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19.  Nuclear Import of Adenovirus DNA Involves Direct Interaction of Hexon with an N-Terminal Domain of the Nucleoporin Nup214 
Journal of Virology  2014;89(3):1719-1730.
In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of adenovirus (AdV) to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), a key step during delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to deplete cells of either Nup214 or Nup358, the two major Phe-Gly (FG) repeat nucleoporins localized on the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, and evaluated the impact on hexon binding and AdV infection. The accumulation of purified hexon trimers or partially disassembled AdV at the nuclear envelope (NE) was observed in digitonin-permeabilized cells in the absence of cytosolic factors. Both in vitro hexon binding and in vivo nuclear import of the AdV genome were strongly reduced in Nup214-depleted cells but still occurred in Nup358-depleted cells, suggesting that Nup214 is a major binding site of AdV during infection. The expression of an NPC-targeted N-terminal domain of Nup214 in Nup214-depleted cells restored the binding of hexon at the NE and the nuclear import of protein VII (pVII), indicating that this region is sufficient to allow AdV binding. We further narrowed the binding site to a 137-amino-acid segment in the N-terminal domain of Nup214. Together, our results have identified a specific region within the N terminus of Nup214 that acts as a direct NPC binding site for AdV.
IMPORTANCE AdVs, which have the largest genome of nonenveloped DNA viruses, are being extensively explored for use in gene therapy, especially in alternative treatments for cancers that are refractory to traditional therapies. In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of AdV to the cytoplasmic face of the NPC, a key step for delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. Our data indicate that a 137-amino-acid region of the nucleoporin Nup214 is a binding site for the major AdV capsid protein, hexon, and that this interaction is required for viral DNA import. These findings provide additional insight on how AdV exploits the nuclear transport machinery for infection. The results could promote the development of new strategies for gene transfer and enhance understanding of the nuclear import of other viral DNA genomes, such as those of papillomavirus or hepatitis B virus that induce specific cancers.
PMCID: PMC4300731  PMID: 25410864
20.  GBF1- and ACBD3-Independent Recruitment of PI4KIIIβ to Replication Sites by Rhinovirus 3A Proteins 
Journal of Virology  2014;89(3):1913-1918.
PI4KIIIβ recruitment to Golgi membranes relies on GBF1/Arf and ACBD3. Enteroviruses such as poliovirus and coxsackievirus recruit PI4KIIIβ to their replication sites via their 3A proteins. Here, we show that human rhinovirus (HRV) 3A also recruited PI4KIIIβ to replication sites. Unlike other enterovirus 3A proteins, HRV 3A failed to bind GBF1. Although HRV 3A was previously shown to interact with ACBD3, our data suggest that PI4KIIIβ recruitment occurred independently of both GBF1 and ACBD3.
PMCID: PMC4300732  PMID: 25410869
21.  Identification of the Physiological Gene Targets of the Essential Lytic Replicative Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF57 Protein 
Journal of Virology  2014;89(3):1688-1702.
The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 gene product is essential for lytic KSHV replication and virion production. Recombinant ORF57-null mutants fail to accumulate several lytic cycle mRNAs at wild-type levels, leading to decreased production of lytic proteins necessary for efficient replication. Several mechanisms by which ORF57 may enhance expression of lytic KSHV mRNAs have been proposed, including mRNA stabilization, mRNA nuclear export, increased polyadenylation, and transcriptional activation. ORF57 activity is also gene specific, with some genes being highly dependent on ORF57, whereas others are relatively independent. Most experiments have utilized transfection models for ORF57 and have not systematically examined the gene specificity and potential mechanisms of action of ORF57 in the context of KSHV-infected cells. In this study, the KSHV genes that are most highly upregulated by ORF57 during KSHV lytic replication were identified by a combination of high-throughput deep RNA sequencing, quantitative PCR, Northern blotting, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Comparison of gene expression from a ΔORF57 KSHV recombinant, a rescued ΔORF57 KSHV recombinant, and wild-type KSHV revealed that two clusters of lytic genes are most highly dependent on ORF57 for efficient expression. Despite contiguous location in the genome and shared polyadenylation of several of the ORF57-dependent genes, ORF57 regulation was promoter and polyadenylation signal independent, suggesting that the mRNAs are stabilized by ORF57. The eight genes identified to critically require ORF57 belong to both early and late lytic temporal classes, and seven are involved in DNA replication, virion assembly, or viral infectivity, explaining the essential role of ORF57 in infectious KSHV production.
IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human herpesvirus involved in the causation of several human cancers. The KSHV ORF57 protein is required for KSHV to replicate and produce infectious virus. We have identified several KSHV genes whose expression is highly dependent on ORF57 and shown that ORF57 increases expression of these genes specifically. These genes code for proteins that are required for the virus to replicate its DNA and to infect other cells. Identifying the targets and mechanism of action of ORF57 provides further approaches to discover antiviral therapy.
PMCID: PMC4300733  PMID: 25410858
22.  Identification of a Role for Nucleolin in Rabies Virus Infection 
Journal of Virology  2014;89(3):1939-1943.
Rabies virus replicates in the cytoplasm of host cells, but rabies virus phosphoprotein (P-protein) undergoes active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Here we show that the largely nuclear P-protein isoform P3 can localize to nucleoli and forms specific interactions with nucleolin. Importantly, depletion of nucleolin expression inhibits viral protein expression and infectious virus production by infected cells. This provides the first evidence that lyssaviruses interact with nucleolin and that nucleolin is important to lyssavirus infection.
PMCID: PMC4300734  PMID: 25428867
23.  p38MAPK and MK2 Pathways Are Important for the Differentiation-Dependent Human Papillomavirus Life Cycle 
Journal of Virology  2014;89(3):1919-1924.
Amplification of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is dependent on the ATM DNA damage pathway. In cells with impaired p53 activity, DNA damage repair requires the activation of p38MAPK along with MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2). In HPV-positive cells, phosphorylation of p38 and MK2 proteins was induced along with relocalization to the cytoplasm. Treatment with MK2 or p38 inhibitors blocked HPV genome amplification, identifying the p38/MK2 pathway as a key regulator of the HPV life cycle.
PMCID: PMC4300735  PMID: 25410865
24.  Microparticles Provide a Novel Biomarker To Predict Severe Clinical Outcomes of Dengue Virus Infection 
Journal of Virology  2014;89(3):1587-1607.
Shedding of microparticles (MPs) is a consequence of apoptotic cell death and cellular activation. Low levels of circulating MPs in blood help maintain homeostasis, whereas increased MP generation is linked to many pathological conditions. Herein, we investigated the role of MPs in dengue virus (DENV) infection. Infection of various susceptible cells by DENV led to apoptotic death and MP release. These MPs harbored a viral envelope protein and a nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) on their surfaces. Ex vivo analysis of clinical specimens from patients with infections of different degrees of severity at multiple time points revealed that MPs generated from erythrocytes and platelets are two major MP populations in the circulation of DENV-infected patients. Elevated levels of red blood cell-derived MPs (RMPs) directly correlated with DENV disease severity, whereas a significant decrease in platelet-derived MPs was associated with a bleeding tendency. Removal by mononuclear cells of complement-opsonized NS1–anti-NS1 immune complexes bound to erythrocytes via complement receptor type 1 triggered MP shedding in vitro, a process that could explain the increased levels of RMPs in severe dengue. These findings point to the multiple roles of MPs in dengue pathogenesis. They offer a potential novel biomarker candidate capable of differentiating dengue fever from the more serious dengue hemorrhagic fever.
IMPORTANCE Dengue is the most important mosquito-transmitted viral disease in the world. No vaccines or specific treatments are available. Rapid diagnosis and immediate treatment are the keys to achieve a positive outcome. Dengue virus (DENV) infection, like some other medical conditions, changes the level and composition of microparticles (MPs), tiny bag-like structures which are normally present at low levels in the blood of healthy individuals. This study investigated how MPs in culture and patients' blood are changed in response to DENV infection. Infection of cells led to programmed cell death and MP release. In patients' blood, the majority of MPs originated from red blood cells and platelets. Decreased platelet-derived MPs were associated with a bleeding tendency, while increased levels of red blood cell-derived MPs (RMPs) correlated with more severe disease. Importantly, the level of RMPs during the early acute phase could serve as a biomarker to identify patients with potentially severe disease who require immediate care.
PMCID: PMC4300736  PMID: 25410854
25.  The HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Recruits Negatively Charged Lipids To Ensure Its Optimal Binding to Lipid Membranes 
Journal of Virology  2014;89(3):1756-1767.
The HIV-1 Gag polyprotein precursor composed of the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC), and p6 domains orchestrates virus assembly via interactions between MA and the cell plasma membrane (PM) on one hand and NC and the genomic RNA on the other hand. As the Gag precursor can adopt a bent conformation, a potential interaction of the NC domain with the PM cannot be excluded during Gag assembly at the PM. To investigate the possible interaction of NC with lipid membranes in the absence of any interference from the other domains of Gag, we quantitatively characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy the binding of the mature NC protein to large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) used as membrane models. We found that NC, either in its free form or bound to an oligonucleotide, was binding with high affinity (∼107 M−1) to negatively charged LUVs. The number of NC binding sites, but not the binding constant, was observed to decrease with the percentage of negatively charged lipids in the LUV composition, suggesting that NC and NC/oligonucleotide complexes were able to recruit negatively charged lipids to ensure optimal binding. However, in contrast to MA, NC did not exhibit a preference for phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate. These results lead us to propose a modified Gag assembly model where the NC domain contributes to the initial binding of the bent form of Gag to the PM.
IMPORTANCE The NC protein is a highly conserved nucleic acid binding protein that plays numerous key roles in HIV-1 replication. While accumulating evidence shows that NC either as a mature protein or as a domain of the Gag precursor also interacts with host proteins, only a few data are available on the possible interaction of NC with lipid membranes. Interestingly, during HIV-1 assembly, the Gag precursor is thought to adopt a bent conformation where the NC domain may interact with the plasma membrane. In this context, we quantitatively characterized the binding of NC, as a free protein or as a complex with nucleic acids, to lipid membranes and showed that the latter constitute a binding platform for NC. Taken together, our data suggest that the NC domain may play a role in the initial binding events of Gag to the plasma membrane during HIV-1 assembly.
PMCID: PMC4300737  PMID: 25410868

Results 1-25 (42396)