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1.  Multilocular peritoneal inclusion cyst mimicking an ovarian tumor: A case report 
Journal of Mid-Life Health  2015;6(1):39-40.
Peritoneal inclusion cysts are uncommon abdominopelvic cysts seen in perimenopausal women. It is often misdiagnosed clinically as an ovarian tumor due to similar presentation and mimicking findings on radiology. We describe a perimenopausal woman presenting with pelvic mass. Her clinical finding on radiology suggested an ovarian tumor; however, biopsy revealed it as peritoneal inclusion cysts. We discuss the possible ways to avoid such mistakes.
doi:10.4103/0976-7800.153648
PMCID: PMC4389384  PMID: 25861208
Mucinous cystadenoma of ovaries; perimenopausal women; peritoneal inclusion cysts
2.  Ovarian ectopic pregnancy: A 10 years’ experience and review of literature 
Background:
Primary ovarian pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy having incidence of 1/7000-1/40,000 in live births and 0.5-3% of all ectopic gestations. Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), salpingitis, infertility, and assisted reproductive techniques are the important risk factors. Approximately, 75% terminate in first trimester and are often misdiagnosed as corpus luteum haemorrhage. Preoperative diagnosis by ultrasonography (USG) in early pregnancy can help in conservative medical/ surgical management.
Objective:
The aim of the present study was to find the incidence, risk factors, role of USG in pre-operative diagnosis, feasibility of conservative management with medical method or minimal invasive surgery in developing countries like India.
Materials and Methods:
We did a retrospective cross-sectional study of ovarian pregnancies managed at Government Medical College and Hospital Chandigarh between July 2000 to July 2010. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, management of ovarian pregnancy, and reviewed the literature.
Results:
Incidence of ovarian pregnancy was 4.9% of all ectopic pregnancies (14/523). Thirteen (93%) patients presented in first trimester with acute pain abdomen and of these ten patients had bleeding per vaginum. One (7%) patient referred from peripheral hospital at term gestation with ultrasonographic diagnosis of breech presention with plecenta previa. Pre-operative diagnosis was made only in two cases (11%). All cases were managed by laparotomy. Excision of the sac with conservation of the ovary was done in eleven cases (78%) and oophorectomy was done in two cases (14%).
Conclusion:
Incidence of ovarian pregnancy is on the rise. Although ultrasonography can detect ovarian gestations in unruptured cases but cannot easily differentiate ovarian from other tubal gestation in ruptured state. Medical management is usually not feasible it most of the patients present in ruptured state. Conservative surgical approach is the management of choice.
PMCID: PMC4330663  PMID: 25709640
Ectopic pregnancy; Ovarian pregnancy; Infertility
3.  Uterine granuloma involving the myometrium: Two case reports 
Journal of Mid-Life Health  2013;4(1):60-62.
Uterine granulomas confined to the myometrium are uncommon. Granulomas maybe infectious, non-infectious or idiopathic in origin. They may be diffuse or focal in nature. In this report, we describe two cases of granulomas of diffuse variety involving the myometrium. The first case shows non-necrotizing granuloma probably related to previous instrumentation. The second case depicts caseating granulomas along with Leiomyoma of uterus.
doi:10.4103/0976-7800.109643
PMCID: PMC3702071  PMID: 23833539
Granulomatous inflammation; myometrium; uterus
4.  Trichomoniasis and Lactoferrin: Future Prospects 
Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan which infects the urogenital tract and requires iron as an essential nutrient. Iron is known to upregulate various adhesins required for cytoadherance and other factors involved in pathogenesis. At mucosal surfaces, iron is chelated by lactoferrin resulting in low levels of free iron. However, pathogens have evolved mechanisms for an increased uptake of iron. The present review highlights the role of iron in survival of Trichomonas during fluctuating concentrations of iron at mucosal surfaces during the menstrual cycle. Future prospects in terms of new drug and vaccine targets related to iron and its receptors have also been described.
doi:10.1155/2012/536037
PMCID: PMC3439953  PMID: 22988421
5.  Secondary abdominal pregnancy and its associated diagnostic and operative dilemma: three case reports 
Introduction
Abdominal pregnancy is extremely rare and has historically been defined as an implantation in the peritoneal cavity, exclusive of tubal, ovarian or intraligamentary pregnancy.
Case presentations
Three cases are reported. All came from a lower middle-income group and all of them were subjected to surgery. The first patient was a 30-year-old woman, who was pregnant for the fourth time, who presented at 16 weeks with an abdominal pregnancy. She was admitted with constant abdominal pain and retention of urine. She was hemodynamically stable and was administered a pre-operative intramuscular injection of methotrexate. During laparotomy she had only minor blood loss, the major part of the placenta was removed easily and she did not require any blood transfusion. Serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin values and ultrasound follow-up revealed a normal study four weeks after surgery. The second patient was a 26-year-old woman, pregnant for the third time, admitted at 14 weeks with an abdominal pregnancy with hemoperitoneum, and the third patient was a 24-year-old woman, pregnant for the first time, who presented at 36 weeks gestation. She was only diagnosed as having an abdominal pregnancy during surgery, experienced excessive blood loss and required a longer hospital stay.
Conclusions
We hypothesize that treatment with pre-operative systemic methotrexate with subsequent laparotomy for removal of the fetus and placenta may minimize potential blood loss, and would be a reasonable approach in the care of a patient with an abdominal pregnancy with placental implantation to the abdominal viscera and blood vessels. This treatment option should be considered in the management of this potentially life-threatening condition. During surgery, if the placenta is attached to vital organs it should be left behind. Early diagnosis can help in reducing associated maternal morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.4076/1752-1947-3-7382
PMCID: PMC2737786  PMID: 19830195

Results 1-5 (5)