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1.  Non-AIDS-Defining Malignancies in the HIV-Infected Population 
With the advent of effective combination of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has been transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic condition. There is renewed clinical interest in long-term morbidities, including malignancies that occur disproportionately within this population. Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the aging HIV-infected population. There is data to suggest that incidence rates are elevated among HIV-infected individuals for many cancer sites, particularly those with a confirmed or suspected infectious etiology. The complex interplay between behavioral risk factors, co-existence of viral infections, immunodeficiency and antiretroviral therapy makes it difficult to analyze why certain cancers developed more frequently in HIV-infected individuals. The challenge to clinicians caring for HIV-infected patients is to develop and implement effective means to screen, treat, and prevent NADCs in the future. This review presents data on whether NADCs are increased in the HIV-Infected population, as well as ongoing research on epidemiology, prevention and pathogenesis of this evolving aspect of the HIV epidemic.
PMCID: PMC4085772  PMID: 24844467
HIV/AIDS; cancer; epidemiology; lung cancer; human papilloma virus; head and neck cancer; anal cancer; hepatitis; hepatocellular carcinoma; Hodgkin lymphoma
2.  Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infections and the Importance of HPV Vaccination 
Current epidemiology reports  2015;2(2):101-109.
HPV persistence is necessary for the development of anogenital cancer. Studies show that cervical and anal HPV infections in women and in men who have sex with men are common. Clearance of HPV infection is similarly common; few individuals show persistence unless they are HIV-infected. HIV strongly influences the development of cervical and anal cancer, as well as their pre-malignant counterparts. Women with cervical and vulvar HPV-associated lesions have higher rates of anal cancer than the general population. HPV also plays an important role in pathogenesis of head and neck cancers, particularly oropharyngeal cancer. Two commercially available HPV vaccines have been proven to be safe and efficacious against cervical HPV16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions; one of these has also been shown to prevent HPV16/18-associated anal lesions. The FDA has also just approved a new nonavalent HPV vaccine. HPV vaccines will play an important role in prevention of HPV-associated cancers.
PMCID: PMC4975546  PMID: 27500080
HPV; HPV vaccination; cervical cancer; anal cancer; HIV; immunosuppression
3.  Progress in Central Nervous System Lymphomas 
British journal of haematology  2014;166(3):311-325.
Until recently, primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) was associated with a uniformly dismal prognosis. It is now reasonable to anticipate long-term survival and possibly cure for a significant proportion of patients diagnosed with PCNSL. Accumulated data generated over the past ten years has provided evidence that long-term progression-free survival (PFS) can reproducibly be attained in a significant fraction of PCNSL patients that receive dose-intensive chemotherapy consolidation, without whole brain radiotherapy. One consolidative regimen that has reproducibly demonstrated promise is the combination of infusional etoposide plus high-dose cytarabine (EA), administered in first complete remission after methotrexate, temozolomide and rituximab-based induction. Given evolving principles of management and the mounting evidence for reproducible improvements in survival rates in prospective clinical series, our goal in this review is to highlight and update principles in diagnosis, staging and management as well as to review data regarding the pathogenesis of central nervous system lymphomas, information that is likely to constitute a basis for the implementation of novel therapies that are requisite for further progress in this unique phenotype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
PMCID: PMC4107064  PMID: 24837460
Primary CNS Lymphoma; High-Dose Chemotherapy; Rituximab; Tumour Microenvironment
4.  Isolated Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula in a Patient with Recurrent Stroke  
Acta Cardiologica Sinica  2013;29(1):107-109.
Paradoxical embolism is a risk factor for cryptogenic stroke in young adults, and can be primarily attributed to the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO). Although contrast echocardiography may facilitate diagnosis, it would be difficult to distinguish a PFO from a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF), which could also result in paradoxical embolism. We report a 46-year-old woman with recurrent ischemic stroke, who was scheduled for PFO closure because of a right-to-left shunt detected by contrast echocardiography. The diagnosis turned out to be a PAVF confirmed by angiography. Thereafter, coil embolization of this PAVF was performed successfully.
PMCID: PMC4804969  PMID: 27122693
Embolic stroke; Patent foramen ovale; Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula; Right-to-left shunt
5.  The Changing Face of HIV in Pregnancy in Rhode Island 2004–2009 
Meeting the needs of HIV-infected pregnant women requires understanding their backgrounds and potential barriers to care and safe pregnancy. Foreign-born women are more likely to have language, educational, and economic barriers to care, but may be even more likely to choose to keep a pregnancy. Data from HIV-infected pregnant women and their children in Rhode Island were analyzed to identify trends in demographics, viral control, terminations, miscarriages, timing of diagnosis, and adherence to followup. Between January 2004 and December 2009, 76 HIV-infected women became pregnant, with a total of 95 pregnancies. Seventy-nine percent of the women knew their HIV status prior to becoming pregnant. Fifty-four percent of the women were foreign-born and 38 percent of the 16 women who chose to terminate their pregnancies were foreign-born. While the number of HIV-infected women becoming pregnant has increased only slightly, the proportion that are foreign-born has been rising, from 41 percent between 2004 and 2005 to 57.5 percent between 2006 and 2009. A growing number of women are having multiple pregnancies after their HIV diagnosis, due to the strength of their desire for childbearing and the perception that HIV is a controllable illness that does not preclude the creation of a family.
PMCID: PMC3385607  PMID: 22778535
6.  Genital Tract Leukocytes and Shedding of Genital HIV Type 1 RNA 
The mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via heterosexual intercourse is unknown. We sought to determine whether the presence of inflammatory cells in the vagina is associated with the presence of genital tract HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA.
Analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort was performed. Women with HIV-1 infection were assessed with use of paired plasma and cervicovaginal lavage specimens. Viral load measurements were performed using nucleic acid sequence—based amplification. White blood cells found in the genital tract (GT WBCs) were quantified using a hemacytometer. Common lower genital tract infections assessed for association with viral shedding (i.e., genital tract viral load [GTVL]) included bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the prevalence and odds of detectable GTVL by GT WBC. The association was examined both in the presence and in the absence of lower genital tract infections.
A total of 97 women and 642 visits were included in the analysis. Median duration of follow-up was 30.4 months. Thirty women (31%) had detectable GTVL at any visit. The median CD4 cell count at baseline was 525 cells/μL. Most women were antiretroviral therapy naive at baseline. After adjustment for plasma viral load, the odds of detectable GTVL increased as GT WBC increased, with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.7) per 1000-cell increase in GT WBC among women without lower genital tract infections. After adjustment for plasma viral load and lower genital tract infections by incorporating them in a regression model, GT WBC remained significantly associated with GTVL, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.37).
The presence of GT WBC is associated with an increased risk of detectable GTVL.
PMCID: PMC2714169  PMID: 18808359

Results 1-6 (6)