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2.  Bioconversion of Sugarcane Biomass into Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods, Detoxification of Hydrolysates, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Ethanol Fermentation 
Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production.
PMCID: PMC3516358  PMID: 23251086
3.  Development of New Technologies for Stem Cell Research 
Since the 1960s, the stem cells have been extensively studied including embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. In the recent years, several stem cells have been initially used in the treatment of diseases, such as in bone marrow transplant. At the same time, isolation and culture experimental technologies for stem cell research have been widely developed in recent years. In addition, molecular imaging technologies including optical molecular imaging, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and computed tomography have been developed rapidly in recent the 10 years and have also been used in the research on disease mechanism and evaluation of treatment of disease related with stem cells. This paper will focus on recent typical isolation, culture, and observation techniques of stem cells followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future applications of the new technologies in stem cells are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the paper is then concluded.
PMCID: PMC3518316  PMID: 23251081
4.  De Novo Kidney Regeneration with Stem Cells 
Recent studies have reported on techniques to mobilize and activate endogenous stem-cells in injured kidneys or to introduce exogenous stem cells for tissue repair. Despite many recent advantages in renal regenerative therapy, chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and the number of CKD patients has been increasing. When the sophisticated structure of the kidneys is totally disrupted by end stage renal disease (ESRD), traditional stem cell-based therapy is unable to completely regenerate the damaged tissue. This suggests that whole organ regeneration may be a promising therapeutic approach to alleviate patients with uncured CKD. We summarize here the potential of stem-cell-based therapy for injured tissue repair and de novo whole kidney regeneration. In addition, we describe the hurdles that must be overcome and possible applications of this approach in kidney regeneration.
PMCID: PMC3518373  PMID: 23251079
6.  Administration of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Liver: Potential to Rescue Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum in a Mouse Model (Abcc6−/−) 
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable ectopic mineralization disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the ABCC6 gene which is primarily expressed in the liver. There is currently no effective treatment for PXE. In this study, we characterized bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and evaluated their ability to contribute to liver regeneration, with the aim to rescue PXE phenotype. The MSCs, isolated from GFP-transgenic mice by magnetic cell sorting, were shown to have high potential for hepatic differentiation, with expression of Abcc6, in culture. These cells were transplanted into the livers of 4-week-old immunodeficient Abcc6−/− mice by intrasplenic injection one day after partial hepatectomy, when peak expression of the stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the liver was observed. Fluorescent bioimaging analyses indicated that transplanted MSCs homed into liver between day 1 and 7, and significant numbers of GFP-positive cells were confirmed in the liver by immunofluorescence. Moreover, enhanced engraftment efficiency was observed with MSCs with high expression levels of the chemokine receptor Cxcr4, a receptor for SDF-1. These data suggest that purified MSCs have the capability of differentiating into hepatic lineages relevant to PXE pathogenesis and may contribute to partial correction of the PXE phenotype.
PMCID: PMC3519347  PMID: 23251082
7.  Improved Binding Activity of Antibodies against Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Chain-Related Gene A by Phage Display Technology for Cancer-Targeted Therapy 
Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is an NKG2D ligand that is over-expressed under cellular stress including cancer transformation and viral infection. High expression of MICA in cancer tissues or patients' sera is useful for prognostic or follow-up markers in cancer patients. In this study, phage display technology was employed to improve antigen-binding activities of anti-MICA monoclonal antibodies (WW2G8, WW6B7, and WW9B8). The 12 amino acid residues in the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) on the V domain of the heavy chain CDR3 (HCDR3) of these anti-MICA antibodies were modified by PCR-random mutagenesis, and phages displaying mutated anti-MICA Fab were constructed. After seven rounds of panning, five clones of phages displaying mutant anti-MICA Fab which exhibited 3–7-folds higher antigen-binding activities were isolated. Two clones of the mutants (phage-displayed mutant Fab WW9B8.1 and phage-displayed mutant Fab WW9B8.21) were confirmed to have antigen-binding specificity for cell surface MICA proteins by flow cytometry. These phage clones are able to recognize MICA in a native form according to positive results obtained by indirect ELISA and flow cytometry. Thus, these phage particles could be potentially used for further development of nanomedicine specifically targeting cancer cells expressing MICA proteins.
PMCID: PMC3511854  PMID: 23226940
8.  Salinomycin as a Drug for Targeting Human Cancer Stem Cells 
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of tumor cells that possess self-renewal and tumor initiation capacity and the ability to give rise to the heterogenous lineages of malignant cells that comprise a tumor. CSCs possess multiple intrinsic mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, novel tumor-targeted drugs, and radiation therapy, allowing them to survive standard cancer therapies and to initiate tumor recurrence and metastasis. Various molecular complexes and pathways that confer resistance and survival of CSCs, including expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways, and acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), have been identified recently. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces albus, has been shown to kill CSCs in different types of human cancers, most likely by interfering with ABC drug transporters, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and other CSC pathways. Promising results from preclinical trials in human xenograft mice and a few clinical pilote studies reveal that salinomycin is able to effectively eliminate CSCs and to induce partial clinical regression of heavily pretreated and therapy-resistant cancers. The ability of salinomycin to kill both CSCs and therapy-resistant cancer cells may define the compound as a novel and an effective anticancer drug.
PMCID: PMC3516046  PMID: 23251084
9.  The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L. 
With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.
PMCID: PMC3518271  PMID: 23251075
10.  Plasminogen Receptors 
PMCID: PMC3511834  PMID: 23226936
11.  Expression and Cellular Distribution of INHA and INHB before and after In Vitro Cultivation of Porcine Oocytes Isolated from Follicles of Different Size 
Cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) were collected from small (<3 mm), medium (3–5 mm), and large (>5 mm) porcine follicles, and the INHA and INHB expression and cellular localization were studied. Developmentally competent (BCB+) COCs were cultured for 44 h. Samples of mRNA were isolated before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) from oocytes collected from follicles of different size for RQ-PCR assay. The INHA and INHB protein distribution within the oocytes was observed by confocal microscopy. INHA mRNA expression was increased in oocytes from large compared to medium and small follicles before IVM (P < 0.001), and to oocytes of small follicles after IVM (P < 0.001). The INHB expression was not different before IVM, but the IHNB mRNA level was gradually higher in oocytes from large follicles after IVM (P < 0.01). INHA was not differently expressed before IVM; however, in large follicle oocytes the protein was distributed in the peripheral area of the cytoplasm; in oocytes from small follicles it was in the entire cytoplasm. After IVM, INHA was strongly expressed in oocytes from small follicles and distributed particularly in the zona pellucida (ZP). Similarly and both before and after IVM, INHB protein was highly expressed in small follicle oocytes and within the cytoplasm. In summary, INHs can be recognized as a marker of porcine oocyte quality.
PMCID: PMC3511843  PMID: 23226944
12.  Ultrastructural Evidence of Exosome Secretion by Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Myocardium and Adult Human Cardiospheres 
The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres) that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34+ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an “off-the-shelf” product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.
PMCID: PMC3511851  PMID: 23226938
13.  Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Craniofacial Surgery: Current Techniques, Clinical Experiences, and the Future of Personalized Stem Cell Therapy 
Critical-size osseous defects cannot heal without surgical intervention and can pose a significant challenge to craniofacial reconstruction. Autologous bone grafting is the gold standard for repair but is limited by a donor site morbidity and a potentially inadequate supply of autologous bone. Alternatives to autologous bone grafting include the use of alloplastic and allogenic materials, mesenchymal stem cells, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are essential mediators of bone formation involved in the regulation of differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Here we focus on the use of BMPs in experimental models of craniofacial surgery and clinical applications of BMPs in the reconstruction of the cranial vault, palate, and mandible and suggest a model for the use of BMPs in personalized stem cell therapies.
PMCID: PMC3511855  PMID: 23226941
14.  Toward Personalized Cell Therapies by Using Stem Cells: Seven Relevant Topics for Safety and Success in Stem Cell Therapy 
Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, due to the potential for application in tissue regeneration have been the target of interest to the world scientific community. In fact, stem cells can be considered revolutionary in the field of medicine, especially in the treatment of a wide range of human diseases. However, caution is needed in the clinical application of such cells and this is an issue that demands more studies. This paper will discuss some controversial issues of importance for achieving cell therapy safety and success. Particularly, the following aspects of stem cell biology will be presented: methods for stem cells culture, teratogenic or tumorigenic potential, cellular dose, proliferation, senescence, karyotyping, and immunosuppressive activity.
PMCID: PMC3514047  PMID: 23226945
15.  NK Cells in Healthy Aging and Age-Associated Diseases 
NK cells exhibit the highest cytotoxic capacity within the immune system. Alteration of their number or functionality may have a deep impact on overall immunity. This is of particular relevance in aging where the elderly population becomes more susceptible to infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases amongst others. As the fraction of elderly increases worldwide, it becomes urgent to better understand the aging of the immune system to prevent and cure the elderly population. For this, a better understanding of the function and phenotype of the different immune cells and their subsets is necessary. We review here NK cell functions and phenotype in healthy aging as well as in various age-associated diseases.
PMCID: PMC3517269  PMID: 23251076
16.  Conditioned Medium from Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces CD4+FOXP3+ Cells and Increases IL-10 Secretion 
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a new and promising tool for therapy of autoimmune disorders. In recent years their possibility to take part in the modulation of the immune response is discussed. The exact mechanisms for immunoregulation realized by MSCs are not clear yet, but interactions with other immunoregulatory cells may be involved in this process. The investigation of the influence of MSCs on the expression of FoxP3 and cytokine secretion by T helper cells was the aim of this study. T helper cells were isolated from PBMCs by magnetic separation and MSCs were isolated from human adipose tissue, and CD4+ T cells were cultured with conditional medium of MSCs. The methods which were used include flow cytometry, ELISA, and Human Proteome profiler kits. The results demonstrated that secretory factors in MSCs conditional medium lead to increased expression of FoxP3 and increased secretion of IL-10 by T helpers. The obtained results give us opportunity to discuss the interaction between two kinds of immunoregulatory cells: MSCs and FoxP3+ T helpers. We suppose that this interaction leads to increased number of immunosuppressive helpers which secrete IL-10. MSCs provide some of their immunosuppressive functions acting on T regulatory cells, and we believe that IL-6 secreted by MSCs is involved in this process.
PMCID: PMC3521492  PMID: 23251077
17.  Natural Killer Cell Regulation by MicroRNAs in Health and Disease 
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes that are critical for normal host defense against infections and mediate antitumor immune responses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small, noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the majority of cellular processes and pathways. Our understanding of how miRNAs regulate NK cells biology is limited, but recent studies have provided novel insight into their expression by NK cells, and how they contribute to the regulation of NK cell development, maturation, survival, and effector function. Here, we review the expression of miRNAs by NK cells, their contribution to cell intrinsic and extrinsic control of NK cell development and effector response, and their dysregulation in NK cell malignancies.
PMCID: PMC3514007  PMID: 23226942
18.  Increased Expression of microRNA-17 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Glioma 
Aim. To investigate the clinical significance of microRNA-17 (miR-17) expression in human gliomas. Methods. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to characterize the expression patterns of miR-17 in 108 glioma and 20 normal brain tissues. The associations of miR-17 expression with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of glioma patients were also statistically analyzed. Results. Compared with normal brain tissues, miR-17 expression was significantly higher in glioma tissues (P < 0.001). In addition, the increased expression of miR-17 in glioma was significantly associated with advanced pathological grade (P = 0.006) and low Karnofsky performance score (KPS, P = 0.01). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses showed that miR-17 overexpression (P = 0.008) and advanced pathological grade (P = 0.02) were independent factors predicting poor prognosis for gliomas. Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that miR-17 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival in glioma patients with high pathological grades (for grade III~IV: P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our data offer the convinced evidence that the increased expression of miR-17 may have potential value for predicting poor prognosis in glioma patients with high pathological grades, indicating that miR-17 may contribute to glioma progression and be a candidate therapeutic target for this disease.
PMCID: PMC3514846  PMID: 23226946
19.  Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Dairy Cow Suffering from Mastitis 
To develop a rapid detection method of Staphylococcus aureus using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), four specific primers were designed according to six distinct sequences of the nuc gene. In addition, the specificity and sensitivity of LAMP were verified and compared with those of PCR. Results showed that the LAMP reaction was completed within 45 min at 62.5°C, and ladder bands were appeared in LAMP products analyzed by gel electrophoresis. After adding 1x SYBR Green l, the positive reaction tube showed green color and the negative reaction tube remained orange, indicating that the LAMP has high specificity. The minimal detectable concentration of LAMP was 1 × 102 CFU/mL and that of PCR was 1 × 104 CFU/mL, indicating that the LAMP was 100 times more sensitive than the PCR. The LAMP method for detection of Staphylococcus aureus has many advantages, such as simple operation, high sensitivity, high specificity, and rapid analysis. Therefore, this method is more suitable for the rapid on-site detection of Staphylococcus aureus.
PMCID: PMC3519349  PMID: 23251078
20.  Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso 
Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT) and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.
PMCID: PMC3511849  PMID: 23226937
21.  Progesterone Downregulates Oestrogen-Induced Expression of CFTR and SLC26A6 Proteins and mRNA in Rats' Uteri 
Under progesterone (P) dominance, fluid loss assists uterine closure which is associated with pH reduction. We hypothesize that P inhibits uterine fluid secretion and HCO3− transport. Aim. to investigate the expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) and Cl−/HCO3− exchanger (SLC26A6) under P effect. Method. Uteri from ovariectomized steroid replaced and intact rats at different stages of oestrous cycle were analyzed for changes in protein and mRNA expressions. Results. P inhibits CFTR and SLC26A6 proteins and mRNA expression while oestrogen (E) causes vice versa. E treatment followed by P causes a reduction in these transporters' mRNA and protein. Similar changes occur throughout the oestrous cycle; that is, CFTR mRNA expression was high at proestrus while SLC26A6 mRNA and protein expressions were increased at proestrus and estrus. At diestrus, however, the expression of these transporters' protein and mRNA was reduced. Conclusion. Inhibition of CFTR and SLC26A6 expressions may explain the reduced fluid volume and pH under P-mediated effect.
PMCID: PMC3513973  PMID: 23226939
22.  Trends in Tissue Engineering for Blood Vessels 
Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient's conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering.
PMCID: PMC3518873  PMID: 23251085
23.  Genistein Attenuates Vascular Endothelial Impairment in Ovariectomized Hyperhomocysteinemic Rats 
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a well-known independent risk factor for vascular diseases in the general population. This study was to explore the effect of genistein (GST), a natural bioactive compound derived from legumes, on HHcy-induced vascular endothelial impairment in ovariectomized rats in vivo. Thirty-two adult female Wistar rats were assigned randomly into four groups (n = 8): (a) Con: control; (b) Met: 2.5% methionine diet; (c) OVX + Met: ovariectomy + 2.5% methionine diet; (d) OVX + Met + GST: ovariectomy + 2.5% methionine diet + supplementation with genistein. After 12 wk of different treatment, the rats' blood, toracic aortas and liver samples were collected for analysis. Results showed that high-methionine diet induced both elevation of plasma Hcy and endothelial dysfunction, and ovariectomy deteriorated these injuries. Significant improvement of both functional and morphological changes of vascular endothelium was observed in OVX + Met + GST group; meanwhile the plasma Hcy levels decreased remarkably. There were significant elevations of plasma ET-1 and liver MDA levels in ovariectomized HHcy rats, and supplementation with genistein could attenuate these changes. These results implied that genistein could lower the elevated Hcy levels, and prevent the development of endothelial impairment in ovariectomized HHcy rats. This finding may shed a novel light on the anti-atherogenic activities of genistein in HHcy patients.
PMCID: PMC3511852  PMID: 23226943
24.  Enhanced Hemostatic Performance of Tranexamic Acid-Loaded Chitosan/Alginate Composite Microparticles 
Novel microparticles based on chitosan and sodium alginate were prepared using emulsification and cross-linking technologies. The spherical microparticles had a porous surface and a diameter of 2 ~ 40 μm. In simulated body fluid, these microparticles quickly swelled but gradually degraded. The results of the MTT assay revealed that a slight inhibition of cell proliferation was observed on day 2 and then gradually decreased afterward. No cell morphology changes were observed. By loading tranexamic acid, the hemostatic performance of the microparticles was obviously improved. Using fast-acting styptic powder (Flashclot) as the control, the hemostatic efficiency was investigated in rabbits using a liver transection bleeding model. It was found that both Flashclot and the microparticles achieved hemostasis in 3.07 ± 0.84 min and 2.48 ± 0.88 min, respectively; however, the tranexamic acid-loaded microparticles stopped the bleeding in 1.90 ± 0.75 min (P < 0.05). Additionally, Flashclot resulted in heat injury to the experimental livers, while the microparticles did not. Thus, with their biodegradability, safety, and superior hemostatic efficiency, tranexamic acid-loaded microparticles might be a promising new powdered hemostatic agent with a wide range of potential applications.
PMCID: PMC3502066  PMID: 23193369
25.  Patterns of Synonymous Codon Usage on Human Metapneumovirus and Its Influencing Factors 
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important agent of acute respiratory tract infection in children, while its pathogenicity and molecular evolution are lacking. Herein, we firstly report the synonymous codon usage patterns of HMPV genome. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, effective number of codon (ENC) values, nucleotide contents, and correlation analysis were performed among 17 available whole genome of HMPV, including different genotypes. All preferred codons in HMPV are ended with A/U nucleotide and exhibited a great association with its high proportion of these two nucleotides in their genomes. Mutation pressure rather than natural selection is the main influence factor that determines the bias of synonymous codon usage in HMPV. The complementary pattern of codon usage bias between HMPV and human cell was observed, and this phenomenon suggests that host cells might be also act as an important factor to affect the codon usage bias. Moreover, the codon usage biases in each HMPV genotypes are separated into different clades, which suggest that phylogenetic distance might involve in codon usage bias formation as well. These analyses of synonymous codon usage bias in HMPV provide more information for better understanding its evolution and pathogenicity.
PMCID: PMC3502075  PMID: 23193361

Results 1-25 (1786)