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1.  DNA vaccines for cervical cancer: from bench to bedside 
Experimental & molecular medicine  2007;39(6):679-689.
More than 99% of cervical cancers have been associated with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), particularly HPV type 16. The clear association between HPV infection and cervical cancer indicates that HPV serves as an ideal target for development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Although the recently licensed preventive HPV vaccine, Gardasil, has been shown to be safe and capable of generating significant protection against specific HPV types, it does not have therapeutic effect against established HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. Two HPV oncogenic proteins, E6 and E7, are consistently co-expressed in HPV-expressing cervical cancers and are important in the induction and maintenance of cellular transformation. Therefore, immunotherapy targeting E6 and/or E7 proteins may provide an opportunity to prevent and treat HPV-associated cervical malignancies. It has been established that T cell-mediated immunity is one of the most crucial components to defend against HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. Therefore, effective therapeutic HPV vaccines should generate strong E6/E7-specific T cell-mediated immune responses. DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive approach for antigen-specific T cell-mediated immunotherapy to combat cancers. Intradermal administration of DNA vaccines via a gene gun represents an efficient way to deliver DNA vaccines into professional antigen-presenting cells in vivo. Professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, are the most effective cells for priming antigen-specific T cells. Using the gene gun delivery system, we tested several DNA vaccines that employ intracellular targeting strategies for enhancing MHC class I and class II presentation of encoded model antigen HPV-16 E7. Furthermore, we have developed a strategy to prolong the life of DCs to enhance DNA vaccine potency. More recently, we have developed a strategy to generate antigen-specific CD4+ T cell immune responses to further enhance DNA vaccine potency. The impressive preclinical data generated from our studies have led to several HPV DNA vaccine clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC3181139  PMID: 18160838
antigen presenting cells; dendritic cells; human papillomavirus type 16; oncogene protein E7; papillomavirus vaccines; vaccination; vaccines; DNA
2.  Neuronal activation increases the density of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E mRNA clusters in dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(8):601-610.
Activity-dependent dendritic translation in CNS neurons is important for the synapse-specific provision of proteins that may be necessary for strengthening of synaptic connections. A major rate-limiting factor during protein synthesis is the availability of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), an mRNA 5'-cap-binding protein. In this study we show by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that the mRNA for eIF4E is present in the dendrites of cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Under basal culture conditions, 58.7 ± 11.6% of the eIF4E mRNA clusters localize with or immediately adjacent to PSD-95 clusters. Neuronal activation with KCl (60 mM, 10 min) very significantly increases the number of eIF4E mRNA clusters in dendrites by 50.1 and 74.5% at 2 and 6 h after treatment, respectively. In addition, the proportion of eIF4E mRNA clusters that localize with PSD-95 increases to 74.4 ± 7.7% and 77.8 ± 7.6% of the eIF4E clusters at 2 and 6 h after KCl treatment, respectively. Our results demonstrate the presence of eIF4E mRNA in dendrites and an activity-dependent increase of these clusters at synaptic sites. This provides a potential mechanism by which protein translation at synapses may be enhanced in response to synaptic stimulation.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.8.066
PMCID: PMC2739900  PMID: 19381064
dendrites; eukaryotic initiation factor-4E; immunohistochemistry; in situ hybridization, fluorescence; potassium chloride; protein biosynthesis; synapses
3.  Stimulatory heterotrimeric G protein augments gamma ray-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bak expression via CREB and AP-1 in H1299 human lung cancer cells 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(8):592-600.
Stimulatory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gs protein) stimulate cAMP generation in response to various signals, and modulate various cellular phenomena such as proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Gs proteins on gamma ray-induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells and its molecular mechanism, as an attempt to develop a new strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of gamma radiation. Expression of constitutively active mutant of the α subunit of Gs (GαsQL) augmented gamma ray-induced apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway when assessed by clonogenic assay, FACS analysis of PI stained cells, and western blot analysis of the cytoplasmic translocation of cytochrome C and the cleavage of caspase-3 and ploy(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in H1299 human lung cancer cells. GαsQL up-regulated the Bak expression at the levels of protein and mRNA. Treatment with inhibitors of PKA (H89), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and a CRE-decoy blocked GαsQL-stimulated Bak reporter luciferase activity. Expression of GαsQL increased basal and gamma ray-induced luciferase activity of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and AP-1, and the binding of CREB and AP-1 to Bak promoter. Furthermore, prostaglandin E2, a Gαs activating signal, was found to augment gamma ray-induced apoptosis, which was abolished by treatment with a prostanoid receptor antagonist. These results indicate that Gαs augments gamma ray-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bak expression via CREB and AP-1 in H1299 lung cancer cells, suggesting that the efficacy of radiotherapy of lung cancer may be improved by modulating Gs signaling pathway.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.8.065
PMCID: PMC2739899  PMID: 19381065
apoptosis; bcl-2 homologous antagonist-killer protein; cyclic AMP; gamma rays; heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein; receptors, G-protein-coupled
4.  Lysophosphatidylglycerol inhibits formyl peptide receptor like-1-stimulated chemotactic migration and IL-1β production from human phagocytes 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(8):584-591.
In this study, we observed that lysophosphatidylglycerol (LPG) completely inhibited a formyl peptide receptor like-1 (FPRL1) agonist (MMK-1)-stimulated chemotactic migration in human phagocytes, such as neutrophils and monocytes. LPG also dramatically inhibited IL-1β production by another FPRL1 agonist serum amyloid A (SAA) in human phagocytes. However, LPG itself induced intracellular calcium increase and superoxide anion production in human phagocytes. Keeping in mind that phagocytes migration and IL-1β production by FPRL1 are important for the induction of inflammatory response, our data suggest that LPG can be regarded as a useful material for the modulation of inflammatory response induced by FPRL1 activation.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.8.064
PMCID: PMC2739898  PMID: 19381066
cell migration inhibition; chemotaxis, leukocyte; interleukin-1β; lysophosphatidylglycerol; phagocytes; receptors, formyl peptide
5.  Adiponectin and thiazolidinedione targets CRTC2 to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(8):577-583.
During fasting periods, hepatic glucose production is enhanced by glucagon to provide fuels for other organs. This process is mediated via cAMP-dependent induction of the CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC) 2, a critical transcriptional activator for hepatic gluconeogenesis. We have previously shown that CRTC2 activity is regulated by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members. Here we show that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione directly regulate AMPK to modulate CRTC2 activity in hepatocytes. Adiponectin or thiazolidinedione lowered glucose production from primary hepatocytes. Treatment of both reagents reduced gluconeogenic gene expression as well as cAMP-mediated induction of CRE reporter, suggesting that these reagents directly affect CREB/CRTC2- dependent transcription. Furthermore, adiponectin or thiazolidinedione mediated repression of CRE activity is largely blunted by co-expression of phosphorylation defective mutant CRTC2, underscoring the importance of serine 171 residue of this factor. Taken together, we propose that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione promote the modulation of AMPK-dependent CRTC2 activity to influence hepatic gluconeogenesis.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.8.063
PMCID: PMC2739897  PMID: 19381067
adiponectin; AMP-activated protein kinases; CRTC2 protein, human; gluconeogenesis; liver; thiazolidinediones
6.  Angiotensin II-induced aortic ring constriction is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/L-type calcium channel signaling pathway 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(8):569-576.
Angiotensin II (AngII) is a crucial hormone that affects vasoconstriction and exerts hypertrophic effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. Here, we showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent calcium mobilization plays pivotal roles in AngII-induced vascular constriction. Stimulation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell (RASMC)-embedded collagen gel with AngII rapidly induced contraction. AngII-induced collagen gel contraction was blocked by pretreatment with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) whereas ERK inhibitor (PD98059) was not effective. AngII-induced collagen gel contraction was significantly blocked by extracellular calcium depletion by EGTA or by nifedipine which is an L-type calcium channel blocker. In addition, AngII-induced calcium mobilization was also blocked by nifedipine and EGTA, whereas intracellular calcium store-depletion by thapsigargin was not effective. Finally, pretreatment of rat aortic ring with LY294002 and nifedipine significantly reduced AngII-induced constriction. Given these results, we suggest that PI3K-dependent activation of L-type calcium channels might be involved in AngII-induced vascular constriction.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.8.062
PMCID: PMC2739896  PMID: 19381068
calcium; calcium channels, L-type; muscle contraction; muscle, smooth; 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
7.  Ubiquitylation of Fe65 adaptor protein by neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated 4-2 (Nedd4-2) via the WW domain interaction with Fe65 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(8):555-568.
Fe65 has been characterized as an adaptor protein, originally identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) corresponding to an mRNA expressed at high levels in the rat brain. It contains one WW domain and two phosphotyrosine interaction/phosphotyrosine binding domains (PID1/PID2). As the neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated 4-2 (Nedd4-2) has a putative WW domain binding motif (72PPLP75) in the N-terminal domain, we hypothesized that Fe65 associates with Nedd4-2 through a WW domain interaction, which has the characteristics of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. In this paper, we present evidence for the interaction between Fe65 WW domain and Nedd4-2 through its specific motif, using a pull down approach and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, the co-localization of Fe65 and Nedd4-2 were observed via confocal microscopy. Co-localization of Fe65 and Nedd4-2 was disrupted by either the mutation of Fe65 WW domain or its putative binding motif of Nedd4-2. When the ubiquitin assay was performed, the interaction of Nedd4-2 (wt) with Fe65 is required for the cell apoptosis and the ubiquitylation of Fe65. We also observed that the ubiquitylation of Fe65 (wt) was augmented depending on Nedd4-2 expression levels, whereas the Fe65 WW domain mutant (W243KP245K) or the Nedd4-2 AL mutant (72PPLP75 was changed to 72APLA75) was under-ubiquitinated significantly. Thus, our observations implicated that the protein-protein interaction between the WW domain of Fe65 and the putative binding motif of Nedd4-2 down-regulates Fe65 protein stability and subcellular localization through its ubiquitylation, to contribute cell apoptosis.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.8.061
PMCID: PMC2739895  PMID: 19381069
APBB2 protein, human; Nedd4 ubiquitin protein ligases; protein interaction domains and motifs; protein interaction mapping; ubiquitin
8.  Cordycepin inhibits UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression by suppressing the NF-κB pathway in human dermal fibroblasts 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(8):548-554.
Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) has been shown to exhibit many pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infection activities. However, the anti-skin photoaging effects of cordycepin have not yet been reported. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -3 expressions of the human dermal fibroblast cells. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR revealed cordycepin inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and -3 expressions in a dose-dependent manner. UVB strongly activated NF-κB activity, which was determined by IκBα degradation, nuclear localization of p50 and p65 subunit, and NF-κB binding activity. However, UVB-induced NF-κB activation and MMP expression were completely blocked by cordycepin pretreatment. These findings suggest that cordycepin could prevent UVB-induced MMPs expressions through inhibition of NF-κB activation. In conclusion, cordycepin might be used as a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photoaging.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.8.060
PMCID: PMC2739894  PMID: 19381070
cordycepin; matrix metalloproteinases; NF-κB; skin aging; ultraviolet rays
9.  Protective effect of total aralosides of Aralia elata (Miq) Seem (TASAES) against diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats during the early stage, and possible mechanisms 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(8):538-547.
Total aralosides of Aralia elata (Miq) Seem (TASAES) from Chinese traditional herb Longya Aralia chinensis L was found to improve cardiac function. The present study was to determine the protective effects of TASAES on diabetic cardiomyopathy, and the possible mechanisms. Therefore, a single dose of streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in Wister rats. Diabetic rats were immediately treated with low, medium and high doses of TASAES at 4.9, 9.8 mg/kg and 19.6 mg/kg body weight by gavage, respectively, for eight weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by in situ hemodynamic measurements, and patch clamp for the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa2+-L) and transient outward K+ channel current (Ito). Histopathological changes were observed under light and electron microscope. The expression of pro-fibrotic factor, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was monitored using immunohistochemistry staining. Compared with diabetic group, medium and high doses, but not low dose, of TASAES showed a significant protection against diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, shown by increased absolute value of left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and maximum rates of pressure development (±dp/dtmax), and enhanced amplitude of ICa2+-L (P < 0.05). Histological staining indicated a significant inhibition of diabetes-caused pathological changes and up-regulation of CTGF expression (P < 0.05). The results suggest that TASAES prevents diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and pathological damage through up-regulating ICa2+-L in cardiac cells and decreasing CTGF expression.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.8.059
PMCID: PMC2739893  PMID: 19381071
araloside; calcium channels, L-type; cardiomyopathies; connective tissue growth factor; diabetes mellitus; heart; hemodynamics; myocardium
10.  Nuclear receptor regulation of stemness and stem cell differentiation 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(8):525-537.
Stem cells include a diverse number of toti-, pluri-, and multi-potent cells that play important roles in cellular genesis and differentiation, tissue development, and organogenesis. Genetic regulation involving various transcription factors results in the self-renewal and differentiation properties of stem cells. The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily is composed of 48 ligand-activated transcription factors involved in diverse physiological functions such as metabolism, development, and reproduction. Increasing evidence shows that certain NRs function in regulating stemness or differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and tissue-specific adult stem cells. Here, we review the role of the NR superfamily in various aspects of stem cell biology, including their regulation of stemness, forward- and trans-differentiation events; reprogramming of terminally differentiated cells; and interspecies differences. These studies provide insights into the therapeutic potential of the NR superfamily in stem cell therapy and in treating stem cell-associated diseases (e.g., cancer stem cell).
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.8.091
PMCID: PMC2739892  PMID: 19696553
cell transdifferentiation; embryonic stem cells; pluripotent stem cells; receptors, cytoplasmic and nuclear; stem cells
11.  Lotus (Nelumbo nuficera) flower essential oil increased melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(7):517-524.
In this study, the essential oil from lotus flower extract, including petals and stamens, was assessed with regard to its effects on melanogenesis in human melanocytes. The lotus flower essential oil was shown to stimulate melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The lotus flower essential oil induced the expression of tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor M (MITF-M), and tyrosinase-related proten-2 (TRP-2) proteins, but not tyrosinase mRNA. Moreover, it increased the phosphorylation of ERK and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). In order to verify the effective components of the lotus flower oil, its lipid composition was assessed. It was found to be comprised of palmitic acid methyl ester (22.66%), linoleic acid methyl ester (11.16%), palmitoleic acid methyl ester (7.55%) and linolenic acid methyl ester (5.16%). Among these components, palmitic acid methyl ester clearly induced melanogenesis as the result of increased tyrosinase expression, thereby indicating that it may play a role in the regulation of melanin content. Thus, our results indicate that lotus flower oil may prove useful in the development of gray hair prevention agents or tanning reagents.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.7.057
PMCID: PMC2721149  PMID: 19322028
lotus; melanins; monophenol monooxygenase; oils, volatile; palmitic acid; skin pigmentation
12.  Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate attenuates angiotensin II-induced collagen type I expression in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(7):508-516.
Cardiac fibrosis occurs after pathological stimuli to the cardiovascular system. One of the most important factors that contribute to cardiac fibrosis is angiotensin II (Ang II). Accumulating studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in cardiac fibrosis and sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) possesses antioxidant action. We therefore examined whether STS depresses Ang II-induced collagen type I expression in cardiac fibroblasts. In this study, Ang II significantly enhanced collagen type I expression and collagen synthesis. Meanwhile, Ang II depressed matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression and activity. These responses were attenuated by STS. Furthermore, STS depressed the intracellular generation of ROS, NADPH oxidase activity and subunit p47phox expression. In addition, N-acetylcysteine the ROS scavenger, depressed effects of Ang II in a manner similar to STS. In conclusion, the current studies demonstrate that anti-fibrotic effects of STS are mediated by interfering with the modulation of ROS.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.7.056
PMCID: PMC2721148  PMID: 19322029
angiotensin II; collagen; fibrosis; heart; reactive oxygen species; tanshinone
13.  Annexin A6 is highly abundant in monocytes of obese and type 2 diabetic individuals and is downregulated by adiponectin in vitro 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(7):501-507.
Adiponectin stimulates cholesterol efflux in macrophages and low adiponectin may in part contribute to disturbed reverse cholesterol transport in type 2 diabetes. Monocytes express high levels of annexin A6 that could inhibit cholesterol efflux and it was investigated whether the atheroprotective effects of adiponectin are accompanied by changes in annexin A6 levels. Adiponectin reduces annexin A6 protein whereas mRNA levels are not affected. Adiponectin-mediated activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) does not account for reduced annexin A6 expression. Further, fatty acids and lipopolysaccharide that are elevated in obesity do not influence annexin A6 protein levels. Annexin A6 in monocytes from overweight probands or type 2 diabetic patients is significantly elevated compared to monocytes of normal-weight controls. Monocytic annexin A6 positively correlates with body mass index and negatively with systemic adiponectin of the blood donors. Therefore, the current study demonstrates that adiponectin reduces annexin A6 in monocytes and thereby may enhance cholesterol efflux. In agreement with these in vitro finding an increase of monocytic annexin A6 in type 2 diabetes monocytes was observed.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.7.055
PMCID: PMC2721147  PMID: 19322030
adiponectin; annexin A6; diabetes mellitus, Type 2; monocytes; obesity
14.  Growth factor-expressing human neural progenitor cell grafts protect motor neurons but do not ameliorate motor performance and survival in ALS mice 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(7):487-500.
Neural progenitor cells (NPs) have shown several promising benefits for the treatment of neurological disorders. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural progenitor cells (hNPs) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we transplanted hNPs or growth factor (GF)-expressing hNPs into the central nervous system (CNS) of mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1G93A) transgenic mice. The hNPs were engineered to express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), VEGF, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), respectively, by adenoviral vector and GDNF by lentiviral vector before transplantation. Donor-derived cells engrafted and migrated into the spinal cord or brain of ALS mice and differentiated into neurons, oligodendrocytes, or glutamate transporter-1 (GLT1)-expressing astrocytes while some cells retained immature markers. Transplantation of GDNF- or IGF-1-expressing hNPs attenuated the loss of motor neurons and induced trophic changes in motor neurons of the spinal cord. However, improvement in motor performance and extension of lifespan were not observed in all hNP transplantation groups compared to vehicle-injected controls. Moreover, the lifespan of GDNF-expressing hNP recipient mice by lentiviral vector was shortened compared to controls, which was largely due to the decreased survival times of female animals. These results imply that although implanted hNPs differentiate into GLT1-expressing astrocytes and secrete GFs, which maintain dying motor neurons, inadequate trophic support could be harmful and there is sexual dimorphism in response to GDNF delivery in ALS mice. Therefore, additional therapeutic approaches may be required for full functional recovery.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.7.054
PMCID: PMC2721146  PMID: 19322031
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; cell differentiation; glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; nerve growth factors; stem cell transplantation; stem cells
15.  Transcriptional activation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 by 17β-estradiol in SaOS-2 cells 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(7):478-486.
Osteoblasts can synthesize the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), which may either enhance or attenuate IGF-stimulated bone cell proliferation. Since estrogen induced osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation through an estrogen-responsive gene in target cells, we investigated the effects of estrogen on IGFBP-6 expression in the human osteoblastic-like cell line SaOS-2. Expressions of IGFBP-6 protein and mRNA increased 2.8 and 2-fold, respectively, in the presence of 17-β-estradiol (E2) (0.01 to 1 µM) and estrogen receptor (ER) in SaOS-2 cells. On the other hand, E2 induced a 2-fold increase in SaOS-2 cell proliferation. To identify genomic sequences associated with estrogen responsiveness, the 5'-promoter region (-44 to +118) of the IGFBP-6 gene was cloned into a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter vector. E2 induced a 3-fold increase in CAT activity in SaOS-2 cells transiently transfected with this construct. Identification of the estrogen-responsive element (ERE) [5'-CCTTCA CCTG-3'] (-9 to +1) in this IGFBP-6 gene promoter region was confirmed using electromobility shift assays and deletion analysis. This functional ERE was important for E2-induced trans-activation of the IGFBP-6 gene. These results demonstrate that E2 exhibits a positive effect on IGFBP-6 gene transcription through estrogen-liganded ER binding to the functional ERE in the IGFBP-6 gene promoter in SaOS-2 cells.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.7.053
PMCID: PMC2721145  PMID: 19322032
estrogen; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6; osteoblasts; receptors, estrogen; transcription, genetic
16.  Down syndrome critical region 1 enhances the proteolytic cleavage of calcineurin 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(7):471-477.
Down syndrome critical region 1 (DSCR1), an oxidative stress-response gene, interacts with calcineurin and represses its phosphatase activity. Recently it was shown that hydrogen peroxide inactivates calcineurin by proteolytic cleavage. Based on these facts, we investigated whether oxidative stress affects DSCR1-mediated inactivation of calcineurin. We determined that overexpression of DSCR1 leads to increased proteolytic cleavage of calcineurin. Convertsely, knockdown of DSCR1 abolished calcineurin cleavage upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The PXIIXT motif in the COOH-terminus of DSCR1 is responsible for both binding and cleavage of calcineurin. The knockdown of overexpressed DSCR1 in DS fibroblast cells also abrogated calcineurin proteolysis by hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that DSCR1 has the ability to inactivate calcineurin by inducing proteolytic cleavage of calcineurin upon oxidative stress.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.7.052
PMCID: PMC2721144  PMID: 19322033
calcineurin; Down syndrome; DSCR1 protein, mouse; fibroblasts; hydrogen peroxide; oxidative stress; RCAN1 protein, human
17.  Integrated analysis of copy number alteration and RNA expression profiles of cancer using a high-resolution whole-genome oligonucleotide array 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(7):462-470.
Recently, microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) has emerged as a very efficient technology with higher resolution for the genome-wide identification of copy number alterations (CNA). Although CNAs are thought to affect gene expression, there is no platform currently available for the integrated CNA-expression analysis. To achieve high-resolution copy number analysis integrated with expression profiles, we established human 30k oligoarray-based genome-wide copy number analysis system and explored the applicability of this system for integrated genome and transcriptome analysis using MDA-MB-231 cell line. We compared the CNAs detected by the oligoarray with those detected by the 3k BAC array for validation. The oligoarray identified the single copy difference more accurately and sensitively than the BAC array. Seventeen CNAs detected by both platforms in MDA-MB-231 such as gains of 5p15.33-13.1, 8q11.22-8q21.13, 17p11.2, and losses of 1p32.3, 8p23.3-8p11.21, and 9p21 were consistently identified in previous studies on breast cancer. There were 122 other small CNAs (mean size 1.79 mb) that were detected by oligoarray only, not by BAC-array. We performed genomic qPCR targeting 7 CNA regions, detected by oligoarray only, and one non-CNA region to validate the oligoarray CNA detection. All qPCR results were consistent with the oligoarray-CGH results. When we explored the possibility of combined interpretation of both DNA copy number and RNA expression profiles, mean DNA copy number and RNA expression levels showed a significant correlation. In conclusion, this 30k oligoarray-CGH system can be a reasonable choice for analyzing whole genome CNAs and RNA expression profiles at a lower cost.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.7.051
PMCID: PMC2721143  PMID: 19322034
cell line, tumor; gene dosage; gene expression profiling; oligonucleotide array sequence analysis
18.  14-3-3ε protein increases matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene expression via p38 MAPK signaling in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(7):453-461.
One of the 14-3-3 protein isoforms, 14-3-3ε, was previously shown to be increased during skin aging. We suggest here a possible role for the 14-3-3ε protein in skin aging by providing evidence that 14-3-3ε increases the expression of the matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 gene in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Expression of the 14-3-3ε gene in NIH3T3 cells primarily up-regulated the expression of the MMP-2 gene at the transcriptional level by inducing specific DNA binding proteins bound to an upstream region of the MMP-2 promoter from -1,629 to -1,612. Inhibition of endogenous 14-3-3ε gene expression by RNA interference also decreased endogenous MMP-2 gene expression. Furthermore, up-regulation of the MMP-2 gene by 14-3-3ε was suppressed by expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p38 MAP kinase. These findings strongly suggest that increased expression of 14-3-3ε contributes to remodeling of extracellular matrix in skin through increasing MMP-2 gene expression via p38 MAP kinase signaling.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.7.050
PMCID: PMC2721142  PMID: 19322035
14-3-3 proteins; extracellular matrix; matrix metalloproteinase 2; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases; signal transduction; skin aging
19.  A reconstituted HDL containing V156K or R173C apoA-I exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in apo-E deficient mice and showed resistance to myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(6):417-428.
It has been hypothesized that blood infusion of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) is a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of coronary artery disese. To compare short-term anti-inflammatory activity of wildtype (WT) apoA-I and point mutants, each rHDL containing WT, V156K, or R173C was infused into apo-E deficient atherosclerotic mice. Each rHDL was injected via the tail vein at a dosage of 120 mg/kg of body weight in 0.4 ml of tris-buffered saline (TBS), and blood was then collected at 24 and 48 h post-injection. Although regression activity was observed in each of the rHDL infused groups, a 30% reduction in the lipid-stained area of the aortic sinus was observed in the V156K and R173C-rHDL groups when compared to that of the WT-rHDL group, and this reduction was well correlated with an approximately 60% reduction in the accumulation of macrophages in the lesion area. Additionally, the groups that received the V156K and R173C-rHDL treatments showed smaller increases in the GOT, GPT, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) serum levels than those that received the WT-rHDL treatment. In addition, the strongest serum paraoxonase and ferric reducing ability was observed in the V156K and R173C-rHDL groups. In vitro nitration and chlorination of apoA-I by MPO treatment revealed that V156K-rHDL and R173C-rHDL were less susceptible to chlorination. Furthermore, rHDL treatment inhibited cellular uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophage cells and the production of proatherogenic species in culture media. In conclusion, blood infusions of the rHDLs exerted in vivo regression activity with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity in apo-E deficient mice and THP-1 cells, especially in those that were treated with V156K and R173C apoA-I.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.6.047
PMCID: PMC2705862  PMID: 19322022
apolipoprotein A-I; apolipoproteins E; atherosclerosis; inflammation; lipoproteins, HDL
20.  Sterol-independent repression of low density lipoprotein receptor promoter by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(6):406-416.
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) may be implicated in cholesterol metabolism since PGC-1α co-activates estrogen receptor α (ERα) transactivity and estrogen/ERα induces the transcription of LDL receptor (LDLR). Here, we show that overexpression of PGC-1α in HepG2 cells represses the gene expression of LDLR and does not affect the ERα-induced LDLR expression. PGC-1α suppressed the LDLR promoter-luciferase (pLR1563-luc) activity regardless of cholesterol or functional sterol-regulatory element-1. Serial deletions of the LDLR promoter revealed that the inhibition by PGC-1α required the LDLR promoter regions between -650 bp and -974 bp. Phosphorylation of PGC-1α may not affect the suppression of LDLR expression because treatment of SB202190, a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, did not reverse the LDLR down-regulation by PGC-1α. This may be the first report showing the repressive function of PGC-1α on gene expression. PGC-1α might be a novel modulator of LDLR gene expression in a sterol-independent manner, and implicated in atherogenesis.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.6.046
PMCID: PMC2705861  PMID: 19322023
cholesterol; liver; peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1; PPARγ; promoter regions, genetic
21.  The orphan nuclear receptor SHP inhibits apoptosis during the monocytic differentiation by inducing p21WAF1 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(6):429-439.
Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an atypical member of nuclear receptor superfamily that lacks a DNA-binding domain. In previous study, we showed that SHP, c-jun, p65 of NF-κB subunits, and p21WAF1 expression was increased during monocytic differentiaton with the exposure of human leukemia cells to a differentiation agent, PMA. In this study, c-Jun and p65 were shown to mediate the transcriptional activation of the SHP promoter. In addition, SHP induced the cell cycle regulatory protein levels and cooperatively increased an induction of p21WAF1 expression with p65. Furthermore, SHP protected differentiated cells from etoposide-induced cellular apoptosis through the induction and cytoplasmic sequestration of p21WAF1. Complex formation between SHP and p21WAF1 was demonstrated by means of coimmunoprecipitation. These results suggest that SHP prolongs a cellular survival of differentiating monocytes through the transcriptional regulation of target genes of cell survival and differentiation.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.6.048
PMCID: PMC2705863  PMID: 19322021
apoptosis; cell differentiation; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21; monocytes; nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2
22.  Fenofibrate inhibits adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance by activating adipose PPARα in high fat diet-induced obese mice 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(6):397-405.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation in rodents is thought to improve insulin sensitivity by decreasing ectopic lipids in non-adipose tissues. Fenofibrate, a lipid-modifying agent that acts as a PPARα agonist, may prevent adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance by increasing intracellular lipolysis from adipose tissue. Consistent with this hypothesis, fenofibrate decreased visceral fat mass and adipocyte size in high fat diet-fed obese mice, and concomitantly increased the expression of PPARα target genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation in both epididymal adipose tissue and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, mRNA levels of adipose marker genes, such as leptin and TNFα, were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue by fenofibrate treatment. Fenofibrate not only reduced circulating levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides, but also normalized hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in obese mice. Blood glucose levels of fenofibrate-treated mice were significantly reduced during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with obese controls. These results suggest that fenofibrate-induced fatty acid β-oxidation in visceral adipose tissue may be one of the major factors leading to decreased adipocyte size and improved insulin sensitivity.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.6.045
PMCID: PMC2705860  PMID: 19322024
adipocytes; hyperglycemia; hyperlipidemia; insulin resistance; PPARα
23.  Involvement of βPIX in angiotensin II-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(6):387-396.
Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) in addition to its contribution to contraction and hypertrophy. It is well established that Rho GTPases regulate cellular contractility and migration by reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton. Ang II activates Rac1 GTPase, but its upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) remains elusive. Here, we show that Ang II-induced VSMC migration occurs in a βPIX GEF-dependent manner. βPIX-specific siRNA treatment significantly inhibited Ang II-induced VSMC migration. Ang II activated the catalytic activity of βPIX towards Rac1 in dose- and time-dependent manners. Activity reached a peak at 10 min and declined close to a basal level by 30 min following stimulation. Pharmacological inhibition with specific kinase inhibitors revealed the participation of protein kinase C, Src family kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) upstream of βPIX. Both p21-activated kinase and reactive oxygen species played key roles in cytoskeletal reorganization downstream of βPIX-Rac1. Taken together, our results suggest that βPIX is involved in Ang II-induced VSMC migration.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.6.044
PMCID: PMC2705859  PMID: 19322025
angiotensin II; cell movement; cytoskeleton; muscle, smooth, vascular; rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors
24.  Tissue-specific expression and subcellular localization of ALADIN, the absence of which causes human triple A syndrome 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(6):381-386.
Triple A syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome (AAAS) gene which encodes a tryptophan aspartic acid (WD) repeat-containing protein named alacrima-achalasia-adrenal insufficiency neurologic disorder (ALADIN). Northern blot analysis shows that the 2.1 kb AAAS mRNA is expressed in various tissues with stronger expression in testis and pancreas. We show that human ALADIN is a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa, and expressed in the adrenal gland, pituitary gland and pancreas. Furthermore, biochemical analysis using anti-ALADIN antibody supports the previous finding of the localization of ALADIN in the nuclear membrane. The mutations S544G and S544X show that alteration of S544 residue affects correct targeting of ALADIN to the nuclear membrane.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.6.043
PMCID: PMC2705858  PMID: 19322026
AAAS protein, human; gene expression profiling; protein transport
25.  Isoflavone-deprived soy peptide suppresses mammary tumorigenesis by inducing apoptosis 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2009;41(6):371-380.
During carcinogenesis, NF-κB mediates processes associated with deregulation of the normal control of proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, suppression of NF-κB has been linked with chemoprevention of cancer. Accumulating findings reveal that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone and a component of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex that plays a central role in NF-κB activation. HSP90 also stabilizes key proteins involved in cell cycle control and apoptosis signaling. We have determined whether the exogenous administration of isoflavone-deprived soy peptide prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and investigated the mechanism of action. Dietary administration of soy peptide (3.3 g/rat/day) significantly reduced the incidence of ductal carcinomas (50%), the number of tumors per multiple tumor-bearing rats (49%; P < 0.05), and extended the latency period of tumor development (8.07 ± 0.92 weeks) compared to control diet animals (10.80 ± 1.30; P < 0.05). Our results have further demonstrated that soy peptide (1) dramatically inhibits the expression of HSP90, thereby suppressing signaling pathway leading to NF-κB activation; (2) induces expression of p21, p53, and caspase-3 proteins; and (3) inhibits expression of VEGF. In agreement with our in vivo data, soy peptide treatment inhibited the growth of human breast MCF-7 tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro results suggest chemopreventive and tumor suppressive functions of isoflavone-deprived soy peptide by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis.
doi:10.3858/emm.2009.41.6.042
PMCID: PMC2705857  PMID: 19322027
apoptosis; breast neoplasms; chemoprevention; HSP90 heat-shock proteins; isoflavones; NF-κB; soybean proteins

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