High-dimensional datasets can be confounded by variation from technical sources, such as batches. Undetected batch effects can have severe consequences for the validity of a study’s conclusion(s). We evaluate high-throughput RNAseq and miRNAseq as well as DNA methylation and gene expression microarray datasets, mainly from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, in respect to technical and biological annotations. We observe technical bias in these datasets and discuss corrective interventions. We then suggest a general procedure to control study design, detect technical bias using linear regression of principal components, correct for batch effects, and re-evaluate principal components. This procedure is implemented in the R package swamp, and as graphical user interface software. In conclusion, high-throughput platforms that generate continuous measurements are sensitive to various forms of technical bias. For such data, monitoring of technical variation is an important analysis step.
data adjustment; batch effect; bias; sample annotation; RNAseq; high-throughput analysis
Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made possible identification of genetic variants associated with increased risk of developing prostate cancer using genome-wide associations studies (GWAS). However, the broader context in which the identified genetic variants operate is poorly understood. Here we present a comprehensive assessment, network, and pathway analysis of the emerging genetic susceptibility landscape of prostate cancer.
We created a comprehensive catalog of genetic variants and associated genes by mining published reports and accompanying websites hosting supplementary data on GWAS. We then performed network and pathway analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-containing genes to identify gene regulatory networks and pathways enriched for genetic variants.
We identified multiple gene networks and pathways enriched for genetic variants including IGF-1, androgen biosynthesis and androgen signaling pathways, and the molecular mechanisms of cancer. The results provide putative functional bridges between GWAS findings and gene regulatory networks and biological pathways.
prostate cancer GWAS network pathway analysis
B-Precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Although 80% of B-ALL patients are able to be cured, significant challenges persist. Significant disparities in clinical outcomes and mortality rates exist between racial/ethnic populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels significantly differ between ethnic populations. We compared gene expression levels between four ethnic populations (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians) in the United States. Additionally, we performed network and pathway analysis to identify gene networks and pathways. Gene expression data involved 198 samples distributed as follows: 126 Whites, 51 Hispanics, 13 Blacks, and 8 Asians. We identified 300 highly significantly (P < 0.001) differentially expressed genes between the four ethnic populations. Among the identified genes included the genes PHF6, BRD3, CRLF2, and RNF135 which have been implicated in pediatric B-ALL. We identified key pathways implicated in B-ALL including the PDGF, PI3/AKT, ERBB2-ERBB3, and IL-15 signaling pathways.
leukemia gene expression variation pediatric B-ALL
Microarray techniques provide promising tools for cancer diagnosis using gene expression profiles. However, molecular diagnosis based on high-throughput platforms presents great challenges due to the overwhelming number of variables versus the small sample size and the complex nature of multi-type tumors. Support vector machines (SVMs) have shown superior performance in cancer classification due to their ability to handle high dimensional low sample size data. The multi-class SVM algorithm of Crammer and Singer provides a natural framework for multi-class learning. Despite its effective performance, the procedure utilizes all variables without selection. In this paper, we propose to improve the procedure by imposing shrinkage penalties in learning to enforce solution sparsity.
The original multi-class SVM of Crammer and Singer is effective for multi-class classification but does not conduct variable selection. We improved the method by introducing soft-thresholding type penalties to incorporate variable selection into multi-class classification for high dimensional data. The new methods were applied to simulated data and two cancer gene expression data sets. The results demonstrate that the new methods can select a small number of genes for building accurate multi-class classification rules. Furthermore, the important genes selected by the methods overlap significantly, suggesting general agreement among different variable selection schemes.
High accuracy and sparsity make the new methods attractive for cancer diagnostics with gene expression data and defining targets of therapeutic intervention.
Availability: The source MATLAB code are available from http://math.arizona.edu/~hzhang/software.html.
support vector machine (SVM); multi-class SVM; variable selection; shrinkage methods; classification; microarray; cancer classification
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have achieved great success in identifying common variants associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, GWAS do not typically provide information about the broader context in which genetic variants operate in different subtypes of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether genes containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, herein called genetic variants) are associated with different subtypes of breast cancer. Additionally, we sought to identify gene regulator networks and biological pathways enriched for these genetic variants. Using supervised analysis, we identified 201 genes that were significantly associated with the six intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer. The results demonstrate that integrative genomics analysis is a powerful approach for linking GWAS information to distinct disease states and provide insights about the broader context in which genetic variants operate in different subtypes of breast cancer.
GWAS subtypes breast cancer
This paper discusses the need for interconnecting computational cancer models from different sources and scales within clinically relevant scenarios to increase the accuracy of the models and speed up their clinical adaptation, validation, and eventual translation. We briefly review current interoperability efforts drawing upon our experiences with the development of in silico models for predictive oncology within a number of European Commission Virtual Physiological Human initiative projects on cancer. A clinically relevant scenario, addressing brain tumor modeling that illustrates the need for coupling models from different sources and levels of complexity, is described. General approaches to enabling interoperability using XML-based markup languages for biological modeling are reviewed, concluding with a discussion on efforts towards developing cancer-specific XML markup to couple multiple component models for predictive in silico oncology.
multi-scale computational tumor modeling; in silico oncology; model interoperability; XML markup languages
Methods for array normalization, such as median and quantile normalization, were developed for mRNA expression arrays. These methods assume few or symmetric differential expression of genes on the array. However, these assumptions are not necessarily appropriate for microRNA expression arrays because they consist of only a few hundred genes and a reasonable fraction of them are anticipated to have disease relevance.
We collected microRNA expression profiles for human tissue samples from a liposarcoma study using the Agilent microRNA arrays. For a subset of the samples, we also profiled their microRNA expression using deep sequencing. We empirically evaluated methods for normalization of microRNA arrays using deep sequencing data derived from the same tissue samples as the benchmark.
In this study, we demonstrated array effects in microRNA arrays using data from a liposarcoma study. We found moderately high correlation between Agilent data and sequence data on the same tumors, with the Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. Array normalization resulted in some improvement in the accuracy of the differential expression analysis. However, even with normalization, there is still a significant number of false positive and false negative microRNAs, many of which are expressed at moderate to high levels.
Our study demonstrated the need to develop more efficient normalization methods for microRNA arrays to further improve the detection of genes with disease relevance. Until better methods are developed, an existing normalization method such as quantile normalization should be applied when analyzing microRNA array data.
microRNA; microarray; normalization; differential expression; cancer; sarcoma
The 18,352 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cases from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method for the following variables: race, gender, marital status, year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, pancreatic subsite, T-stage, N-stage, M-stage, tumor size, tumor grade, performed surgery, and radiation therapy. Because the T-stage variable did not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption, the cases were divided into cases with T1- and T2-stages (localized tumor) and cases with T3- and T4-stages (extended tumor). For estimating survival and conditional survival probabilities in each group, a multivariate Cox regression model adjusted for the remaining covariates was developed. Testing the reproducibility of model parameters and generalizability of these models showed that the models are well calibrated and have concordance indexes equal to 0.702 and 0.712, respectively. Based on these models, a prognostic estimator of survival for patients diagnosed with PDAC was developed and implemented as a computerized web-based tool.
cancer; survival; Cox model; SEER; pancreatic cancer
Modeling of cancer hazards at age t deals with a dichotomous population, a small part of which (the fraction at risk) will get cancer, while the other part will not. Therefore, we conditioned the hazard function, h(t), the probability density function (pdf), f(t), and the survival function, S(t), on frailty α in individuals. Assuming α has the Bernoulli distribution, we obtained equations relating the unconditional (population level) hazard function, hU(t), cumulative hazard function, HU(t), and overall cumulative hazard, H0, with the h(t), f(t), and S(t) for individuals from the fraction at risk. Computing procedures for estimating h(t), f(t), and S(t) were developed and used to fit the pancreatic cancer data collected by SEER9 registries from 1975 through 2004 with the Weibull pdf suggested by the Armitage-Doll model. The parameters of the obtained excellent fit suggest that age of pancreatic cancer presentation has a time shift about 17 years and five mutations are needed for pancreatic cells to become malignant.
cancer incidence; cancer hazard; frailty; Weibull distribution; pancreatic cancer
We present a novel machine learning approach for the classification of cancer samples using expression data. We refer to the method as “decision trunks,” since it is loosely based on decision trees, but contains several modifications designed to achieve an algorithm that: (1) produces smaller and more easily interpretable classifiers than decision trees; (2) is more robust in varying application scenarios; and (3) achieves higher classification accuracy. The decision trunk algorithm has been implemented and tested on 26 classification tasks, covering a wide range of cancer forms, experimental methods, and classification scenarios. This comprehensive evaluation indicates that the proposed algorithm performs at least as well as the current state of the art algorithms in terms of accuracy, while producing classifiers that include on average only 2–3 markers. We suggest that the resulting decision trunks have clear advantages over other classifiers due to their transparency, interpretability, and their correspondence with human decision-making and clinical testing practices.
classification; machine learning; gene expression; biomarkers
The aim of this study was to perform comparative analysis of multiple public datasets of gene expression in order to identify common genes as potential prognostic biomarkers. Additionally, the study sought to identify biological processes and pathways that are most significantly associated with early distant metastases (<5 years) in women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast tumors. Datasets from three published studies were selected for in silico analysis of gene expression profiles of ER+ breast cancer, using time to distant metastasis as the clinical endpoint. A subset of 44 differently expressed genes (DEGs) was found common to all three studies and characterized by mitotic checkpoint genes and pathways that regulate mitotic spindle and chromosome dynamics. DEG promoter regions were enriched with NFY binding sites. Analysis of miRNA target sites identified significant enrichment of miR-192, miR-193B, and miR-16-1 targets. Aberrant mitotic regulation could drive increased genomic instability leading to a progression towards an early onset metastatic phenotype. The relative importance of mitotic instability may reflect the clinical utility of mitotic poisons in metastatic breast cancer, including poisons such as the taxanes, epothilones, and vinca alkaloids.
estrogen receptor alpha-positive; mitotic checkpoint signaling; mitotic regulation network; microRNA targets; early distant metastasis
Cancer risk management involves obliterating excess concentration of cancer causing trace elements by the natural immune system and hence intake of nutritious diet is of paramount importance. Human diet should consist of essential macronutrients that have to be consumed in large quantities and trace elements are to be consumed in very little amount. As some of these trace elements are causative factors for various types of cancer and build up at the expense of macronutrients, cancer risk management of these trace elements should be based on their initial concentration in the blood of each individual and not on their tolerable upper intake level. We propose an information theory based Expert System (ES) for estimating the lowest limit of toxicity association between the trace elements and the macronutrients. Such an estimate would enable the physician to prescribe required medication containing the macronutrients to annul the toxicity of cancer risk trace elements. The lowest limit of toxicity association is achieved by minimizing the correlated information of the concentration correlation matrix using the concept of Mutual Information (MI) and an algorithm based on a Technique of Determinant Inequalities (TDI) developed by the authors. The novelty of our ES is that it provides the lowest limit of toxicity profile for all trace elements in the blood not restricted to a group of compounds having similar structure. We demonstrate the superiority our algorithm over Principal Component Analysis in mitigating trace element toxicity in blood samples.
carcinogenic trace elements; high correlation coefficient; cancer screening; expert system; mutual information
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, the association of genetic variants and their associated genes with the most aggressive subset of breast cancer, the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), remains a central puzzle in molecular epidemiology. The objective of this study was to determine whether genes containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer are connected to and could stratify different subtypes of TNBC. Additionally, we sought to identify molecular pathways and networks involved in TNBC. We performed integrative genomics analysis, combining information from GWAS studies involving over 400,000 cases and over 400,000 controls, with gene expression data derived from 124 breast cancer patients classified as TNBC (at the time of diagnosis) and 142 cancer-free controls. Analysis of GWAS reports produced 500 SNPs mapped to 188 genes. We identified a signature of 159 functionally related SNP-containing genes which were significantly (P <10−5) associated with and stratified TNBC. Additionally, we identified 97 genes which were functionally related to, and had similar patterns of expression profiles, SNP-containing genes. Network modeling and pathway prediction revealed multi-gene pathways including p53, NFkB, BRCA, apoptosis, DNA repair, DNA mismatch, and excision repair pathways enriched for SNPs mapped to genes significantly associated with TNBC. The results provide convincing evidence that integrating GWAS information with gene expression data provides a unified and powerful approach for biomarker discovery in TNBC.
triple negative breast cancer GWAS gene expression
The popularity of a large number of microarray applications has in cancer research led to the development of predictive or prognostic gene expression profiles. However, the diversity of microarray platforms has made the full validation of such profiles and their related gene lists across studies difficult and, at the level of classification accuracies, rarely validated in multiple independent datasets. Frequently, while the individual genes between such lists may not match, genes with same function are included across such gene lists. Development of such lists does not take into account the fact that genes can be grouped together as metagenes (MGs) based on common characteristics such as pathways, regulation, or genomic location. Such MGs might be used as features in building a predictive model applicable for classifying independent data. It is, therefore, demanding to systematically compare independent validation of gene lists or classifiers based on metagene or individual gene (SG) features.
In this study we compared the performance of either metagene-or single gene-based feature sets and classifiers using random forest and two support vector machines for classifier building. The performance within the same dataset, feature set validation performance, and validation performance of entire classifiers in strictly independent datasets were assessed by 10 times repeated 10-fold cross validation, leave-one-out cross validation, and one-fold validation, respectively. To test the significance of the performance difference between MG- and SG-features/classifiers, we used a repeated down-sampled binomial test approach.
MG- and SG-feature sets are transferable and perform well for training and testing prediction of metastasis outcome in strictly independent data sets, both between different and within similar microarray platforms, while classifiers had a poorer performance when validated in strictly independent datasets. The study showed that MG- and SG-feature sets perform equally well in classifying independent data. Furthermore, SG-classifiers significantly outperformed MG-classifier when validation is conducted between datasets using similar platforms, while no significant performance difference was found when validation was performed between different platforms.
Prediction of metastasis outcome in lymph node–negative patients by MG- and SG-classifiers showed that SG-classifiers performed significantly better than MG-classifiers when validated in independent data based on the same microarray platform as used for developing the classifier. However, the MG- and SG-classifiers had similar performance when conducting classifier validation in independent data based on a different microarray platform. The latter was also true when only validating sets of MG- and SG-features in independent datasets, both between and within similar and different platforms.
microarray; classification; metagenes; breast cancer
For science, theoretical or applied, to significantly advance, researchers must use the most appropriate mathematical methods. A century and a half elapsed between Newton’s development of the calculus and Laplace’s development of celestial mechanics. One cannot imagine the latter without the former. Today, more than three-quarters of a century has elapsed since the birth of stochastic systems theory. This article provides a perspective on the utilization of systems theory as the proper vehicle for the development of systems biology and its application to complex regulatory diseases such as cancer.
cancer; control; epistemology; systems biology
Philadelphia positive malignant disorders are a clinically divergent group of leukemias. These include chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and de novo acute Philadelphia positive (Ph(+)) leukemia of both myeloid, and lymphoid origin. Recent whole genome screening of Ph(+)ALL in both children and adults identified an almost obligatory cryptic loss of Ikaros, required for the normal B cell maturation. Although similar losses were found in lymphoid blast crisis the genetic background of the transformation in CML is still poorly defined. We used Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) to analyze comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from 30 CML (10 each of chronic phase, myeloid and lymphoid blast stage), 10 Ph(+)ALL adult patients and 10 disease free controls and were able to: (a) discriminate between the genomes of lymphoid and myeloid blast cells and (b) identify differences in the genome profile of de novo Ph(+)ALL and lymphoid blast transformation of CML (BC/L). Furthermore we were able to distinguish a sub group of Ph(+) ALL characterized by gains in chromosome 9 and recurrent losses at several other genome sites offering genetic evidence for the clinical heterogeneity. The significance of these results is that they not only offer clues regarding the pathogenesis of Ph(+) disorders and highlight the potential clinical implications of a set of probes but also demonstrates what SAM can offer for the analysis of genome data.
sam; significance analysis; arraycgh; ph+all; cml; lymphoid blast crisis; igh rearrangements; tarp; chr 9p; chr7p
Haploinsufficiency of tumor suppressor genes, wherein the reduced production and activity of proteins results in the inability of the cell to maintain normal cellular function, is one among the various causes of cancer. However the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this condition remain unclear. Here we hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3′untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs and microRNA seed sequence (miR-SNPs) may cause haploinsufficiency at the level of proteins through altered binding specificity of microRNAs (miRNAs). Bioinformatics analysis of haploinsufficient genes for variations in their 3′UTR showed that the occurrence of SNPs result in the creation of new binding sites for miRNAs, thereby bringing the respective mRNA variant under the control of more miRNAs. In addition, 19 miR-SNPs were found to result in non-specific binding of microRNAs to tumor suppressors. Networking analysis suggests that the haploinsufficient tumor suppressor genes strongly interact with one another, and any subtle alterations in this network will contribute to tumorigenesis.
haploinsufficiency; microRNA; single nucleotide polymorphism; miR-SNPs; tumor suppressor genes; cancer
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous breast cancer group, and identification of molecular subtypes is essential for understanding the biological characteristics and clinical behaviors of TNBC as well as for developing personalized treatments. Based on 3,247 gene expression profiles from 21 breast cancer data sets, we discovered six TNBC subtypes from 587 TNBC samples with unique gene expression patterns and ontologies. Cell line models representing each of the TNBC subtypes also displayed different sensitivities to targeted therapeutic agents. Classification of TNBC into subtypes will advance further genomic research and clinical applications.
We developed a web-based subtyping tool TNBCtype for candidate TNBC samples using our gene expression meta data and classification methods. Given a gene expression data matrix, this tool will display for each candidate sample the predicted subtype, the corresponding correlation coefficient, and the permutation P-value. We offer a user-friendly web interface to predict the subtypes for new TNBC samples that may facilitate diagnostics, biomarker selection, drug discovery, and the more tailored treatment of breast cancer.
triple-negative breast cancer; gene expression microarray; meta-analysis; classification; subtypes
Mutations in cancer-causing genes induce changes in gene expression programs critical for malignant cell transformation. Publicly available gene expression profiles produced by modulating the expression of distinct cancer genes may therefore represent a rich resource for the identification of gene signatures common to seemingly unrelated cancer genes. We combined automatic retrieval with manual validation to obtain a data set of high-quality gene microarray profiles. This data set was used to create logical models of the signaling events underlying the observed expression changes produced by various cancer genes and allowed to uncover unknown and verifiable interactions. Data clustering revealed novel sets of gene expression profiles commonly regulated by distinct cancer genes. Our method allows retrieval of significant new information and testable hypotheses from a pool of deposited cancer gene expression experiments that are otherwise not apparent or appear insignificant from single measurements. The complete results are available through a web-application at http://biodata.ethz.ch/cgi-bin/geologic.
cancer genes; gene microarray database analysis; gene expression signatures; meta-analysis; network interactions; clustering
We aimed to find clinically relevant gene activities ruled by the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) proteins in an ER(−) breast cancer population via network approach. STAT3 is negatively associated with both lymph nodal category and stage. MYC is a component of STAT3 network. MYC and STAT3 may co-regulate gene expressions for Warburg effect, stem cell like phenotype, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We identified a STAT3 network in silico showing its ability in predicting its target gene expressions primarily for specific tumor subtype, tumor progression, treatment options and prognostic features. The aberrant expressions of MYC and STAT3 are enriched in triple negatives (TN). They promote histological grade, vascularity, metastasis and tumor anti-apoptotic activities. VEGFA, STAT3, FOXM1 and METAP2 are druggable targets. High levels of METAP2, MMP7, IGF2 and IGF2R are unfavorable prognostic factors. STAT3 is an inferred center regulator at early cancer development predominantly in TN.
STAT3; transcriptional regulatory network; microarray; grade; vascularity
Aberrant transcriptional activities have been documented in breast cancers. Studies often find some transcription factors to be inappropriately regulated and enriched in certain pathological states. The promoter regions of most target genes have binding sites for their transcription factors. An ample of evidence supports their combinatorial effect on their shared target gene expressions. Here, we used a new statistic method, bivariate CID, to predict combinatorial interaction activity between ERα and a transcription factor (E2F1or GATA3 or ERRα) in regulating target gene expression via four regulatory mechanisms. We identified gene sets in three signal transduction pathways perturbed in breast tumors: cell cycle, VEGF, and PDGFRB. Bivariate network analysis revealed several target genes previously implicated in tumor angiogenesis are among the predicted shared targets, including VEGFA, PDGFRB. In summary, our analysis suggests the importance for the multivariate space of an inferred ERα transcriptional regulatory network in breast cancer diagnostic and therapeutic development.
bivariate CID; network; transcription factor; shared target gene expression; angiogenesis
Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) measure the relative expression levels of a protein in many samples simultaneously. Observed signal from these arrays is a combination of true signal, additive background, and multiplicative spatial effects. Background subtraction alone is not sufficient to remove all nonbiological trends from the data. We developed a surface adjustment that uses information from positive control spots to correct for spatial trends on the array beyond additive background. This method uses a generalized additive model to estimate a smoothed surface from positive controls. When positive controls are printed in a dilution series, a nested surface adjustment performs an intensity-based correction. When applicable, surface adjustment is able to remove spatial trends and increase within slide replicate agreement better than background subtraction alone as demonstrated on two sets of arrays. This work demonstrates the importance of including positive control spots on the array.
protein array; normalization; control spots; generalized additive models
Gene expression profiling has provided insights into different cancer types and revealed tissue-specific expression signatures. Alterations in microRNA expression contribute to the pathogenesis of many types of human diseases. Few studies have integrated all levels of gene expression, miRNA and methylation to uncover correlations between these data types. We performed an integrated profiling to discover instances of miRNAs associated with a gene expression and DNA methylation signature across multiple cancer types. Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we revealed a concordant gene expression and methylation signature associated with the microRNA hsa-miR-142 across the same samples. In all cancer types examined, we found a signature of co-expression of a gene set R and methylated sites M, which correlate positively (M+) or negatively (M−) with the expression of hsa-miR-142. The set R consistently contains many genes, such as TRAF3IP3, NCKAP1L, CD53, LAPTM5, PTPRC, EVI2B, DOCK2, LCP2, CYBB and FYB. The signature is preserved across glioblastoma, ovarian, breast, colon, kidney, lung, uterine and rectum cancer. There is 28% overlap of methylation sites in M between glioblastoma (GBM) and ovarian cancer. There is 60% overlap of genes in R between GBM and ovarian (P = 1.3e−11). Most of the genes in R are known to be expressed in lymphocytes and haematopoietic stem cells, while M reflects membrane proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion functions. We speculate that the hsa-miR-142 associated signature may signal haematopoietic-specific processes and an accumulation of methylation events triggering a progressive loss of cell-cell adhesion. We also observed that GBM samples belonging to the proneural subtype tend to have underexpressed hsa-miR-142 and R genes, hypomethylated M+ and hypermethylated M−, while the mesenchymal samples have the opposite profile.
cancer; microRNA; gene expression; methylation; correlation; integrated analysis
Motivated by the frustration of translation of research advances in the molecular and cellular biology of cancer into treatment, this study calls for cross-disciplinary efforts and proposes a methodology of incorporating drug pharmacology information into drug therapeutic response modeling using a computational systems biology approach. The objectives are two fold. The first one is to involve effective mathematical modeling in the drug development stage to incorporate preclinical and clinical data in order to decrease costs of drug development and increase pipeline productivity, since it is extremely expensive and difficult to get the optimal compromise of dosage and schedule through empirical testing. The second objective is to provide valuable suggestions to adjust individual drug dosing regimens to improve therapeutic effects considering most anticancer agents have wide inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability and a narrow therapeutic index. A dynamic hybrid systems model is proposed to study drug antitumor effect from the perspective of tumor growth dynamics, specifically the dosing and schedule of the periodic drug intake, and a drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics information are linked together in the proposed model using a state-space approach. It is proved analytically that there exists an optimal drug dosage and interval administration point, and demonstrated through simulation study.
drug effect; drug efficacy region; dosing regimens; hybrid systems; systems biology; tumor growth