 25541890
IGHD; GHRHR gene; short stature
3.  Mitochondrial ATPase Subunit 6 and Cytochrome B Gene Variations in Obese Turkish Children 
Objective: Due to the importance of energy metabolism in mitochondria, mitochondrial genome variations are evaluated in energy-related diseases such as obesity. To date, several nuclear genes were found to be related to obesity. Our aim in this study was to investigate the presence of polymorphisms in mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (mt-ATP6) and cytochrome b (mt-CytB) genes that may be associated with childhood obesity.
Methods: The mt-ATP6 and mt-CytB genes were amplified and entirely sequenced in a series of 100 obese and in an equal number of healthy Turkish children aged between 6-14 years.
Results: A total of 118 synonymous and nonsynonymous variations were detected in the obese and control groups. Only two previously reported synonymous substitutions (mt.8614T>C and mt.8994G>A) in the mt-ATP6 gene were found to be significantly higher in the obese group compared to the control group (p<0.05). In the mt-ATP6 gene, one novel nonsynonymous substitution (mt.8726C>T) and one novel synonymous substitution (mt.9108A>T) were found. In the mt-CytB gene, one nonsynonymous substitution (mt.14880T>C) and two synonymous substitutions (mt.14891C>T and mt.15091C>T) were novel substitutions.
Conclusion: Two synonymous substitutions (mt.8614T>C and mt.8994G>A) in the mt-ATP6 gene may be associated with childhood obesity. Our study provides the first data about mitochondrial genome variations in a Turkish obese population and also the first in obese children. More cases should be screened in obese groups in order to understand the effects of mitochondrial polymorphisms in the development of obesity.
PMCID: PMC4293655  PMID: 25541891
Mitochondrial ATPase-6; mitochondrial cytochrome b; obesity; single nucleotide polymorphism
4.  Arm Anthropometry Indices in Turkish Children and Adolescents: Changes Over a Three-Year Period 
Objective: Time-related changes and comparisons for mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) are lacking for Turkish children and adolescents. To determine the arm anthropometry indices (MUAC, TSF, AFA) in children and adolescents and to also assess the changes in these indices over a 3-year time period.
Methods: The data of the Anthropometry of Turkish Children Aged 0-6 Years (ATCA-06) study and the Second Study of Determination of the Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents (DAMTCA-II) were used to calculate the arm anthropometry percentiles in a total group of 6982 children and adolescents aged 28 days to 17 years. The 3rd-97th percentiles were computed by the LMS method.
Results: In girls, 50th percentile MUAC values linearly increased with age. In boys, 50th percentile TSF values linearly increased until 10 years of age and decreased after age 11 years, while in girls, TSF values increased linearly with age. 50th percentile values for AFA showed a linear increase in both genders with age. Significant differences were found between the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values for MUAC and AFA obtained in the two studies (DAMTCA-II and DAMTCA-I) in both boys and girls.
Conclusions: The prominent finding was the significant and alarming increase in arm anthropometry indices in both genders within as short period of time as three years.
PMCID: PMC4293656  PMID: 25541892
adolescents; arm fat area; Mid-upper arm circumference; triceps skinfold thickness; Turkish children
5.  Relationship Between Body Composition Parameters and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Thai Adults 
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition parameters, i.e. waist circumference, android fat mass (AFM), gynoid fat mass (GFM), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (AG ratio) and metabolic syndrome (MS) risk components in young Thai adults.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 391 adolescents (174 male, 217 female). The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and glucose levels were determined. AFM, GFM and AG ratio were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression analysis was done to assess the relationship of waist circumference, AFM, GFM and AG ratio with MS risk components’ score, separately.
Results: Among 391 young adults aged 18.5-21.8 years, MS was found in 5.9%. Participants with MS (n=23) had a significantly higher weight, height and BMI than those without MS. There was no statistically significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. At univariable linear regression analysis, waist circumferences, AFM, GFM and AG ratio showed significant relationship with MS risk components’ score. However, after adjusting for gender, birth weight and BMI, AG ratio demonstrated greater relationship with MS risk components’ score (β 1.89, 95%CI 1.096-2.978) than waist circumference (β 0.046, 95%CI 0.033-0.058) and AFM (β 0.979, 95%CI 0.667-1.290). No significant association was observed between GFM and MS risk components’ score (β 0.077, 95%CI -0.089-0.243).
Conclusion: The results from this study indicated that AG ratio is a stronger predictor of MS than waist circumference and AFM in young Thai adults. The role of AG ratio for the diagnosis of MS needs to be further investigated.
PMCID: PMC4293657  PMID: 25541893
metabolic syndrome; android fat mass; gynoid fat mass; android to gynoid fat mass ratio; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
6.  Growth Patterns of Children of Same Geographic Background Reared in Different Environments 
Objective: Growth charts are essential tools used to assess children’s health status. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of environmental factors on the growth of children of a common geographic background. We constructed growth charts for children living in the East of Turkey and compared them with those for Turkish children living in other regions or countries.
Methods: Growth data were obtained from 6 917 school children living in Eastern Turkey. The median values on smoothed percentile curves for the study subjects were compared with those for Turkish children living in the West of Turkey, in Western Europe and in Germany.
Results: Children living in Turkey were lighter than their European peers at early ages. Weight curves of children living in the West of Turkey reached those of their European peers, after 11 years of age in boys and after 12 years of age in girls. At all ages, girls and boys in our region had the lowest weight values. Between 7 and 11 years of age, the median height in boys and girls were similar in the West of Turkey and in Europe. At older ages, median height was higher in Turkey. Girls and boys living in Eastern Turkey were the shortest children until 16 years of age; after that age, their height was similar to their peers.
Conclusions: Weight may interact with environmental factors, but genetic potential appears to be the most important factor determining height at 17 years of age. Growth patterns of children should be evaluated using specific reference values for specific regions.
PMCID: PMC4293658  PMID: 25541894
growth; children; weight; height; percentile
7.  The Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment on Hypothyroid Symptom Scores and Lipid Profile in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism 
Objective: To evaluate i) the frequency of typical hypothyroidism symptoms in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), ii) to evaluate the association of SH with lipoproteins and iii) to investigate possible improving effects of L-thyroxine (LT4) treatment on these findings.
Methods: Twenty-seven children with SH who had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH: >4.94 µIU/L) but normal free T4 levels and healthy euthyroid children of similar age and sex were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric and laboratory (lipid profile and thyroid function tests) measurements were performed at diagnosis and six months after euthyroidism was achieved. All children were also subjected to a questionnaire on hypothyroid symptoms at diagnosis. The SH patients were subjected to the questionnaire also following treatment. Pre-treatment data were compared with those of controls and post-treatment measurements.
Results: Anthropometric and laboratory parameters of the groups were not statistically different except for higher TSH levels in the SH group. Serum lipoprotein levels and dyslipidemia frequency were similar between the groups. Compared to the controls, hypothyroidism symptom score was significantly higher in the SH group. Six months after euthyroidism was achieved, a significant reduction in the hypothyroid symptom score was obtained in the SH group. Except for significantly higher serum TSH values, no significant differences regarding demographic characteristics, symptom scores and lipid parameters were present between patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and the remaining SH patients.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that in children with SH i) the hypothyroidism symptom score was significantly higher than in euthyroid children, ii) LT4 treatment improved the hypothyroidism symptom score and iii) SH does not seem to be associated with dyslipidemia.
PMCID: PMC4293659  PMID: 25541895
Subclinical hypothyroidism; children; dyslipidemia; LT4; hypothyroid symptom score
8.  The Effects of Passive Smoking on the Six-Minute Walk Test in Obese Pediatric Cases 
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to second-hand smoke affected the six-minute walk test (6MWT) of obese non-asthmatic pediatric cases.
Methods: Obese pediatric patients (body mass index >95th p) with no existing co-morbidities were included in the study. Smoke exposure was assessed with a self-reported questionnaire completed by the parents. The subjects were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisting of obese children exposed to passive smoking and Group 2 of obese children not exposed to passive smoking. In addition to 6MWT, spirometric flow and volume, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate, were also measured in all subjects. The results of the 6MWT were assessed to determine any association with passive smoking.
Results: The study included 75 obese pediatric cases (40 male, 35 female) with a mean age of 9.06±0.97 years. The 6MWT results in Group 1 was 501.88±62.12 meters and in Group 2 559.63±72.93 meters. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.001).
Conclusions: Passive smoking may negatively affect the respiratory and cardiovascular capacity in obese children, who are already at risk of lower cardiopulmonary function. The evaluation of 6MWT in these pediatric patients may be useful for monitoring and families should be warned about potential problems due to smoking.
PMCID: PMC4293660  PMID: 25541896
children; obesity; passive smoking; walking test
9.  Prepubertal Unilateral Gynecomastia: Report of 2 Cases 
Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia is an extremely rare condition. At present, its etiology and management strategy are not well known. Two unrelated prepubertal boys of ages 8 and 9 who presented with complaints of unilateral enlargement of breast tissue are reported. Physical examination, biochemical, hormonal and oncologic work-up findings were normal. Both patients were treated with peripheral liposuction successfully. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed benign fibroglandular gynecomastia and intensive (3+) estrogen receptor expression in 100% of periductal epithelial cells. Although an extremely rare and generally benign condition, patients with prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia should have a full endocrine and oncologic work-up.
PMCID: PMC4293661  PMID: 25541897
gynecomastia; pubertal; prepubertal; unilateral
10.  ROHHAD Syndrome: Reasons for Diagnostic Difficulties in Obesity 
A very rare syndrome of rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) has been recently described as causing morbidity due to hypothalamic dysfunction and respiratory arrest. Its prognosis is poor and often cardiac arrest occurs due to alveolar hypoventilation. This disorder can mimic genetic obesity syndromes and several endocrine disorders. We present a 13-year-old female patient who was reported to be healthy until the age of 3 years. She was admitted to our emergency department, presenting with respiratory distress. Features matching ROHHAD syndrome such as rapid-onset obesity, alveolar hypoventilation, central hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia, Raynaud phenomenon and hypothalamic hypernatremia were detected in the patient. In addition to these features, the patient was found to have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and megaloblastic anemia. Because of its high mortality and morbidity, the possibility of ROHHAD syndrome needs to be considered in all pediatric cases of early- and rapid-onset obesity associated with hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC4293662  PMID: 25541898
ROHHAD syndrome; obesity; hypothalamic dysfunction
11.  Importance of Insulin Immunoassays in the Diagnosis of Factitious Hypoglycemia 
We report two cases emphasizing the importance of insulin assays for evaluation of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients. Case 1 was a 96/12-year-old female patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus and case 2 was a 1010/12-year-old male patient with DIDMOAD. Both patients were on a basal-bolus insulin regimen. Both were admitted because of persistent hypoglycemia. Analyses of serum samples obtained at the time of hypoglycemia initially showed low insulin and C-peptide levels. Recurrent episodes of unexplained hypoglycemia necessitated measurement of insulin levels by using different insulin assays, which revealed hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with low C-peptide levels, findings which confirmed a diagnosis of factitious hypoglycemia. Surreptitious administration of insulin should not be excluded in diabetic patients with hypoglycemia without taking into account the rate of cross-reactivity of insulin analogues with the insulin assay used.
PMCID: PMC4293663  PMID: 25541899
type 1 diabetes mellitus; DIDMOAD; factitious hypoglycemia; recurrent hypoglycemia; insulin assay
12.  Atypical Presentation of Hashimoto’s Disease in an Adolescent: Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy 
Hashitoxicosis is generally differentiated from Graves’ hyperthyroidism by its shorter course and absence of ophthalmopathy. In this case report, we describe an adolescent girl who presented with significant clinical findings of hyperthyroidism, a diffuse goiter with homogenously increased uptake in scintigraphy, and with ocular findings of ophthalmopathy. The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody test was positive, and the family history revealed thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Clinical findings supported the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s disease (HD) in the follow-up period. Radioactive iodine uptake investigation was found to be a reliable method for differential diagnosis. Attention was drawn to the rarity of pediatric cases of HD who present with ophthalmopathy.
PMCID: PMC4293664  PMID: 25541900
Hashimoto’s disease; Graves’ disease; ophthalmopathy; children
13.  Is Hyperpigmentation on the First Day of Life Always Associated with IMAGe Syndrome? 
IMAGe syndrome is an exceedingly rare condition first described in 1999. Components of the syndrome are intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), metaphyseal dysplasia, congenital adrenal hypoplasia and genital anomalies. Cases generally present with life-threatening adrenal insufficiency in the neonatal period. Herein, we describe a patient with pronounced IUGR diagnosed with severe hyperpigmentation and adrenal insufficiency in the neonatal term in order to attract the attention to this rare entity.
PMCID: PMC4293665  PMID: 25541901
Intrauterine growth retardation; adrenal insufficiency; hypogonadism
14.  Lack of Association Between Peripheral Activity of Thyroid Hormones and Elevated TSH Levels in Childhood Obesity 
Ob­jec­ti­ve: An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is a frequent finding in obese children, but its association with peripheral hormone metabolism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that in obesity, the changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in peripheral tissues might lead to dysregulation in the thyroid axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TSH with thyroid hormones in a group of obese children as compared to normal-weight controls.
Methods: Serum TSH, free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were measured in 101 obese children and in 40 controls. Serum reverse T3 (rT3) levels were also measured in a subgroup of 51 obese children and in 15 controls.
Results: Serum TSH level was significantly higher in obese children compared to controls (2.78 vs. 1.99 mIU/L, p<0.001), while no difference was found in fT4, fT3, rT3 levels and in fT3/rT3 ratio. In the obese group, fT3 level positively correlated with fT4 (r=0.217, p=0.033) and inversely with rT3 (r=-0.288, p=0.045). However, thyroid hormone levels and TSH levels were not correlated.
Conclusion: In obese children, normal fT4, fT3 and rT3 levels suggest an undisturbed peripheral hormone metabolism. These levels show no correlation with elevated TSH levels.
PMCID: PMC4141570  PMID: 24932603
thyroid hormones; TSH; peripheral activity; children; obesity
15.  Epidemiology of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Markazi Province, Iran 
Ob­jec­ti­ve: The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) among newborns in Markazi Province, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2006 to 2012. Blood samples were taken between 3 to 5 days after birth from the heel. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was tested using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and was employed as the screening test. Newborns with abnormal screening results (TSH >5 mIU/L) were re-examined. The data were analyzed using SPSS.
Results: A total of 127 112 infants were screened. Of these, 51.2% were male and 48.8% were female. The coverage rate of the screening program was 100%. Of 6102 recalled subjects (re-call rate 4.8%), 414 cases with CH were detected, yielding a CH prevalence of 1:307 (female:male ratio 1:0.95). The prevalence of permanent and transient CH was 1:581 and 1:628, respectively.
Conclusion: This study reveals that the prevalence of CH is higher compared to worldwide levels. Comprehensive and complementary studies for recognizing related risk factors should be a priority for health system research in this province.
PMCID: PMC4141571  PMID: 24932604
congenital hypothyroidism; Epidemiology; Neonatal screening; Iran
16.  Metabolic Bone Disease of Prematurity: Report of Four Cases 
Osteopenia of prematurity has become a common problem recently because of improved survival rates of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW). The incidence of neonatal osteopenia is inversely correlated with gestational age and birth weight. Herein, we present four cases of preterm osteopenia that were referred to the pediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic with diverse clinical and laboratory findings and we discuss the clinical course of these infants with regard to bone disease after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This report highlights the importance of enteral calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D support at adequate doses following discharge from NICU for preterm infants with VLBW who are at risk of metabolic bone disease.
PMCID: PMC4141572  PMID: 24932605
Metabolic Bone Disease; prematurity; phosphorus; Alkaline phosphatase; Vitamin D
17.  Acceleration of Puberty During Growth Hormone Therapy in a Child with Septo-Optic Dysplasia 
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a heterogeneous disorder of the central nervous system characterized by various endocrinological and neurological findings. It is a complex disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Herein, we report the case of a 5.5-year-old girl who presented with short stature and strabismus. Ophthalmological examination revealed bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. Ectopic posterior pituitary and bilateral optic hypoplasia were detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging. The presence of bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia and hypopituitarism led to the diagnosis of SOD. An abated growth hormone (GH) response was found in the GH stimulation test and GH replacement therapy was initiated. At the end of the first year of clinical follow-up, secondary hypothyroidism was detected and L-thyroxine was added to the treatment. At the age of 8.25 years, thelarche was noted and 6 months later, the patient presented with menarche. At this time, the bone age was 12 years and the basal luteinizing hormone level was 7 mIU/mL. These findings indicated acceleration in the process of pubertal development. We report this case (i) to emphasize the need to investigate hypopituitarism in cases with bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia and (ii) to draw attention to the fact that during the follow-up of SOD cases receiving GH therapy, inappropriate acceleration of growth velocity and rapid improvement in bone age may be predictive of central precocious puberty development.
PMCID: PMC4141573  PMID: 24932606
Septo-optic dysplasia; hypopituitarism; growth hormone; Precocious puberty
18.  A Combination of Nifedipine and OctreotideTreatment in an HyperinsulinemicHypoglycemic Infant 
Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH) is the commonest cause of persistent hypoglycemia in the neonatal and infancy periods. Mutations in the ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes, which encode subunits of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the pancreatic beta cell, are identified in approximately 50% of these patients. The first-line drug in the treatment of HH is diazoxide. Octreotide and glucagon can be used in patients who show no response to diazoxide. Nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker, has been shown to be an effective treatment in a small number of patients with diazoxide-unresponsive HH. We report a HH patient with a homozygous ABCC8 mutation (p.W1339X) who underwent a near-total pancreatectomy at 2 months of age due to a lack of response to diazoxide and octreotide treatment. Severe hypoglycemic attacks continued following surgery, while the patient was being treated with octreotide. These attacks resolved when nifedipine was introduced. Whilst our patient responded well to nifedipine, the dosage could not be increased to 0.75 mg/kg/day due to development of hypotension, a reported side effect of this drug. Currently, our patient, now aged 4 years, is receiving a combination of nifedipine and octreotide treatment. He is under good control and shows no side effects. In conclusion, nifedipine treatment can be started in patients with HH who show a poor response to diazoxide and octreotide treatment.
PMCID: PMC4141574  PMID: 24932607
Nifedipine; diazoxide; hypotension; hypoglycemia; Hyperinsulinism
19.  Ring Chromosome 13 and Ambiguous Genitalia 
Ambiguous genitalia, known to be associated with sex chromosome disorders, may also be seen with autosomal chromosome anomalies. Herein, we report a case with ambiguous genitalia and ring chromosome 13. Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic anomaly in which the loss of genetic material determines the clinical spectrum.
PMCID: PMC4141575  PMID: 24932608
Chromosome 13; sexual disorder; microcephaly
21.  Prader-Willi Syndrome and Growth Hormone Deficiency 
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare multisystem genetic disorder demonstrating great variability with changing clinical features during patient’s life. It is characterized by severe hypotonia with poor sucking and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity in later infancy or early childhood. The phenotype is most probably due to hypothalamic dysfunction which is also responsible for growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies, central adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism. The multidimensional problems of patients with PWS can be managed with multidisciplinary approach. Reduced GH secretion, low peak GH response to stimulation, decreased spontaneous GH secretion and low serum IGF-1 levels in PWS patients have been documented in many studies. GH therapy has multiple beneficial effects on growth and body composition, motor and mental development in PWS patients. The recommended dosage for GH is 0.5-1 mg/m2/day. GH therapy should not be started in the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, severe obesity and diabetes mellitus. GH treatment should be considered for patients with genetically confirmed PWS in conjunction with dietary, environmental and life-style measures.
PMCID: PMC4141577  PMID: 24932597
Prader-Willi syndrome; Growth hormone deficiency; growth hormone treatment
22.  Need for Comprehensive Hormonal Workup in the Management of Adrenocortical Tumors in Children 
Ob­jec­ti­ve: Clinical findings do not reflect the excess hormonal status in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) in children. Identification of abnormal hormone secretion may help provide the tumor marker and delineate those patients with a risk of adrenal suppression following tumor removal. To analyze the impact of complete hormonal assessment regardless of the clinical presentation in hormone-secreting ACTs in childhood.
Methods: Association of hormonal workup at diagnosis with the clinical findings and frequency of adrenal suppression postoperatively were analyzed in 18 children with ACT.
Results: Seventeen of the 18 patients had functional ACT. Clinical findings suggested isolated virilization and isolated Cushing’s syndrome in 38.8% and 17.6% of patients, respectively. Hormonal workup revealed a frequency of 83.3% for hyperandrogenism. The majority of the tumors (50%) had mixed type hormonal secretion. Hypercortisolism existed in 28.5% of children with isolated virilization and hyperandrogenism was found in 2/3 of children with isolated Cushing’s syndrome. Various androgens other than dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were also determined to be high in hyperandrogenism. Increased testosterone was a highly prevalent tumor marker. Nine patients (3 with no signs of hypercortisolism) had adrenal suppression following tumor removal which lasted 1-24 months.
Conclusion: Complete hormonal workup showed the predominance of mixed hormone-secreting type of tumor in the patients who lacked the appropriate clinical findings and also showed that patients lacking signs of Cushing’s syndrome could have postoperative adrenal suppression. Clinical findings may not reflect the abnormal hormone secretion in all cases and tumor markers as well as risk of postoperative adrenal suppression can best be determined by complete hormonal evaluation at the time of diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4141578  PMID: 24932598
Adrenocortical tumors; adrenal insufficiency; virilization; Cushing’s syndrome; children
23.  Effects of Carbohydrate Counting Method on Metabolic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 
Ob­jec­ti­ve: Medical nutritional therapy is important for glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Carbohydrate (carb) counting, which is a more flexible nutritional method, has become popular in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carb counting on metabolic control, body measurements and serum lipid levels in children and adolescents with T1DM.
Methods: T1DM patients aged 7-18 years and receiving flexible insulin therapy were divided into carb counting (n=52) and control (n=32) groups and were followed for 2 years in this randomized, controlled study. Demographic characteristics, body measurements, insulin requirements, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum lipid levels at baseline and at follow-up were evaluated.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in mean HbA1c values in the year preceding the study or in age, gender, duration of diabetes, puberty stage, total daily insulin dose, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) and serum lipid values. While there were no differences in BMI SDS, daily insulin requirement, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride values between the two groups (p>0.05) during the follow-up, annual mean HbA1c levels of the 2nd year were significantly lower in the carb counting group (p=0.010). The mean values of high-density lipoprotein were also significantly higher in the first and 2nd years in the carb counting group (p=0.02 and p=0.043, respectively).
Conclusion: Carb counting may provide good metabolic control in children and adolescents with T1DM without causing any increase in weight or in insulin requirements.
PMCID: PMC4141579  PMID: 24932599
type 1 diabetes; blood glucose; dietary carbohydrates; medical nutrition therapy; child; adolescents
24.  Identification of Novel ROR2 Gene Mutations in Indian Children with Robinow Syndrome 
Ob­jec­ti­ve: Robinow syndrome (RS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by short-limbed dwarfism, defects in vertebral segmentation and abnormalities in the head, face and external genitalia. Mutations in the ROR2 gene cause autosomal recessive RS (RRS) whereas mutations in WNT5A are responsible for the autosomal dominant (AD) form of RS. In AD Robinow patients, oral manifestations are more prominent, while hemivertebrae and scoliosis rarely occur and facial abnormalities tend to be milder.
Methods: Three unrelated patients from different parts of India were studied. These patients were diagnosed as RRS due to presence of characteristic fetal facies, mesomelia, short stature, micropenis, hemivertebrae and rib abnormalities. One of the patients had fetal facies and micropenis but unusually mild skeletal features. This patient’s mother had mild affection in the form of short stature and prominent eyes. Testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin was investigated in two patients and were normal. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the ROR2 gene were sequenced for all probands. Bioinformatics analysis was done for putative variants using SIFT, PolyPhen2 and Mutation Taster.
Results: Patients 1, 2 and 3 were homozygous for c.G545A or p.C182Y in exon 5, c.227G>A or p.G76D in exon 3 and c.668G>A or p.C223Y in exon 6 respectively. Prenatal diagnosis could be performed in an ongoing pregnancy in one family and the fetus was confirmed to be unaffected.
Conclusion: ROR2 mutations were documented for the first time in the Indian population. Knowledge of the molecular basis of the disorder served to provide accurate counseling and prenatal diagnosis to the families.
PMCID: PMC4141580  PMID: 24932600
Short limbed dwarfism; mesomelia; facial dysmorphism; ambiguous genitalia; mutation; ROR2 gene related disorders; WNT5A gene
25.  The Impact of Psycho-Educational Trainingon the Psychosocial Adjustment of Caregivers ofOsteogenesis Imperfecta Patients 
Ob­jec­ti­ve: To investigate the impact of a psycho-educational program developed for the caregivers of patients diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).
Methods: The participants consisted of 16 caregivers. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test type study consisting of 10 semi-structured three-hour training sessions. The data were collected using the “Introductory Information Form” and appropriate scales (Burden Interview, Coping Strategies Scale, Problem-Solving Inventory and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale). The results were evaluated by descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, one-way variance analysis and Bonferroni analysis.
Results: Psychosocial adjustment levels of the caregivers of OI patients before their participation in the educational program were found to be associated with styles of coping with stress, problem-solving skills and care burden. After the psycho-educational training, the majority of the participants reported favorable changes in their lives. Following the offered psycho-education resulted in positive changes in the mean scores of the caregivers (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Before the education program, the participants were not able to deal efficiently with many aspects of their caregiver responsibilities and suffered from an emotional burden due to lack of knowledge. The program appears to have provided them both with support to achieve significant psychosocial transformation and with an opportunity to reconsider their lives in multiple dimensions.
PMCID: PMC4141581  PMID: 24932601
Osteogenesis imperfecta; chronic illness; adjustment; psycho-education; educational interventions

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