We determined the role of risk and protective factors on the trajectories of behavior problems associated with high prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE)/polydrug exposure.
The Maternal Lifestyle Study enrolled 1388 children with or without PCE, assessed through age 15 years. Because most women using cocaine during pregnancy also used other substances, we analyzed for the effects of 4 categories of prenatal drug exposure: high PCE/other drugs (OD), some PCE/OD, OD/no PCE, and no PCE/no OD. Risks and protective factors at individual, family, and community levels that may be associated with behavior outcomes were entered stepwise into latent growth curve models, then replaced by cumulative risk and protective indexes, and finally by a combination of levels of risk and protective indexes. Main outcome measures were the trajectories of externalizing, internalizing, total behavior, and attention problems scores from the Child Behavior Checklist (parent).
A total of 1022 (73.6%) children had known outcomes. High PCE/OD significantly predicted externalizing, total, and attention problems when considering the balance between risk and protective indexes. Some PCE/OD predicted externalizing and attention problems. OD/no PCE also predicted behavior outcomes except for internalizing behavior. High level of protective factors was associated with declining trajectories of problem behavior scores over time, independent of drug exposure and risk index scores.
High PCE/OD is a significant risk for behavior problems in adolescence; protective factors may attenuate its detrimental effects. Clinical practice and public health policies should consider enhancing protective factors while minimizing risks to improve outcomes of drug-exposed children.
behavior problems; cumulative risks; prenatal cocaine exposure; protective factors
Media images of men and women have become increasingly muscular, and muscle-enhancing techniques are available to youth. Identifying populations at risk for unhealthy muscle-enhancingbehaviors is of considerable public health importance. The current study uses a large and diverse population-based sample of adolescents to examine the prevalence of muscle-enhancing behaviors and differences across demographic characteristics, weight status, and sports team involvement.
Survey data from 2793 diverse adolescents (mean age = 14.4) were collected at 20 urban middle and high schools. Use of 5 muscle-enhancing behaviors was assessed (changing eating, exercising, protein powders, steroids and other muscle-enhancing substances), and a summary score reflecting use of 3 or more behaviors was created. Logistic regression was used to test for differences in each behavior across age group, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, BMI category, and sports team participation.
Muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample for both boys and girls. For example, 34.7% used protein powders or shakes and 5.9% reported steroid use. Most behaviors were significantly more common among boys. In models mutually adjusted for all covariates, grade level, Asian race, BMI category, and sports team participation were significantly associated with the use of muscle-enhancing behaviors. For example, overweight (odds ratio = 1.45) and obese (odds ratio = 1.90) girls had significantly greater odds of using protein powders or shakes than girls of average BMI.
The use of muscle-enhancing behaviors is substantially higher than has been previously reported and is cause for concern. Pediatricians and other health care providers should ask their adolescent patients about muscle-enhancing behaviors.
adolescence; muscle enhancement; steroids; body image
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of massage therapy (MT) on the immune system of preterm infants. The primary hypothesis was that MT compared with sham therapy (control) will enhance the immune system of stable premature infants by increasing the proportion of their natural killer (NK) cell numbers.
A randomized placebo-controlled trial of MT versus sham therapy (control) was conducted among stable premature infants in the NICU. Study intervention was provided 5 days per week until hospital discharge for a maximum of 4 weeks. Immunologic evaluations (absolute NK cells, T and B cells, T cell subsets, and NK cytotoxicity), weight, number of infections, and length of hospital stay were also evaluated.
The study enrolled 120 infants (58 massage; 62 control). At the end of the study, absolute NK cells were not different between the 2 groups; however, NK cytotoxicity was higher in the massage group, particularly among those who received ≥5 consecutive days of study intervention compared with control (13.79 vs 10 lytic units, respectively; P = .04). Infants in the massage group were heavier at end of study and had greater daily weight gain compared with those in the control group; other immunologic parameters, number of infections, and length of stay were not different between the 2 groups.
In this study, MT administered to stable preterm infants was associated with higher NK cytotoxicity and more daily weight gain. MT may improve the overall outcome of these infants. Larger studies are needed.
immune system; natural killer cells; massage; mode of delivery; preterm infants; weight gain
To determine prevalence and factors associated with strictly enforced smoke-free car policies among smoking parents.
As part of a cluster, randomized controlled trial addressing parental smoking, exit interviews were conducted with parents whose children were seen in 10 control pediatric practices. Parents who smoked were asked about smoking behaviors in their car and receipt of smoke-free car advice at the visit. Parents were considered to have a “strictly enforced smoke-free car policy” if they reported having a smoke-free car policy and nobody had smoked in their car within the past 3 months.
Of 981 smoking parents, 817 (83%) had a car; of these, 795 parents answered questions about their car smoking policy. Of these 795 parents, 29% reported having a smoke-free car policy, and 24% had a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. Of the 562 parents without a smoke-free car policy, 48% reported that smoking occurred with children present. Few parents who smoke (12%) were advised to have a smoke-free car. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for parent age, gender, education, and race showed that having a younger child and smoking ≤10 cigarettes per day were associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy.
The majority of smoking parents exposed their children to tobacco smoke in cars. Coupled with the finding of low rates of pediatricians addressing smoking in cars, this study highlights the need for improved pediatric interventions, public health campaigns, and policies regarding smoke-free car laws to protect children from tobacco smoke.
parents; pediatrics; secondhand smoke; smoking in car; tobacco control; tobacco smoke
To examine predictors of depression persistence after a positive screening test to inform management protocols for screened youth.
We conducted a cohort study of 444 youth (aged 13–17 years) from a large health care delivery system. Youth with depressive symptoms, based on a 2-item depression screen, were oversampled for the baseline interview. Baseline assessments included the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9) depression screen as well as clinical factors that were hypothesized to influence depression persistence (family history of depression, functional impairment, perceived social support, anxiety symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and medical comorbidity). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with the persistence of depression at 6 months postbaseline.
Of 113 youth with a positive baseline screen (PHQ-9 ≥11), 47% and 35% continued to be positive at 6-week and 6-month follow-up, respectively. After controlling for treatment status, only 2 factors were significantly associated with depression persistence at 6 months: baseline depressive symptom score and continuing to have a positive screen at 6 weeks. For each 1-point increase on the PHQ-9 score at baseline, youth had a 16% increased odds of continuing to be depressed at 6 months (odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.34). Youth who continued to screen positive 6 weeks later had almost 3 times the odds of being depressed at 6 months (odds ratio: 2.89, 95% confidence interval: 1.09–7.61).
Depressive symptom severity at presentation and continued symptoms at 6 weeks postscreening are the strongest predictors of depression persistence. Patients with high depressive symptom scores and continued symptoms at 6 weeks should receive active treatment.
adolescent depression; screening; primary care
To evaluate a multihospital collaborative designed to increase breast milk feeding in premature infants.
Eleven NICUs in the California Perinatal Quality of Care Collaborative participated in an Institute for Healthcare Improvement–style collaborative to increase NICU breast milk feeding rates. Multiple interventions were recommended with participating sites implementing a self-selected combination of these interventions. Breast milk feeding rates were compared between baseline (October 2008–September 2009), implementation (October 2009–September 2010), and sustainability periods (October 2010–March 2011). Secondary outcome measures included necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) rates and lengths of stay. California Perinatal Quality of Care Collaborative hospitals not participating in the project served as a control population.
The breast milk feeding rate in the intervention sites improved from baseline (54.6%) to intervention period (61.7%; P = .005) with sustained improvement over 6 months postintervention (64.0%; P = .003). NEC rates decreased from baseline (7.0%) to intervention period (4.3%; P = .022) to sustainability period (2.4%; P < .0001). Length of stay increased during the intervention but returned to baseline levels in the sustainability period. Control hospitals had higher rates of breast milk feeding at baseline (64.2% control vs 54.6% participants, P < .0001), but over the course of the implementation (65.7% vs 61.7%, P = .049) and sustainability periods (67.7% vs 64.0%, P = .199), participants improved to similar rates as the control group.
Implementation of a breast milk/nutrition change package by an 11-site collaborative resulted in an increase in breast milk feeding and decrease in NEC that was sustained over an 18-month period.
breast milk; very low birth weight infants; quality improvement
We sought to determine how health care–related financial burden, childhood activity limitations, health insurance, and other access-related factors predict delayed or forgone care for families with children, using a nationally representative, population-based sample.
Our sample included families with children aged 0 to 17 years whose family was interviewed about their health care expenditures in 1 of 7 panels of the 2001 to 2008 Medial Expenditure Panel Survey (N = 14 138). Financial burden was defined as (1) the sum of out-of-pocket health service expenditures during the first survey year and (2) that sum divided by adjusted family income. Delayed or forgone care was defined as self-report of delayed or forgone medical care or prescription medications for the reference parent or child during the second survey year.
Financial burden, discordant insurance, and having a child with an activity limitation were some of the strongest predictors of delayed or forgone care. Additionally, significant health insurance and income-related disparities exist in the experience of delayed or forgone care.
Children and their families are delaying or forgoing needed care due to health care–related financial burden. Policies are needed to effectively reduce financial burden and improve the concordance of insurance between parents and children because this may reduce the frequency of unmet need among families. Moreover, reducing the occurrence of delayed or forgone care may improve health outcomes by increasing the opportunity to receive timely and preventive care.
access to care; child health; health care costs; disparities; insurance coverage
We evaluated whether younger age in class is associated with poorer academic performance and an increased risk of being prescribed stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
This was a nationwide population-based cohort study, linking data from national registries of prescribed drugs and standardized scholastic examinations. The study population comprised all children born in 1994–1996 who took standardized tests in Iceland at ages 9 and 12 (n = 11 785). We estimated risks of receiving low test scores (0–10th percentile) and being prescribed stimulants for ADHD. Comparisons were made according to children’s relative age in class.
Mean test scores in mathematics and language arts were lowest among the youngest children in the fourth grade, although the gap attenuated in the seventh grade. Compared with the oldest third, those in the youngest third of class had an increased relative risk of receiving a low test score at age 9 for mathematics (1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–2.2) and language arts (1.8; 95% CI 1.6–2.1), whereas at age 12, the relative risk was 1.6 in both subjects. Children in the youngest third of class were 50% more likely (1.5; 95% CI 1.3–1.8) than those in the oldest third to be prescribed stimulants between ages 7 and 14.
Relative age among classmates affects children’s academic performance into puberty, as well as their risk of being prescribed stimulants for ADHD. This should be taken into account when evaluating children’s performance and behavior in school to prevent unnecessary stimulant treatment.
relative age; academic performance; stimulant prescribing; ADHD; children
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Doxorubicin, effective against many malignancies, is limited by cardiotoxicity. Continuous-infusion doxorubicin, compared with bolus-infusion, reduces early cardiotoxicity in adults. Its effectiveness in reducing late cardiotoxicity in children remains uncertain. We determined continuous-infusion doxorubicin cardioprotective efficacy in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 91-01 enrolled pediatric patients between 1991 and 1995. Newly diagnosed high-risk patients were randomly assigned to receive a total of 360 mg/m2 of doxorubicin in 30 mg/m2 doses every 3 weeks, by either continuous (over 48 hours) or bolus-infusion (within 15 minutes). Echocardiograms at baseline, during, and after doxorubicin therapy were blindly remeasured centrally. Primary outcomes were late left ventricular (LV) structure and function.
A total of 102 children were randomized to each treatment group. We analyzed 484 serial echocardiograms from 92 patients (n = 49 continuous; n = 43 bolus) with ≥1 echocardiogram ≥3 years after assignment. Both groups had similar demographics and normal baseline LV characteristics. Cardiac follow-up after randomization (median, 8 years) showed changes from baseline within the randomized groups (depressed systolic function, systolic dilation, reduced wall thickness, and reduced mass) at 3, 6, and 8 years; there were no statistically significant differences between randomized groups. Ten-year ALL event-free survival rates did not differ between the 2 groups (continuous-infusion, 83% versus bolus-infusion, 78%; P = .24).
In survivors of childhood high-risk ALL, continuous-infusion doxorubicin, compared with bolus-infusion, provided no long-term cardioprotection or improvement in ALL event-free survival, hence provided no benefit over bolus-infusion.
anthracycline; cardiotoxicity; doxorubicin; leukemia; pediatrics
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) due to pulmonary surfactant deficiency is heritable, but common variants do not fully explain disease heritability.
Using next-generation, pooled sequencing of race-stratified DNA samples from infants ≥34 weeks’ gestation with and without RDS (n = 513) and from a Missouri population-based cohort (n = 1066), we scanned all exons of 5 surfactant-associated genes and used in silico algorithms to identify functional mutations. We validated each mutation with an independent genotyping platform and compared race-stratified, collapsed frequencies of rare mutations by gene to investigate disease associations and estimate attributable risk.
Single ABCA3 mutations were overrepresented among European-descent RDS infants (14.3% of RDS vs 3.7% of non-RDS; P = .002) but were not statistically overrepresented among African-descent RDS infants (4.5% of RDS vs 1.5% of non-RDS; P = .23). In the Missouri population-based cohort, 3.6% of European-descent and 1.5% of African-descent infants carried a single ABCA3 mutation. We found no mutations among the RDS infants and no evidence of contribution to population-based disease burden for SFTPC, CHPT1, LPCAT1, or PCYT1B.
In contrast to lethal neonatal RDS resulting from homozygous or compound heterozygous ABCA3 mutations, single ABCA3 mutations are overrepresented among European-descent infants ≥34 weeks’ gestation with RDS and account for ∼10.9% of the attributable risk among term and late preterm infants. Although ABCA3 mutations are individually rare, they are collectively common among European- and African-descent individuals in the general population.
genetic association studies; neonatal respiratory distress syndrome; newborn; respiratory distress syndrome
Fever without an apparent source is common in young children. Currently in the United States, serious bacterial infection is unusual. Our objective was to determine specific viruses that might be responsible.
We enrolled children aged 2 to 36 months with temperature of 38°C or greater without an apparent source or with definite or probable bacterial infection being evaluated in the St Louis Children’s Hospital Emergency Department and afebrile children having ambulatory surgery. Blood and nasopharyngeal swab samples were tested with an extensive battery of virus-specific polymerase chain reaction assays.
One or more viruses were detected in 76% of 75 children with fever without an apparent source, 40% of 15 children with fever and a definite or probable bacterial infection, and 35% of 116 afebrile children (P < .001). Four viruses (adenovirus, human herpesvirus 6, enterovirus, and parechovirus) were predominant, being detected in 57% of children with fever without a source, 13% of children with fever and definite or probable bacterial infection, and 7% of afebrile children (P < .001). Thirty-four percent of 146 viral infections were detected only by polymerase chain reaction performed on blood. Fifty-one percent of children with viral infections and no evidence of bacterial infection were treated with antibiotics.
Viral infections are frequent in children with fever without an apparent source. Testing of blood in addition to nasopharyngeal secretions expanded the range of viruses detected. Future studies should explore the utility of testing for the implicated viruses. Better recognition of viruses that cause undifferentiated fever in young children may help limit unnecessary antibiotic use.
fever; viral infection; polymerase chain reaction
Living in substandard housing may be one factor that increases the risk of fire and burn injuries in low-income urban environments. The purposes of this study are to (1) describe the frequency and characteristics of substandard housing in urban homes with young children and (2) explore the hypothesis that better housing quality is associated with a greater likelihood of having working smoke alarms and safe hot water temperatures.
A total 246 caregivers of children ages 0 to 7 years were recruited from a pediatric emergency department and a well-child clinic. In-home observations were completed by using 46 items from the Housing and Urban Development’s Housing Quality Standards.
Virtually all homes (99%) failed the housing quality measure. Items with the highest failure rates were those related to heating and cooling; walls, ceilings, and floors; and sanitation and safety domains. One working smoke alarm was observed in 82% of the homes, 42% had 1 on every level, and 62% had safe hot water temperatures. For every increase of 1 item in the number of housing quality items passed, the odds of having any working smoke alarm increased by 10%, the odds of having 1 on every level by 18%, and the odds of having safe hot water temperatures by 8%.
Many children may be at heightened risk for fire and scald burns by virtue of their home environment. Stronger collaboration between housing, health care, and injury prevention professionals is urgently needed to maximize opportunities to improve home safety.
housing quality; child injury; built environment; urban health; smoke alarms; scald burns; environmental health; housing policy
childhood; cancer survivors; treatment-related complications; chronic health conditions
To evaluate Michigan newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) protocol changes.
This population-based study includes infants born and screened in Michigan (January 1, 1994–June 30, 2010). Screening performance is compared across 4 periods defined by the dried blood spot testing method: (1) thyroxine (T4) with backup thyrotropin, (2) tandem T4 and thyrotropin, (3) primary thyrotropin testing without serial testing, and (4) primary thyrotropin plus serial testing for births weighing <1800 g. Logistic regression is used to test for differences across periods.
Thyrotropin testing exhibited greater specificity overall and greater likelihood of detection with serial testing relative to primary T4 testing. Tandem T4 and thyrotropin testing appeared more sensitive relative to other protocols, yet it produced significantly more false-positives, and detection may have been affected by overdiagnosis and misclassification. Central CH was no longer detected once T4 testing ceased.
Primary thyrotropin plus serial testing for infants at risk for later rising thyrotropin outperformed other newborn screening strategies for classic CH, although 2 false-negatives occurred among normal birth weight infants admitted to the NICU during this testing period. Tandem T4 and thyrotropin screening outperformed other strategies for detection of both classic and central CH combined, although it is associated with increased operating costs. Additional research is necessary to weigh the benefits of increased sensitivity against additional program operating costs.
newborn screening; performance evaluation; congenital hypothyroidism
To plot longitudinal trajectories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) severity from early childhood to early adolescence. In line with reported trajectories in toddlers, we hypothesize that a substantial minority of children will show marked changes in ASD severity over time, with “Improvers” demonstrating the highest mean baseline and rate of growth in verbal IQ (VIQ).
Patients included 345 clinic referrals and research participants with best-estimate clinical diagnoses of ASD at 1 or more time points, and repeated Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), VIQ, and nonverbal IQ scores. Standardized ADOS severity scores were applied to 1026 assessments collected longitudinally between the ages of 2 and 15 (VIQ at most recent assessment: mean = 58, SD = 35). Scores were fitted for latent severity trajectory classes with and without covariates. Adaptive behavior and VIQ trajectories over time were modeled within each of the best-fit latent classes.
A 4-class model best represented the observed data. Over 80% of participants were assigned to persistent (stable) high or moderately severe classes; 2 small classes respectively increased or decreased in severity over time. Age, gender, race, and nonverbal IQ did not predict class membership; VIQ was a significant predictor. Baseline VIQ was highest in the improving and worsening classes; it increased at the greatest rate in the improving class. Adaptive behavior declined in all but the improving class, with consistent impairment in all classes.
If replicated, identified trajectory classes of ADOS severity may contribute to clinical prognosis and to subtyping samples for neurobiological and genetic research.
autism spectrum disorders; severity; trajectory; Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Comparison Score
School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal prevention strategy currently implemented in >16 000 schools across the United States. SWPBIS intends to reduce students’ behavior problems by altering staff behaviors and developing systems and supports to meet children’s behavioral needs. The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of SWPBIS.
The sample of 12 344 elementary school children was 52.9% male, 45.1% African American, and 46.1% Caucasian. Approximately 49% received free or reduced-priced meals, and 12.9% received special education services at baseline. The trial used a group randomized controlled effectiveness design implemented in 37 elementary schools. Multilevel analyses were conducted on teachers’ ratings of children’s behavior problems, concentration problems, social-emotional functioning, prosocial behavior, office discipline referrals, and suspensions at 5 time points over the course of 4 school years.
The multilevel results indicated significant effects of SWPBIS on children’s behavior problems, concentration problems, social-emotional functioning, and prosocial behavior. Children in SWPBIS schools also were 33% less likely to receive an office discipline referral than those in the comparison schools. The effects tended to be strongest among children who were first exposed to SWPBIS in kindergarten.
These findings provide support for the hypothesized reduction in behavior problems and improvements in prosocial behavior and effective emotion regulation after training in SWPBIS. The SWPBIS framework appears to be a promising approach for reducing problems and promoting adjustment among elementary school children.
School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS); aggressive and disruptive behavior; social-emotional adjustment; randomized controlled trial; schools; prevention
The objective of this study was to assess and compare the usefulness, helpfulness, and stress associated with reviewing a previously adapted advance care planning guide, My Thoughts, My Wishes, My Voice, in comparison with the widely used adult document Five Wishes by adolescents and young adults (AYAs) living with a serious illness.
Fifty-two participants (age 16–28) living with metastatic or recurrent cancer or HIV infection (acquired at birth or early in life) were presented pages randomly from My Thoughts, My Wishes, My Voice and, Five Wishes, and asked to rank 25 items on several factors, including how likely they would be to complete each statement. Participant opinion on suggested changes in content, design, format, and style was obtained and resulted in development of a new document.
AYAs living with a life-threatening illness want to be able to choose and record (1) the kind of medical treatment they want and do not want, (2) how they would liked to be cared for, (3) information for their family and friends to know, and (4) how they would like to be remembered.
AYA views of what should be included in an advance care planning guide were incorporated into a new document, Voicing My Choices, that provides youth, families and providers an opportunity to reduce the silence around the dying process by allowing an opportunity to share one’s voice. We provide guidance on how to incorporate this tool into care.
adolescents; end-of-life; advance care planning; decision-making; young adults; cancer; HIV
To assess associations of the number of parent stressors and parent-perceived stress with obesity and related behaviors in their children.
This cross-sectional analysis used data from the 2006 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey in which 2119 parents/caregivers answered questions about themselves and their children (ages 3–17 years). Survey data were used to assess the main exposure variables: the number of stressors (measured using a stressor index) and parent-perceived stress (the response to a general stress question); child covariates (age, race/ethnicity, health quality, and gender); adult covariates (education, BMI, gender, poor sleep quality) and study outcomes (child obesity, fast-food consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity). To account for developmental differences, analyses were also stratified by age group (3–5, 6–8, 9–12, and 13–17 years). Analyses used multiple logistic regression, with results expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
The number of parent stressors was related to child obesity in unadjusted (1.12, 1.03–1.22, P = .007) and adjusted models (1.12, 1.03–1.23, P = .010). Parent-perceived stress was related to fast-food consumption in unadjusted (1.07, 1.03–1.10, P < .001) and adjusted (1.06, 1.02–1.10, P < .001) models.
The number of parent stressors was directly related to child obesity. Parent-perceived stress was directly related to child fast-food consumption, an important behavioral indicator of obesity risk. Clinical care models and future research that address child obesity should explore the potential benefits of addressing parent stressors and parent-perceived stress.
BMI; obesity; fast food; vegetables; fruit; physical activity; psychological stress
Understanding the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) early in the life course is important for prevention. Whether genetic information improves prediction models for diabetes from adolescence into adulthood is unknown.
With the use of data from 1030 participants in the Bogalusa Heart Study aged 12 to 18 followed into middle adulthood, we built Cox models for incident T2D with risk factors assessed in adolescence (demographics, family history, physical examination, and routine biomarkers). Models with and without a 38 single-nucleotide polymorphism diabetes genotype score were compared by C statistics and continuous net reclassification improvement indices.
Participant mean (± SD) age at baseline was 14.4 ± 1.6 years, and 32% were black. Ninety (8.7%) participants developed T2D over a mean 26.9 ± 5.0 years of follow-up. Genotype score significantly predicted T2D in all models. Hazard ratios ranged from 1.09 per risk allele (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.15) in the basic demographic model to 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.00–1.13) in the full model. The addition of genotype score did not improve the discrimination of the full clinical model (C statistic 0.756 without and 0.760 with genotype score). In the full model, genotype score had weak improvement in reclassification (net reclassification improvement index 0.261).
Although a genotype score assessed among white and black adolescents is significantly associated with T2D in adulthood, it does not improve prediction over clinical risk factors. Genetic screening for T2D in its current state is not a useful addition to adolescents’ clinical care.
genetic predisposition to disease; diabetes mellitus, type 2; adolescent medicine
To examine the rates and predictors of mental health services use for a nationally representative cohort of youths who had been investigated for alleged maltreatment.
Data came from caregiver and caseworker baseline and 18-month interviews in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. These interviews took place from March 2008 to September 2008 and September 2010 to March 2011. Data on family and child characteristics and service use were gathered and examined by using weighted univariate and multivariate analyses.
Children had numerous challenges: 61.8% had a previous report of maltreatment, 46.3% had poor socialization skills, and 23.9% had a mental health problem measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). At baseline, 33.3% received some mental health service and this varied by age, with younger children receiving fewer services. This percentage decreased to 30.9% at the 18-month follow-up, although the youngest children had increases in services use. For younger children, race/ethnicity, out-of-home placement, chronic physical health problems, low adaptive behaviors, and CBCL scores in the clinical range were related to use. For children ≥11, out-of-home placement, high CBCL scores, and family risk factors predicted services use at 18 months.
Mental health services utilization increases as young children come into contact with schools and medical providers or have more intensive involvement with child welfare. Minority children receive fewer services adjusting for need. Over the 18-month follow-up, there was a decrease in service use that may be a result of the tremendous financial challenges taking place in the United States.
child mental health problems; child welfare; mental health services use
Congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS) is a rare fibrous tissue malignancy that usually presents in the first few years of life. It is unique among human sarcomas in that it has an excellent prognosis. We describe a temporal clustering of a number of cases of CFS and investigate the possible associated prenatal risk factors. The Pediatric Environmental History, a questionnaire developed in our clinic that is instrumental in determining environmental risk factors for tumor-related disease, was essential in documenting the presence or absence of risk factors considered as human carcinogens. We found a history of exposure to petroleum products in four cases of CFS that occurred at a greater than expected rate in a short time frame–an apparent cancer cluster. We call attention to the possibility that exposure to petroleum products raises the risk of developing CFS. While future studies should focus on systematic investigation of CFS and its underlying mechanisms, this report suggests the need for proactive measures to avoid exposure to solvents and petroleum products during pregnancy.
environmental health; childhood cancer; prevention; fibrosarcoma; petroleum derivatives
Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle-feeding and extensive confounder information.
We performed a large population-based cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort, which provided information on infants and feeding practice. Information about surgery for PS was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. The association between bottle-feeding and the risk of PS was evaluated by hazard ratios (HRs) estimated in a Cox regression model, adjusting for possible confounders.
Among 70 148 singleton infants, 65 infants had surgery for PS, of which 29 were bottle-fed before PS diagnosis. The overall HR of PS for bottle-fed infants compared with not bottle-fed infants was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–7.65). Among bottle-fed infants, risk increases were similar for infants both breast and bottle-fed (HR: 3.36 [95% CI: 1.60–7.03]), formerly breastfed (HR: 5.38 [95% CI: 2.88–10.06]), and never breastfed (HR: 6.32 [95% CI: 2.45–16.26]) (P = .76). The increased risk of PS among bottle-fed infants was observed even after 30 days since first exposure to bottle-feeding and did not vary with age at first exposure to bottle-feeding.
Bottle-fed infants experienced a 4.6-fold higher risk of PS compared with infants who were not bottle-fed. The result adds to the evidence supporting the advantage of exclusive breastfeeding in the first months after birth.
infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis; bottle-feeding; feeding practice; infants; risk factor
Poor growth is an indication for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and a criterion for treatment failure. We examined variability in growth response to ART in 12 programs in Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and South Africa.
Treatment naïve children aged <10 years were included. We calculated weight for age z scores (WAZs), height for age z scores (HAZs), and weight for height z scores (WHZs) up to 3 years after starting ART, by using the World Health Organization standards. Multilevel regression models were used.
A total of 17 990 children (range, 238–8975) were followed for 36 181 person-years. At ART initiation, most children were underweight (50%) and stunted (66%). Lower baseline WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ were the most important determinants of faster catch-up growth on ART. WAZ and WHZ increased rapidly in the first year and stagnated or reversed thereafter, whereas HAZ increased continuously over time. Three years after starting ART, WAZ ranged from −2.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −3.66 to −2.02) to −1.98 (95% CI: −2.41 to −1.48) in children with a baseline z score < −3 and from −0.79 (95% CI: −1.62 to 0.02) to 0.05 (95% CI: −0.42 to 0.51) in children with a baseline WAZ ≥ −1. For HAZ, the corresponding range was −2.33 (95% CI: −2.62 to −2.02) to −1.27 (95% CI: −1.58 to −1.00) for baseline HAZ < −3 and −0.24 (95% CI: −0.56 to 0.15) to 0.84 (95% CI: 0.53 to 1.16) for HAZ ≥ −1.
Despite a sustained growth response and catch-up growth in children with advanced HIV disease treated with ART, normal weights and heights are not achieved over 3 years of ART.
HIV; growth; antiretroviral therapy; Southern Africa
Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity.
A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking.
Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62–29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01–10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86–4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.89).
Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to “real world” sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula.
sexual risk behavior; adolescents; HIV; sexting; technology