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1.  Incidence of Pregnancy after Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: A Retrospective Clinical Cohort Analysis 
Background. Little is known about rates of incident pregnancy among HIV-positive women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods. We conducted a retrospective clinical cohort study among therapy-naïve women ages 18–45 initiating HAART between 1 April 2004 and 30 September 2009 at an adult HAART clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. We used Poisson regression to characterize rates and rate ratios of pregnancy. Results. We evaluated 5,996 women who experienced 727 pregnancies during 14,095 person-years at risk. The overall rate of pregnancy was 5.2 per 100 person-years (95% confidence limits [CL] 4.8, 5.5). By six years, cumulative incidence of first pregnancy was 22.9% (95% CL 20.6%, 25.4%); among women ages 18–25 at HAART initiation, cumulative incidence was 52.2% (95% CL 35.0%, 71.8%). The strongest predictor of incidence of pregnancy was age, with women 18–25 having 13.2 times the rate of pregnancy of women ages 40–45 in adjusted analysis. CD4 counts below 100 and worse adherence to HAART were associated with lower rates of incident pregnancy. Conclusions. Women experience high rates of incident pregnancy after HAART initiation. Understanding which women are most likely to experience pregnancy will help planning and future efforts to understand the implications of pregnancy for response to HAART.
PMCID: PMC3388336  PMID: 22778536
2.  Geographical Maldistribution of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Physicians in Hawai‘i 
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) have high prevalence of overweight status, obesity, and hypertension, as well as high rates of asthma and cancer mortality. Some barriers to health care delivery for this population are a physician shortage in Hawai‘i and a geographical maldistribution of actively practicing physicians. This study examines the distribution of NHOPI physicians compared to the NHOPI population in Hawai‘i through Geographical Information System choropleth mapping.
The maps and results were gathered and constructed from Census Tract data from the US Department of Commerce, the Census Bureau, the Physician Workforce Assessment, and the ‘Ahahui o nā Kauka reports.
With the exception of East Honolulu, all areas of Hawai‘i show drastic disparities in the ratio of NHOPI physicians to NHOPI populations as compared to the ratio of total physicians to the total population.
Given the NHOPI physician shortage and their geographical maldistribution, this study underscores the importance of increasing the number of NHOPI medical school applicants, graduates, residents, and physicians in permanent active practices in rural areas and the neighbor islands. Current institutional and academic programs, such as the John A. Burns School of Medicine, Imi Ho‘ola, and the Native Hawaiian Center of Excellence, are contributing to resolving some of the health disparities and should consider expanding their efforts.
PMCID: PMC3347733  PMID: 22737637

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