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1.  Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil 
Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.
doi:10.1155/2012/378640
PMCID: PMC3485513  PMID: 23133306
2.  Th1/Th2 Cytokine Profile in Patients Coinfected with HIV and Leishmania in Brazil▿† 
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI  2011;18(10):1765-1769.
To evaluate the effects of HIV on immune responses in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), we quantified cytokine levels from plasma and stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals infected with HIV and/or CL. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 13 (IL-13) levels and the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-10 produced in response to stimulation with soluble Leishmania antigens were significantly lower in HIV-Leishmania-coinfected patients than in CL-monoinfected patients.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00076-11
PMCID: PMC3187026  PMID: 21832098
3.  An Evaluation of the Spontaneous Proliferation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals Using Flow Cytometry 
ISRN Oncology  2011;2011:326719.
The spontaneous proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is a hallmark of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type-1. Cell proliferation is usually measured using a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. This study aims to quantify the spontaneous proliferation of PBMCs using flow cytometry. PBMCs were cultured for 24 to 120 hours in the presence of 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). For comparison, PBMCs were also cultured with [3H]thymidine. The cutoff values for spontaneous proliferation were >0.06 for the division index and >5.8% for the percentage of divided cells. Sixty-two percent of HTLV-1-infected individuals presented spontaneous proliferation of PBMCs, which was detected in the first 24 hours. Moreover, proliferation was detected in CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets. A positive correlation was found between the division index and [3H]thymidine incorporation. This method may prove useful to better understand the phenomenon of spontaneous proliferation of PBMC of patients infected with HTLV-1.
doi:10.5402/2011/326719
PMCID: PMC3236430  PMID: 22191057
4.  Clinical Outcomes of Thirteen Patients with Acute Chagas Disease Acquired through Oral Transmission from Two Urban Outbreaks in Northeastern Brazil 
Background
Outbreaks of orally transmitted Trypanosoma cruzi continue to be reported in Brazil and are associated with a high mortality rate, mainly due to myocarditis.
Methods
This study is a detailed report on the disease progression of acute Chagas disease in 13 patients who were infected during two micro-outbreaks in two northeastern Brazilian towns. Clinical outcomes as well as EKG and ECHO results are described, both before and after benznidazole treatment.
Results
Fever and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms observed. Other clinical findings included myalgia, periorbital edema, headache and systolic murmur. Two patients died of cardiac failure before receiving benznidazole treatment. EKG and ECHO findings frequently showed a disturbance in ventricular repolarization and pericardial effusion. Ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction <55%) was present in 27.3% of patients. After treatment, EKG readings normalized in 91.7% of patients. Ventricular repolarization abnormalities persisted in 50% of the patients, while sinus bradycardia was observed in 18%. The systolic ejection fraction normalized in two out of three patients with initially depressed ventricular function, while pericardial effusion disappeared.
Conclusions
Myocarditis is frequently found and potentially severe in patients with acute Chagas disease. Benznidazole treatment may improve clinical symptoms, as well as EKG and ECHO findings.
Author Summary
Chagas disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan transmitted to humans by the contaminated feces of blood-feeding assassin bugs from the Triatominae subfamily. It may also be transmitted from mother to baby during pregnancy, by breastfeeding, blood transfusion or organ transplant. In rare cases, the disease can also be caused by accidental ingestion of contaminated food (sugar cane or açaí juice, drinking water, etc.). Acute Chagas disease often presents itself as a mononucleosis-like syndrome, with symptoms including fever, lymph node enlargement and muscle pain. The mortality rate of acute Chagas disease is high, mainly due to heart failure as a consequence of cardiac fiber lesions. There are few studies describing clinical outcomes and the disease progression of patients who receive therapeutic treatment, especially with regard to cardiac exam findings. In this report, the authors describe clinical findings from two micro-outbreaks occurring in impoverished towns in northeastern Brazil. Prior to receiving treatment, patient mortality rate was 28.6% in one of the outbreaks, and one pregnant woman experienced a spontaneous abortion due to the disease in the other outbreak. Most patients complained of fever, dyspnea, myalgia and periorbital edema. After receiving a two-month course of treatment, clinical symptoms improved and the number of abnormalities in cardiac exams decreased.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000711
PMCID: PMC2886048  PMID: 20559542

Results 1-4 (4)