The effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the renal outer medulla (OM) was determined in a model of dihydrotachysterol (DHT)-induced hypercalcemia. Increases in serum calcium and water intake were observed during ingestion of a DHT-containing diet in both wild type (WT) and TNF deficient mice (TNF−/−). Polyuria and a decrease in body weight were observed in response to DHT treatment in WT and TNF−/− mice. A transient elevation in urinary TNF was observed in WT mice treated with DHT. Moreover, increased urinary levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and a corresponding increase in COX-2 expression in the OM were observed in WT mice fed DHT. Increased COX-2 expression was not observed in TNF−/− mice fed DHT, and the characteristics of PGE2 synthesis were distinct from those in WT mice. This study demonstrates that COX-2 expression in the OM, secondary to hypercalemia, is TNF-dependent.
COX-2; thick ascending limb; TNF; hypercalcemia; calcium-sensing receptor
Products of the COX reaction are frequently elevated in solid tumors and their roles in the malignant phenotype have been extensively investigated. We have shown that COX-2 is essential for the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells in the fat pad of SCID mice and for their extrapulmonary colonization following injection in the tail vein of SCID mice. The molecular changes that follow shRNA-mediated silencing of COX-2 include a significant downregulation of LEF-1, a transcription factor normally activated during development following the Wnt-induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin. We also report that COX-2-silenced cells have reduced nuclear accumulation of LEF-1 protein and that the COX-2 product PGE2 partially restored nuclear LEF-1 expression in COX-2-silenced cells. Further, we demonstrate that, like parental COX-2 containing MDAMB-231 cells, COX-2-silenced cells maintain nuclear localization of β-catenin.
Cyclooxygenase-2; Prostaglandin E2; Lymphoid Enhancer Factor-1; β-catenin; Wnt; breast cancer
The thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop (TAL) is capable of metabolizing arachidonic acid (AA) by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways and has been identified as a nephron segment that contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension. Previous studies demonstrated a prominent role for CYP450-dependent metabolism of AA to products that inhibited ion transport pathways in the TAL. However, COX-2 is constitutively expressed along all segments of the TAL and is increased in response to diverse stimuli. The ability of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, a selective marker of cortical TAL (cTAL) and medullary (mTAL), to bind TNF and localize it to this nephron segment prompted studies to determine the capacity of mTAL cells to produce TNF and determine its effects on mTAL function. The colocalization of calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) and COX-2 in the TAL supports the notion that activation of CaR induces TNF-dependent COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis in mTAL cells. Additional studies showed that TNF produced by mTAL cells inhibits 86Rb uptake, an in vitro correlate of natriuresis, in an autocrine- and COX-2-dependent manner. The molecular mechanism for these effects likely includes inhibition of Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC2) expression and trafficking.
Eicosanoids; COX-2; calcium-sensing receptor; TNF; NKCC2; NFAT5
The aim of this review is to discuss the contribution of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 in vascular smooth muscle cell growth, hypertension, and associated pathophysiology. CYP1B1 is expressed in cardiovascular and renal tissues, and mediates angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced activation of NADPH oxidase and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and vascular smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, and hypertrophy. Moreover, CYP1B1 contributes to the development and/or maintenance of hypertension produced by Ang II-, deoxycorticosterone Nω-nitro-(DOCA)-salt-, and L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension and in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The pathophysiological changes, including cardiovascular hypertrophy, increased vascular reactivity, endothelial and renal dysfunction, injury and inflammation associated with Ang II- and/or DOCA-salt induced hypertension in rats, and Ang II-induced hypertension in mice are minimized by inhibition of CYP1B1 activity with 2,4,3′,5′-tetramethoxystilbene or by Cyp1b1 gene disruption in mice. These pathophysiological changes appear to be mediated by increased production of ROS via CYP1B1-dependent NADPH oxidase activity and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and c-Src.
cytochrome P450 1B1; reactive oxygen species; angiotensin II-/DOCA-salt-hypertension; cardiovascular hypertrophy; renal dysfunction; inflammation
Activation of rat adenosine 2A receptors (A2A R) dilates preglomerular microvessels, an effect mediated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). High salt (HS) intake increases epoxygenase activity and adenosine levels and greater vasodilator response to a stable adenosine analog, 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA), was seen in kidneys obtained from HS-fed rats which was mediated by increased EET release. Because this pathway is antipressor, we examined the role of the A2A R-EET pathway in a genetic model of salt-sensitive hypertension, the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Dahl S resistant (R) rats fed a HS diet demonstrated a greater renal vasodilator response to 2-CA. In contrast, Dahl SS rats did not exhibit a difference in the vasodilator response to 2-CA whether fed normal salt (NS) or HS diet. In Dahl SR but not Dahl SS rats, HS intake significantly increased purine flux, augmented the protein expression of A2A R and cytochrome P450 2C23 and 2C11 epoxygenases, and elevated the renal efflux of EETs. Thus the Dahl SR rat is able to respond to HS intake by recruiting EET formation, whereas the Dahl SS rat appears to have exhausted its ability to increase EET synthesis above the levels observed on NS intake. In vivo inhibition of the A2A R-EET pathway in Dahl SR rats fed a HS diet results in reduced renal EETs levels, diminished natriuretic capacity and hypertension, thus supporting a role for the A2A R-EET pathway in the adaptive natriuretic response to modulate blood pressure during salt loading. An inability of Dahl SS rats to upregulate the A2A R-EET pathway in response to salt loading may contribute to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.
Cytochrome P450; Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids; Adenosine; Kidney; Salt-sensitive hypertension
Recent reports have shown interplay between EETs (epoxides) and the heme oxygenase (HO) system in attenuating adipogenesis in cell culture models; prompting an examination of the effectiveness of EET agonist on obesity and associated cardio-metabolic dysfunction. Patho-physiological effects of an EET agonist (NUDSA) were contrasted in the absence and in the presence of stannous mesoporphyrin (an HO inhibitor) in SD rats fed a high fat (58%, HF) for 16 weeks. Animals on HF diet exhibited enhanced oxidative stress, increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and decreased levels of adiponectin along with reduced vascular and adipose tissue levels of EETs, HO-1; as compared to control rats (11% dietary fat). Treatment with NUDSA not only reversed serum adiponectin and vascular and adipose tissue levels of EETs and HO-1, but also, decreased blood pressure, subcutaneous and visceral fat content and serum TNFα and IL-6 levels in rats on HF diet. Aortic endothelial function, peNOS expression and adipose tissue markers of energy homeostasis i.e. pAMPK, Sirt1 and FAS, impaired in rats fed a HF diet, were restored in animals treated with this EET agonist. That NUDSA enhanced HO-1 expression, was accompanied by increase in p-GSK-3β and pAKT levels along with attenuation of adipose tissue levels of Bach 1 – the transcriptional suppresser of HO-1 expression. Prevention of these beneficial effects of NUDSA, in animals on HF diet and concurrently exposed to NUDSA and SnMP, supports the role of EET-HO interaction in mediating such effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that the EETs stimulate HO-1 expression via suppression of Bach 1 and interplay of these two systems affords vascular and metabolic protection in diet induced obesity.
Cytochrome P450; HO-1; Metabolic dysfunction; Obesity; Adiponectin
The role of lipid metabolism has gained particular interest in prostate cancer research. A large body of literature has outlined the unique upregulation of de novo lipid synthesis in prostate cancer. Concordant with this lipogenic phenotype is a metabolic shift, in which cancer cells use alternative enzymes and pathways to facilitate the production of fatty acids. These newly synthesized lipids may support a number of cellular processes to promote cancer cell proliferation and survival. Hence, de novo lipogenesis is under intense investigation as a therapeutic target. Epidemiologic studies suggest dietary fat may also contribute to prostate cancer; however, whether dietary lipids and de novo synthesized lipids are differentially metabolized remains unclear. Here, we highlight the lipogenic nature of prostate cancer, especially the promotion of de novo lipid synthesis, and the significance of various dietary lipids in prostate cancer development and progression.
Prostate cancer; de novo lipogenesis; dietary fat
Pneumonia is a major global health problem. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is an immunomodulatory lipid with anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and pro-resolving actions. Data suggest that the E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor mediates immunomodulatory effects of PGE2, but the extent to which this occurs in Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is unknown. Intratracheal lung infection of C57BL/6 mice possessing (EP2+/+) or lacking (EP2−/−) the EP2 receptor was performed, as were in vitro studies of alveolar macrophage (AM) host defense functions. Bacterial clearance and survival were significantly improved in vivo in EP2−/− mice and it correlated with greater neutrophilic inflammation and higher lung IL-12 levels. Upon ex vivo challenge with pneumococcus, EP2−/−cells expressed greater amounts of TNF-α and MIP-2 than did EP2+/+ AMs, and had improved phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and reactive oxygen intermediate generation. These data suggest that PGE2-EP2 signaling may provide a novel pharmacological target for treating pneumococcal pneumonia in combination with antimicrobials.
prostaglandins; pneumonia; bacterial infection; macrophage; innate immunity; cyclooxygenase; Streptococcus
The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a fetal shunt that directs right ventricular outflow away from pulmonary circulation and into the aorta. Critical roles for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the EP4 receptor (EP4) have been established in maintaining both the patency of the vessel in utero and in its closure at birth. Here we have generated mice in which loss of EP4 expression is limited to either the smooth muscle (SMC) or endothelial cells and demonstrated that SMC, but not endothelial cell expression of EP4 is required for DA closure. The genome wide expression analysis of full term wild type and EP4−/− DA indicates that PGE2/EP4 signaling modulates expression of a number of unique pathways, including those involved in SMC proliferation, cell migration, and vascular tone. Together this supports a mechanism by which maturation and increased contractility of the vessel is coupled to the potent smooth muscle dilatory actions of PGE2.
Ductus arteriosus; Prostaglandins; Smooth Muscle; Remodeling; EP4; conditional gene knockout
Intestinal tumors in ApcMin/+ mice are suppressed by over-production of HPGDS, which is a glutathione transferase that forms prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). We characterized naturally occurring HPGDS isoenzymes, to see if HPGDS variation is associated with human colorectal cancer risk. We used DNA heteroduplex analysis and sequencing to identify HPGDS variants among healthy individuals. HPGDS isoenzymes were produced in bacteria, and their catalytic activities were tested. To determine in vivo effects, we conducted pooled case-control analyses to assess whether there is an association of the isoenzyme with colorectal cancer. Roughly 8% of African Americans and 2% of Caucasians had a highly stable Val187lle isoenzyme (with isoleucine instead of valine at position 187). At 37 °C, the wild-type enzyme lost 15% of its activity in one hour, whereas the Val187Ile form remained >95% active. At 50 °C, the half life of native HPGDS was 9 minutes, compared to 42 minutes for Val187Ile. The odds ratio for colorectal cancer among African Americans with Val187Ile was 1.10 (95% CI, 0.75–1.62; 533 cases, 795 controls). Thus, the Val187Ile HPGDS isoenzyme common among African Americans is not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Other approaches will be needed to establish a role for HPGDS in occurrence of human intestinal tumors, as indicated by a mouse model.
glutathione transferase; HPGDS; prostaglandin D2; colon cancer
MSCs are considered to be the natural precursors to adipocyte development through the process of adipogenesis. A link has been established between decreased protective effects of EETs or HO-1 and their interaction in metabolic syndrome. Decreases in HO-1 or EET were associated with an increase in adipocyte stem cell differentiation and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. EET agonist (AKR-I-27-28) inhibited MSC-derived adipocytes and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines. We further describe the role of CYP-epoxygenase expression, HO expression, and circulating cytokine levels in an obese mouse, ob/ob−/− mouse model. Ex vivo measurements of EET expression within MSCs derived from ob/ob−/− showed decreased levels of EETs that were increased by HO induction. This review demonstrates that suppression of HO and EET systems exist in MSCs prior to the development of adipocyte dysfunction. Further, adipocyte dysfunction can be ameliorated by induction of HO-1 and CYP-epoxygenase, i.e. EET.
MSC; EET-Agonist; HO-1; pAKT; adipocyte
Background and Purpose
Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid (EETs) have multiple cardiovascular effects, including reduction of blood pressure, protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and attenuation of endothelial inflammation and apoptosis. The present study was aimed to determine potential neuroprotective roles for EETs in cerebral ischemia.
Transgenic mice with endothelial overexpression of CYP2J2 (Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr) were subjected to global cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for 10 minutes, Cerebral EET production, infarct size, and apoptosis were examined after 24 hours of reperfusion. The action mechanisms of EETs on cerebral ischemia was also studied in cultures of astrocytes and Neuro-2a cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD).
In Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice, CYP2J2 expression and 14, 15-EET production in both brain tissue and plasma significantly increased while brain infarct size and apoptosis after ischemia decreased, accompanied increased activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 pathways, decreased activation of JNK, and higher ratios of Bcl-2/Bax and Bcl-xl/Bax in ischemic brain compared to wild type mice. In cells, addition of exogenous EETs or CYP2J2 transfection attenuated OGD-induced apoptosis by activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways, inhibition of JNK, which were reduced by pretreatments with inhibitors of the PI3K (LY294002), the MAPK (PD98059) and EETs (EEZE), respectively.
We conclude that CYP2J2 overexpression exerts marked neuroprotective effects against ischemic injury by a mechanism linked to increased level of circulating EETs and reduction of apoptosis. These data suggests the possibility for clinical therapy of cerebral ischemia by enhancing EET levels.
arachidonic acid; cytochrome P450 epoxygenase; global cerebral ischemia; neuroprotection; stroke
Eicosanoids have been implicated in the physiological regulation of hematopoiesis with pleiotropic effects on hematopoietic stem cells and various classes of lineage restricted progenitor cells. Herein we review the effects of eicosanoids on hematopoiesis, focusing on new findings implicating prostaglandin E2 in enhancing hematopoietic stem cell engraftment by enhancing stem cell homing, survival and self-renewal. We also describe a role for cannabinoids in hematopoiesis. Lastly, we discuss the yin and yang of various eicosanoids in modulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell functions and summarize potential strategies to take advantage of these effects for therapeutic benefit for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
eicosanoids; hematopoietic stem cells; transplantation; hematopoietic stem cell homing; stem cell engraftment
Hypertension is a well established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and is the leading cause of chronic kidney failure. Although a number of pharmacologic agents are available for the treatment of hypertension including agents that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), unmet needs in the treatment of hypertension suggest that identification of novel pharmacological targets would be an important healthcare goal. One potential target is prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent lipid mediator with a diverse and sometimes opposing range of biological effects. PGE2 signals through four subtypes of G-protein coupled receptors designated EP1 through EP4. PGE2 functions primarily as a vasodepressor; under certain conditions PGE2 administration mediates vasopressor activity. This review focuses on the current understanding of the roles of PGE2 receptors in vascular reactivity, hypertension and end-organ damage.
Prostaglandin E2; hypertension; GPCR; mouse; rat
We have previously found increased expression of thromboxane synthase (TXAS) and thromboxane receptor (TP) beta isoform in the tissues of patients with bladder cancer. Studies in cell lines and mice have indicated a potential significant role of the thromboxane signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of human bladder cancer. This study was designed to determine if the changes observed in the tissues of patients with bladder cancer were mirrored by changes in the urine of these patients. We found increased levels of thromboxane B2, (TXB2) the major metabolite of TXAS and increased levels of the TPβ receptor. These results raised the possibility that patients with bladder cancer may be followed for progression or remission of their disease by quantitation of these substances in their urine.
Bladder cancer; thromboxane synthase; Thromboxane B2; thromboxane receptor; beta isoform
Prostaglandin (PG)I2 has important regulatory functions on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Recent experimental evidence reveals that PGI2 modulates the development and function of CD4+ T cells subsets, including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell responses. In vitro and in vivo studies support that PGI2 generally has an inhibitory effect on Th1 and Th2 activation, differentiation, and cytokine production. In contrast, PGI2 seems to enhance Th17-favoring polarization conditions, resulting in Th17 cytokine production. Therefore, PGI2 may either promote or inhibit individual CD4+ cell subsets and impact adaptive immune responses.
PGI2; T cell; Interferon-γ; Dendritic cell
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the n-3 essential fatty acid that is highly enriched in the brain, increases neurite growth and synaptogenesis in cultured mouse fetal hippocampal neurons. These cellular effects may underlie the DHA-induced enhancement of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory functions. We found that N-docsahexaenoylethanolamide (DEA), an ethanolamide derivative of DHA, is a potent mediator for these actions. This is supported by the observation that DHA is converted to DEA by fetal mouse hippocampal neuron cultures and a hippocampal homogenate, and DEA is present endogenously in the mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, DEA stimulates neurite growth and synaptogenesis at substantially lower concentrations than DHA, and it enhances glutamatergic synaptic activities with concomitant increases in synapsin and glutamate receptor subunit expression in the hippocampal neurons. These findings suggest that DEA, an ethanolamide derivative of DHA, is a synaptogenic factor, and therefore we suggest utilizing the term ‘synaptamide’. This brief review summarizes the neuronal production and actions of synaptamide and describes other N-docosahexaenoyl amides that are present in the brain.
N-Docosahexaenoylethanolamide; Synaptamide; DHA; Hippocampus; Neuron; Anandamide; N-Docosahexaenoyl-amino acylamide
The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme regulates the levels of endogenous epoxygenated fatty acid (EFA) lipid metabolites by rapidly degrading these molecules. The EFAs have pleiotropic biological activities including the modulation of nociceptive signaling. Recent findings indicate that the EFAs, in particular the arachidonic acid (AA) derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EpDPEs) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) derived epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EpETEs) are natural signaling molecules. The tight regulation of these metabolites speaks to their importance in regulating biological functions. In the past several years work on EFAs in regard to their activities in the nervous system evolved to demonstrate that these molecules are anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive. Here we focus on the recent advances in understanding the effects of sEH inhibition and increased EFAs on the nociceptive system and their ability to reduce pain. Evidence of their role in modulating pain signaling is given by their direct application and by inhibiting their degradation in various models of pain. Moreover, there is mounting evidence of EFAs role in the crosstalk between major nociceptive and anti-nociceptive systems which is reviewed herein. Overall the fundamental knowledge generated within the past decade indicates that orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitors of sEH may find a place in the treatment of a number of diverse painful conditions including inflammatory and neuropathic pain.
Epoxygenated fatty acids; Nociception; Hyperalgesia; Allodynia; Arachidonic acid; Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid; CNS; Opioid; Cannabinoid
Androgen plays an important role in blood pressure regulation. Epidemiological studies have shown that men have a higher prevalence for developing hypertension than aged-matched, premenopausal women. Interestingly, postmenopausal women and women with polycystic ovary syndrome, both of which have increased endogenous androgen production, have elevated risks for hypertension suggesting that androgen may contribute to its development. Studies from our laboratory and others have provided substantial evidence that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) mediates the hypertension seen in rodents treated with androgen. 20-HETE is the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived ω-hydroxylated metabolite of arachidonic acid. 20-HETE plays a complex role in blood pressure regulation. In the kidney tubules, 20-HETE decreases blood pressure by promoting natriuresis, while in the microvasculature it has a pressor effect. In the microcirculation, 20-HETE participates in the regulation of vascular tone by sensitizing the smooth muscle cells to constrictor stimuli and contributes to myogenic, mitogenic and angiogenic responses. In addition, 20-HETE acts on the endothelium to promote endothelial dysfunction and endothelial activation. Recently, we have demonstrated that 20-HETE induces endothelial ACE thus setting forth a potential feed forward mechanism through activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System. In this review, we will discuss the pro-hypertensive effects of 20-HETE and its role in androgen-induced vascular dysfunction and hypertension.
Androgen; DHT; Hypertension; 20-HETE; CYP4A/F; ACE; IKK; Endothelial dysfunction; Vascular reactivity
Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes into eicosanoids, which are involved in diverse diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes. During the last thirty years, evidence has been accumulated that suggests important functions for eicosanoids in the control of pancreatic β-cell function and destruction. AA metabolites of the COX pathway, especially prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), appear to be significant factors to β-cell dysfunction and destruction, participating in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Several elegant studies have contributed to the sorting out of the importance of 12-LOX eicosanoids in cytokine-mediated inflammation in pancreatic β cells. The role of CYP eicosanoids in diabetes is yet to be explored. A recent publication has demonstrated that stabilizing the levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), CYP eicosanoids, by inhibiting or deleting soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) improves β-cell function and reduces β-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In this review we summarize recent findings implicating these eicosanoid pathways in diabetes and its complications. We also discuss the development of animal models with targeted gene deletion and specific enzymatic inhibitors in each pathway to identify potential targets for the treatment of diabetes and its complications.
Sphingolipids are membrane components and are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolic regulation. In this study we investigated whether de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis in macrophages is regulated by inflammatory stimuli. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment upregulated Sptlc2, a subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), mRNA and protein in Raw264.7 and mouse peritoneal macrophages, but Sptlc1, another subunit of SPT, was not altered. SPT activation by LPS elevated cellular levels of ceramides and sphingomyelin (SM). Pharmacological inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) prevented LPS-induced upregulation of Sptlc2 while transfection of p65 subunit of NFκB upregulated Sptlc2 and increased cellular ceramide levels. In contrast, MAP kinases were not involved in regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Analysis of Sptlc2 promoter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that NFκB binding sites are located in Sptlc2 promoter region. Our results demonstrate that inflammatory stimuli activate de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis via NFκB and may play a critical role in lipid metabolism in macrophages.
inflammation; ceramide; serine palmitoyltransferase; macrophage; NFκB
Ultraviolet light radiation (UVR) has profound effects upon human skin. Yet, the exact targets for UVR are unclear. Inasmuch as UVR is a known pro-oxidative stressor, one potential target for UVR could be oxidatively modified glycerophosphocholines (GPC). Importantly, recent studies demonstrate that these oxidized GPCs (ox-GPC) are potent agonists for the platelet-activating factor receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. This review discusses these new biologically active lipids and their down-stream receptor targets that provide a unique system of biosensors for detecting and responding to UVR photo-oxidation.
Oxidation; ultraviolet rays; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; platelet activating factor receptor; glycerophosphoscholines
To determine the contribution of cysteines to the function of the mouse E-prostanoid subtype 3 gamma (mEP3γ), we tested a series of cysteine-to-alanine mutants. Two of these mutants, C107A and C184A, showed no agonist-dependent activation in a cell-based reporter assay for mEP3γ, whereas none of the other cysteine-to-alanine mutations disrupted mEP3γ signal transduction. Total cell membranes prepared from HEK293 cells transfected with mEP3γ C107A or C184A had no detectable radioligand binding. Other mutant mEP3γ receptors had radioligand affinities and receptor densities similar to wild-type. Cell-surface ELISA against the N-terminal HA-tag of C107A and C184A demonstrated 40 % and 47 % reductions respectively in receptor protein expression at the cell surface, and no radioligand binding was detected as assessed by intact cell radioligand binding experiments. These data suggest a key role for C107 and C184 in both receptor structure/stability and function and is consistent with the presence of a conserved disulfide bond between C107 and C184 in mouse EP3 that is required for normal receptor expression and function. Our results also indicate that if a second disulfide bond is present in the native receptor it is non-essential for receptor assembly or function.
Prostaglandin E2; mutagenesis; cysteine; disulfide bond; GPCRs*