PANBIO Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were assessed against Brucella standard agglutination tube and Coombs tests. The sensitivities of ELISA IgG and IgM were 91% and 100%, respectively, while the specificity was 100% for both. These ELISAs are simple, rapid, and reliable for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.
The migration of neutrophils through infected tissues is mediated by the CXC chemokines and its receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2). It has been proposed that a CXCR1 deficiency could confer susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis in children. The objective of the study is to assess the surface expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 and the existence of polymorphisms in the CXCR1 gene in premenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. The study included 20 premenopausal women with recurrent urinary infections, with normal urinary tracts, and without diseases potentially associated with relapsing urinary infections and 30 controls without previous urinary infections. The levels of CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression on neutrophils were measured and analyzed by flow cytometry by measuring the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) channel. The promoter and coding regions of the CXCR1 gene were analyzed for the presence of polymorphisms by a sequence-based typing method. Patients with recurrent urinary tract infections exhibited median levels of CXCR1 expression, determined from MFI values, similar to those of the controls. The analysis of CXCR2 showed that patients with recurrent urinary infections had lower median levels of expression, determined from the MFI values, than the controls (P = 0.002, Mann-Whitney U test). No polymorphisms were detected at the promoter or at the exon 1 region of the CXCR1 gene either in the patients or in the controls. Polymorphisms were detected at the exon 2 of CXCR1, but their frequencies did not differ between patients and controls. We have found a low level of CXCR2 expression in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. These results suggest that a low level of CXCR2 expression may increase the susceptibilities of premenopausal women to urinary tract infections.
Immunoassay-based anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) screens are increasingly used in the initial evaluation of autoimmune disorders, but these tests offer no “pattern information” comparable to the information from indirect fluorescence assay-based screens. Thus, there is no indication of “next steps” when a positive result is obtained. To improve the utility of immunoassay-based ANA screening, we evaluated a new method that combines a multiplex immunoassay with a k nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithm for computer-assisted pattern recognition. We assembled a training set, consisting of 1,152 sera from patients with various rheumatic diseases and nondiseased patients. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex method and algorithm were evaluated with a test set that consisted of 173 sera collected at a rheumatology clinic from patients diagnosed by using standard criteria, as well as 152 age- and sex-matched sera from presumably healthy individuals (sera collected at a blood bank). The test set was also evaluated with a HEp-2 cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both the ELISA and multiplex immunoassay results were positive for 94% of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The kNN algorithm correctly proposed an SLE pattern for 84% of the antibody-positive SLE patients. For patients with no connective tissue disease, the multiplex method found fewer positive results than the ELISA screen, and no disease was proposed by the kNN algorithm for most of these patients. In conclusion, the automated algorithm could identify SLE patterns and may be useful in the identification of patients who would benefit from early referral to a specialist, as well as patients who do not require further evaluation.
Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is important for patient management and prevention of new infections. The number of test kits available for the detection of HIV antibodies is unprecedented. In order to identify appropriate test kits, we evaluated a variety of commercial kits manufactured abroad as well as in India. The plasma and serum specimens (n = 264) were collected from individuals attending the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre at the YRG Centre for AIDS and Education. The specimens were used to evaluate six commercially available HIV test kits: Enzaids HIV 1+2, HIV-CheX, Murex HIV-1.2.0, Genscreen HIV 1/2 version 2, Vironostika HIV Uni-Form II Ag/Ab, and CombAids RS Advantage. High sensitivities and specificities (≥99%) were observed for the Enzaids, Murex, Vironostika, and CombAids assays. HIV-CheX showed the highest number of false-positive and false-negative results. The Genscreen test also gave many false positives. The study indicated that the Enzaids, Murex, and Vironostika enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and the CombAids RS Advantage rapid assay could be used to achieve acceptable results for the detection of HIV antibodies. A combination of two tests is recommended to optimize the efficiency of HIV antibody testing algorithms, especially when evaluation with an HIV Western blot confirmatory test is not possible.
Five-month-old lambs were simultaneously infected with different doses of two 16S rRNA genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and thereafter followed for clinical observation and blood sampling. The result of the study indicates a unidirectional suppression of genotypes in infected lambs, at least during a certain period of an A. phagocytophilum infection.
This study was designed to develop a customized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of Johne's disease (JD) in farmed deer. Two antigens were selected on the basis of their superior diagnostic readouts: denatured purified protein derivative (PPDj) and undenatured protoplasmic antigen (PpAg). ELISA development was based on the antigen reactivity of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, which is a highly specific marker for mycobacterial disease seroreactivity in deer. Sensitivity estimates and test parameters were established using 102 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected animals from more than 10 deer herds, and specificity estimates were determined using 508 uninfected animals from 5 known disease-free herds. A receiver-operated characteristic analysis determined that at a cut point of 50 ELISA units, there was a specificity of 99.5% and sensitivities of 84.0% with PPDj antigen, 88.0% with PpAg, and 91.0% when the antigens were used serially in a composite test. Estimated sensitivity was further improved using recombinant protein antigens unique for M. paratuberculosis, which identified infected animals that were unreactive to PPDj or PpAg. While 80% of animals that were seropositive in the IgG1 ELISA had detectable histopathology, the assay could also detect animals with subclinical disease. The test was significantly less sensitive (75%) for animals that were culture positive for M. paratuberculosis but with no detectable pathology than for those with pathological evidence of JD (>90%). When the IgG1 ELISA was used annually over a 4-year period in a deer herd with high levels of clinical JD, it eliminated clinical disease, increased production levels, and reduced JD-related mortality.
In clinical settings, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 administration has been reported to have a favorable effect on Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, although the mechanism remains unclear. We administered, continuously through the water supply, live La1 to H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice and followed colonization, the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis in the lamina propria, and the levels of proinflammatory chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC) in the serum and gastric tissue over a period of 3 months. We documented a significant attenuation in both lymphocytic (P = 0.038) and neutrophilic (P = 0.003) inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria as well as in the circulating levels of anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies (P = 0.003), although we did not observe a suppressive effect of La1 on H. pylori colonizing numbers. Other lactobacilli, such as L. amylovorus DCE 471 and L. acidophilus IBB 801, did not attenuate H. pylori-associated gastritis to the same extent. MIP-2 serum levels were distinctly reduced during the early stages of H. pylori infection in the La1-treated animals, as were gastric mucosal levels of MIP-2 and KC. Finally, we also observed a significant reduction (P = 0.046) in H. pylori-induced interleukin-8 secretion by human adenocarcinoma AGS cells in vitro in the presence of neutralized (pH 6.8) La1 spent culture supernatants, without concomitant loss of H. pylori viability. These observations suggest that during the early infection stages, administration of La1 can attenuate H. pylori-induced gastritis in vivo, possibly by reducing proinflammatory chemotactic signals responsible for the recruitment of lymphocytes and neutrophils in the lamina propria.
Probiotic bacteria, including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, have been shown to enhance antibody responses in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a probiotic product containing the above bacteria in addition to Streptococcus faecalis on the induction of the chicken antibody response to various antigens, both systemically and in the gut. The birds received probiotics via oral gavage and subsequently were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to evaluate antibody responses in serum or with tetanus toxoid (TT) to measure the mucosal antibody response in gut contents. Control groups received phosphate-buffered saline. Overall, BSA and SRBC induced a detectable antibody response as early as week 1 postimmunization (p.i.), which lasted until week 3 p.i. Probiotic-treated birds had significantly (P ≤ 0.001) more serum antibody (predominantly immunoglobulin M [IgM]) to SRBC than the birds that were not treated with probiotics. However, treatment with probiotics did not enhance the serum IgM and IgG antibody responses to BSA. Immunization with TT resulted in the presence of specific IgA and IgG antibody responses in the gut. Again, treatment with probiotics did not change the level or duration of the antibody response in the gut. In conclusion, probiotics enhance the systemic antibody response to some antigens in chickens, but it remains to be seen whether probiotics have an effect on the generation of the mucosal antibody response.
The aims of the present study were to determine (i) the long-term immunogenicity and the decay rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antibody (anti-HBs) from universal hepatitis B vaccination at infancy for a healthy population in an area of hyperendemicity and (ii) whether the anti-HBs levels measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were closely correlated with those assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods during long-term monitoring. A total of 1,337 apparently healthy children (696 boys and 641 girls) who were vaccinated against HBV at infancy and monitored for anti-HBs annually from 7 to 16 years of age entered the study. Serum samples were analyzed for anti-HBs by RIA at 7 to 15 years of age and were also analyzed by EIA at 13 to 16 years of age. Antibody titers were quantified in mIU/ml by EIA as well as by the ratio of the count in the sample to the count for a negative control (S/N) by RIA. In nonboosted children, the average decay of anti-HBs from 7 to 16 years of ages indicated that approximately 20% of the geometric mean titer decays per year. There was a good correlation between serum anti-HBs levels measured by the RIA and the EIA methods (r = 0.91; P < 0.0001). An equation for RIA to EIA level conversion was established: log EIA titer = −0.12 + (1.31 · log RIA S/N). The anti-HBs titers measured by EIA correlate well with the S/N assayed by RIA. The annual decay rate of the log anti-HBs level may help in planning booster immunizations for hyporesponders or individuals at risk in adolescence.
Previous studies have indicated that neopterin is synthesized in vitro by human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Neopterin production under specific conditions in vitro has also been obtained upon stimulation with IFN-α and/or IFN-β. However, it is unknown if any IFN-γ-independent neopterin synthesis is possible in vivo. In the present study we investigated the serum neopterin concentrations in patients affected by the syndrome of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Indeed, this syndrome is characterized by deeply impaired or absent IFN-γ production or function due to severe mutations in molecules involved in IFN-γ/interleukin-12 (IL-12)/IL-23-dependent pathway. Serum neopterin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 27 patients with MSMD. We found that serum neopterin levels are elevated in the complete absence of IFN-γ activity due either to a complete deficiency of its receptor or to deleterious mutations of IL-12 or its receptor. These data clearly indicate that, as reported from in vitro studies, other stimuli are able to induce neopterin synthesis in vivo. Consequently, neopterin cannot be used as means of diagnosis of MSMD due to IFN-γ-, IL-12-, and IL-23-dependent pathway defects.
DNA vaccines induce protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in several animal models. However, compared to conventional vaccines, DNA vaccines usually induce poor antibody responses. In this study, we report that coadministration of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine with prothymosin α as an adjuvant improves antibody responses to HBV S antigen. We also observed higher seroconversion rates and higher antibody titers. Prothymosin α appears to increase the number and affinity of hepatitis B surface antigen-specific, gamma interferon-secreting T cells and to enhance cellular immune response to the PreS2S DNA vaccine. Interestingly, administering the DNA separately from the prothymosin α plasmid abrogated the enhancement of DNA vaccine potency. The results suggest that prothymosin α may be a promising adjuvant for DNA vaccines.
The serum antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus of 18 SARS patients were checked at 1 month and every 3 months after disease onset. All of them except one, who missed blood sampling at 1 month, tested positive for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody at 1 month. Fifteen out of 17 tested positive for the IgM antibody at 1 month. The serum IgM antibody of most patients became undetectable within 6 months after the onset of SARS. The IgG antibody of all 17 patients, whose serum was checked 1 year after disease onset, remained positive.
Storage mites may cause allergic respiratory diseases in urban areas as well as pose an occupational hazard in rural areas. Characterization of storage mite allergens is important for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents against mite-associated allergic disorders. Here we report on the cloning and expression of α-tubulin from the storage mite (Tyrophagus putrescentiae). The deduced amino acid sequence of the α-tubulin from the storage mite showed as much as 97.3% identity to the α-tubulin sequences from other organisms. The highly conserved amino acid sequences of α-tubulins across different species of mites may indicate that cross-reactivity for this potential allergen exists. The frequency of immunoglobulin E reactivity of this recombinant protein is 29.3% in sera from storage mite-allergic subjects.
Several serology-based immunoassays are used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a chronic protozoan parasitic disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex. These tests are primarily designed to diagnose the most severe clinical form of VL, known as kala-azar. However, leishmanial infection is frequently asymptomatic and may manifest only as a positive serologic response or positive leishmanin skin test. We modified a previously described enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects patient antibodies reactive with the recombinant Leishmania protein K39 (rK39) to confirm suspected kala-azar and to detect asymptomatic infection in a community study in Bangladesh. With the inclusion of a standard curve on each ELISA plate, the rK39 ELISA was more repeatable (kappa coefficient of agreement = 0.970) and more reliable compared to the original method (kappa = 0.587, P < 0.001). The cutoff point for a positive antibody response was chosen based on the 99th percentile of the ELISA distribution for the negative-control sera. However, we found that sera from all patients with active kala-azar yielded values more than twice the magnitude of this cutoff. Using receiver-operator characteristic curves, we determined a second cutoff value predictive of kala-azar. Using these criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of the modified ELISA for kala-azar were 97.0% and 98.9%, respectively, for sera from our study population. We hypothesize that individuals with antibody levels greater than the 99th percentile of the negative controls but less than the cutoff point for kala-azar have asymptomatic leishmanial infections.
Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an attenuated rough mutant used as the live vaccine against bovine brucellosis in the United States and other countries. We previously reported the development of strain RB51 as a bacterial vaccine vector for inducing Th1-type immune responses against heterologous proteins. Because safety concerns may preclude the use of strain RB51-based recombinant live vaccines, we explored the ability of a gamma-irradiated recombinant RB51 strain to induce heterologous antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice. Exposure of strain RB51G/LacZ expressing Escherichia coli β-galactosidase to a minimum of 300 kilorads of gamma radiation resulted in complete loss of replicative ability. These bacteria, however, remained metabolically active and continued to synthesize β-galactosidase. A single intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with 109 CFU equivalents of gamma-irradiated, but not heat-killed, RB51G/LacZ induced a β-galactosidase-specific Th1-type immune response. Though no obvious differences were detected in immune responses to B. abortus-specific antigens, mice vaccinated with gamma-irradiated, but not heat-killed, RB51G/LacZ developed significant protection against challenge with virulent B. abortus. In vitro experiments indicated that gamma-irradiated and heat-killed RB51G/LacZ induced maturation of dendritic cells; however, stimulation with gamma-irradiated bacteria resulted in more interleukin-12 secretion. These results suggest that recombinant RB51 strains exposed to an appropriate minimum dose of gamma radiation are unable to replicate but retain their ability to stimulate Th1 immune responses against the heterologous antigens and confer protection against B. abortus challenge in mice.
Colonization with Helicobacter pylori eventuates in varied clinical outcomes, which relate to both bacterial and host factors. Here we examine the relationships between cagA status, serum and gastric juice antibody responses, and gastric inflammation in dyspeptic patients. Serum, gastric juice, and gastric biopsy specimens were obtained from 89 patients undergoing endoscopy. H. pylori colonization and cagA status were determined by histology, culture, and PCR methods, and acute inflammation and chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa were scored by a single pathologist. Serum and gastric juice antibodies to H. pylori whole-cell and CagA antigens were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Relationships between variables were sequentially analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Of the 89 subjects, 62 were colonized by H. pylori. By univariate analyses, levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and gastric juice IgA antibodies against whole-cell and CagA antigens each were significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive group than in the H. pylori-negative group (P < 0.001). H. pylori and CagA seropositivities were both significantly associated with enhanced inflammation in gastric antrum and body (P < 0.02). The presence of gastric juice antibodies to H. pylori antigens was associated with more severe gastric inflammation. However, in multivariate analyses, only the presence of serum antibodies against CagA and, to a lesser extent, whole-cell antigens remained significantly associated with acute and chronic inflammation in antrum and body (P < 0.05). Thus, serum antibody response to CagA correlates with severity of gastric inflammation. Furthermore, given the relationships demonstrated by multivariate analysis, determination of gastric juice antibodies may provide a better representation of serum, rather than secretory, immune response.
Mycoplasma alligatoris causes acute lethal primary infection of susceptible hosts. A genome survey implicated sialidase and hyaluronidase, potential promoters of CD95-mediated eukaryotic cell death, as virulence factors of M. alligatoris. We used immunofluorescence imaging and flow cytometry to examine the effects of M. alligatoris infection in vitro on CD95 expression and apoptosis by alligator cardiac fibroblasts, a major cell type of a target organ of M. alligatoris infection in vivo. A uniform distribution of CD95 in primary cultured cardiac, skeletal muscle, and embryonic fibroblasts was demonstrated by using polyclonal antibodies against the N or C terminus of mouse or human CD95. Anti-CD95 antibodies reacted on Western blots of fibroblast lysates with a band with the predicted apparent molecular weight of CD95, but soluble CD95 was not detected in plasma from control or M. alligatoris-infected alligators. The proportion of CD95-gated cardiac fibroblasts increased threefold (P < 0.01) 48 h after inoculation with M. alligatoris. Infection induced morphological changes in cardiac fibroblasts, including translocation of CD95 characteristic of apoptosis and an eightfold increase (P < 0.16) in 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation measured in a terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end-labeling apoptosis assay. The proportion of BrdU-gated controls activated with agonistic immunoglobulin M against human CD95 also increased threefold (P < 0.03 for muscle). Heat-inactivated M. alligatoris and sterile M. alligatoris-conditioned culture supernatant had no effect. This is the first report of a CD95 homolog in the class Reptilia and establishes a new model that can be used to test the direct bacterial interaction with upstream components of the CD95 signal transduction pathway.
Use of the standard dual-platform flow cytometric method for determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, which needs both a flow cytometer (FCM) and hematological analyzer, would inevitably lead to increased variability. The development of new single-platform (SP) FCMs that provide direct CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts for improved assay precision and accuracy have recently attracted attention. This study evaluated one of those systems, CyFlowgreen (Partec), a single-parameter SP volumetric FCM. The performance of CyFlowgreen was compared with those of two reference standard SP microbead-based technologies of the three-color TruCOUNT tube with the FACScan FCM and a two-color FACSCount system (Becton Dickinson Biosciences). Absolute CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts in 200 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive blood specimens were determined. Statistical analysis for correlation and agreement were performed. A high correlation of absolute CD4 counts was shown when those obtained with CyFlowgreen were compared with those obtained with the bead-based three-color TruCOUNT system (R2 = 0.96; mean bias, −69.1 cells/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], −225.7 to +87.5 cells/μl) and the FACSCount system (R2 = 0.97; mean bias, −40.0 cells/μl; 95% CI, −165.1 to +85.1 cells/μl). The correlation of the CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts obtained by the two bead-based systems was high (R2 = 0.98). Interestingly, CyFlowgreen yielded CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts that were 21.8 and 7.2 cells/μl lower than those obtained with the TruCOUNT and the FACSCount systems, respectively, when CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were <250 CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts/μl range or 17.3 and 5.8 cells/μl less, respectively, when CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were <200 cells/μl. The single-parameter CyFlowgreen volumetric technology performed well in comparison with the performance of the standard SP bead-based FCM system. However, a multicenter comparative study is needed before this FCM machine is implemented in resource-limited settings.
We have evaluated the utility of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies for distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis and other diarrheal illnesses by evaluating sera from 396 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, and phenotypic correlations were investigated. The implications of our findings for implementing these tests in routine clinical testing are discussed.
Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis.
Prior to being recognized by the cell surface Toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the bacterial outer membrane has to be processed by LPS-binding protein and CD14. CD14 forms a complex with monomeric LPS extracted by LPS-binding protein and transfers LPS to the cell surface signaling complex. In a previous study, we prepared a functional recombinant MD-2 using a bacterial expression system. We expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with thioredoxin and demonstrated specific binding to LPS. In this study, we prepared recombinant CD14 fusion proteins using the same approach. Specific binding of LPS was demonstrated with a recombinant protein containing 151 amino-terminal residues. The region contained a hydrophilic region and the first three leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). The LRRs appeared to contribute to the binding because removal of the region resulted in a reduction in the binding function. LPS binding to the recombinant MD-2 was resistant to detergents. On the other hand, the binding to CD14 was prevented in the presence of low concentrations of detergents. In the case of human MD-2, the secondary myristoyl chain of LPS added by LpxM was required for the binding. A nonpathogenic penta-acyl LPS mutant lacking the myristoyl chain did not bind to MD-2 but did so normally to CD14. The broader LPS-binding spectrum of CD14 may allow recognition of multiple pathogens, and the lower affinity for LPS binding of CD14 allows transmission of captured materials to MD-2.
We recently set up a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT), using selected early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) peptides, that appears specific for active tuberculosis (A-TB). However, ELISPOT is difficult to automate. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if the same selected peptides may be used in a technique more suitable for routine work in clinical laboratories, such as whole-blood enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WBE). For this purpose, 27 patients with A-TB and 41 control patients were enrolled. Our WBE, using the already described selected peptides from ESAT-6 plus three new ones from culture filtrate protein 10, was performed, and data were compared with those obtained by ELISPOT. Using our selected peptides, IFN-γ production, evaluated by both WBE and ELISPOT, was significantly higher in patients with A-TB than in controls (P < 0.0001). Statistical analysis showed a good correlation between the results obtained by WBE and ELISPOT (r = 0.80, P < 0.001). To substantiate our data, we compared our WBE results with those obtained by QuantiFERON-TB Gold, a whole-blood assay based on region of difference 1 (RD1) overlapping peptides approved for TB infection diagnosis. We observed a slightly higher sensitivity with QuantiFERON-TB Gold than with our WBE (89% versus 81%); however, our test provided a better specificity result (90% versus 68%). In conclusion, results obtained by WBE based on selected RD1 peptides significantly correlate with those generated by ELISPOT. Moreover, our assay appears more specific for A-TB diagnosis than QuantiFERON-TB Gold, and thus it may represent a complementary tool for A-TB diagnosis for routine use in clinical laboratories.
A porcine genomic library was screened for clones containing the promoter of the major acute-phase protein in pigs, inter-α-trypsin heavy chain 4 (ITIH4). Following isolation of the promoter, a functional analysis was performed with Hep3B cells. The promoter was induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not by IL-1β. However, IL-1β was shown to inhibit the IL-6-induced activation of the porcine ITIH4 promoter.