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issn:1092-775
1.  Parental Immigration Status is Associated with Children’s Health Care Utilization: Findings from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey of US Legal Permanent Residents 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(10):1913-1921.
Our objective was to examine the association between parental immigration status and child health and health care utilization. Using data from a national sample of immigrant adults who had recently become legal permanent residents (LPR), children (n = 2,170) were categorized according to their parents’ immigration status prior to LPR: legalized, mixed-status, refugee, temporary resident, or undocumented. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare child health and health care utilization by parental immigration status over the prior 12 months. Nearly all children in the sample were reported to be in good to excellent health. Children whose parents had been undocumented were least likely to have had an illness that was reported to have required medical attention (5.4 %). Children whose parents had been either undocumented or temporary residents were most likely to have a delayed preventive annual exam (18.2 and 18.7 %, respectively). Delayed dental care was most common among children whose parents had come to the US as refugees (29.1 %). Differences in the preventive annual exam remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Parental immigration status before LPR was not associated with large differences in reported child health status. Parental immigration status before LPR was associated with the use of preventive annual exams and dental services. However, no group of children was consistently disadvantaged with respect to all measures.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1217-2
PMCID: PMC4089976  PMID: 23329165
Emigrants and immigrants; Dental care; Pediatric; Primary health care; Pediatric; Health care disparities; Pediatric
2.  Reproductive Health Decision-Making in Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(5):797-808.
With widespread access to antiretroviral therapy in the United States, many perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, becoming sexually active and making decisions about their reproductive health. The literature focusing on the reproductive decisions of individuals behaviorally infected with HIV can serve as a springboard for understanding the decision-making process of PHIV+ youth. Yet, there are many differences that critically distinguish reproductive health and related decision-making of PHIV+ youth. Given the potential public health implications of their reproductive decisions, better understanding of factors influencing the decision-making process is needed to help inform the development of salient treatment and prevention interventions. To begin addressing this understudied area, a “think tank” session, comprised of clinicians, medical providers, and researchers with expertise in the area of adolescent HIV, was held in Bethesda, MD, on September 21, 2011. The focus was to explore what is known about factors that influence the reproductive decision-making of PHIV+ adolescents and young adults, determine what important data are needed in order to develop appropriate intervention for PHIV+ youth having children, and to recommend future directions for the field in terms of designing and carrying out collaborative studies. In this report, we summarize the findings from this meeting. The paper is organized around the key themes that emerged, including utilizing a developmental perspective to create an operational definition of reproductive decision-making, integration of psychosocial services with medical management, and how to design future research studies. Case examples are presented and model program components proposed.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1070-3
PMCID: PMC3687209  PMID: 22736033
HIV and reproductive health; Perinatal HIV; HIV-infected youth; Adolescent reproductive health
3.  A Randomized Clinical Trial of Trans-Dermal Nicotine Replacement in Pregnant African-American Smokers 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(5):897-906.
We compared acceptability, adherence and efficacy of trans-dermal nicotine patches and cognitive behavioral therapy (Group 1) to cognitive behavioral therapy alone (Group 2) in minority pregnant smokers. This is a randomized controlled trial. 52 women were recruited during pregnancy with a mean gestational age 18.5 ± 5.0 weeks and followed through delivery. Randomization was by site and initial cotinine levels. Interventionists and interviewers were blinded to group assignment. Two different nicotine replacement therapy dosing regiments were administered according to the baseline salivary cotinine level. A process evaluation model summarized patient adherence. The main outcome measure was self-report of cessation since last visit, confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide. Analyses of categorical and continuous measures were conducted as well as linear trend tests of salivary cotinine levels. Women lost to follow-up were considered treatment failures. Participants were on average 27.5 ± 5.4 years old, 81 % were single, 69 % unemployed and 96 % were Medicaid eligible. A process evaluation indicated patients in both groups were adherent to scheduled program procedures through Visit 4, but not for Visits 5 and 6. Confirmed quit rates were: at visit 3, 23 (Group 1) and 0 % (Group 2) (p = 0.02); at visits 4 and 5, no difference; at visit 6, 19 (Group 1) and 0 % (Group 2) (p = 0.05). Group 1 delivered infants with a mean gestational age of 39.4 weeks versus 38.4 weeks in Group 2 (p = 0.02). 73 % (52/71) of the eligible smokers agreed to participate and 65 % (17/26) of Group 1 completed the protocol (i.e. attended 6 visits). A comparison of Group 1 and 2 quit rates confirmed a non-significant difference.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1069-9
PMCID: PMC3679235  PMID: 22761006
Pregnancy; African-Americans; Smoking; Nicotine replacement therapy
4.  A National Study of HPV Vaccination of Adolescent Girls: Rates, Predictors, and Reasons for Non-vaccination 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(5):879-885.
Background
Despite recommendations in the U.S. for routine HPV vaccination of adolescent girls since 2006, rates of vaccination continue to be low.
Purpose
This study reports vaccination uptake, factors associated with vaccine uptake and reasons for non-vaccination within a national sample of adolescent females during 2010.
Methods
Using a computer administered survey of a national sample of 501 mothers of daughters 14-17 years old we assessed maternal reports of HPV vaccination as well as socio-demographical factors, maternal HPV exposures and reasons chosen for non-vaccination.
Results
Reported HPV vaccination rates were slightly over 50% (51.1%), with 38.3% reporting completion of all 3 doses. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were not associated with vaccination initiation; however, Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to complete vaccination. The most common reasons for non-vaccination were concerns about vaccine safety, danger to daughter, and provider non-recommendation.
Conclusions
Relatively poor HPV vaccine initiation and only modest 3-dose completion continues to be a major public health concern that requires continued efforts to address identified predictors and reasons for non-vaccination.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1066-z
PMCID: PMC3719972  PMID: 22729660
HPV; Vaccination Rates; Adolescent Health Behaviors; Sexually Transmitted Infections
5.  Maternal Autonomy and Attitudes Towards Gender Norms: Associations with Childhood Immunization in Nigeria 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(5):837-841.
Objectives
Globally 2.5 million children under-five die from vaccine preventable diseases, and in Nigeria only 23% of children ages 12–23 months are fully immunized. The international community is promoting gender equality as a means to improve the health and well-being of women and their children. This paper looks at whether measures of gender equality, autonomy and individual attitudes towards gender norms, are associated with a child being fully immunized in Nigeria.
Methods
Data from currently married women with a child 12–23 months from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) were used to study the influence of autonomy and gender attitudes on whether or not a child is fully immunized. Multivariate logistic regression was used and several key socioeconomic variables were controlled for including wealth and education, which are considered key inputs into gender equality.
Results
Findings indicated that household decision-making and attitudes towards wife beating were significantly associated with a child being fully immunized after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Ethnicity, wealth and education were also significant factors.
Conclusions
Programmatic and policy implications indicate the potential for the promotion of gender equality as a means to improve child health. Gender equality can be seen as a means to enable women to access life-saving services for their children.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1060-5
PMCID: PMC3966061  PMID: 22696106
gender; autonomy; Nigeria; immunizations; children
6.  Provider Advice About Pregnancy Weight Gain and Adequacy of Weight Gain 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(2):256-264.
To explore the association between health care provider advice about weight gain and gestational weight gain. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we explored the association between provider advice about weight gain in pregnancy with weight gain adequacy among 1,454 pregnant women. Provider advice was measured by maternal self-report at 27–30 weeks’ gestation. Linear and Poisson regression were used to explore associations. Seventy-eight percent of the women gained outside current recommendations. Fifty-one percent reported receiving weight gain advice from a health care provider. Adjusted Generalized Linear Model (GLM) estimates showed weak effect of provider advice on inadequate or excessive gain (Relative Risk (RR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.74, 1.26 for inadequate gain and RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.06 for excessive gain). There is a need for more women to hear about their targeted weight gains during pregnancy and the present advice that exists does little to influence actual gains. Further studies are warranted to find better strategies for providers to motivate their patients to gain weight within the appropriate ranges.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0969-z
PMCID: PMC4073887  PMID: 22362261
Pregnancy; Gestational weight gain; Provider advice
7.  An Investigation into the Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Gestational Body Mass Index in Pregnant Women Living in a Peri-Urban Settlement, South Africa 
Maternal and child health journal  2012;16(8):1732-1741.
Maternal and child mortality rates are still unacceptably high in South Africa. The health status of women in peri-urban areas has been influenced by political and socio-economic factors. Examining socio-economic variables (SEV) in a population aids in the explanation of the impact of social structures on an individual. Risk factors can then be established and pregnant women in these higher risk groups can be identified and given additional support during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SEV and gestational Body Mass Index (GBMI) in a peri-urban settlement, South Africa. This was a sub-study of the Philani Mentor Mothers’ Study (2009–2010). Maternal anthropometry and SEV were obtained from 1,145 participants. Multinomial regression was used to analyse the data. Household income was the only SEV that was significantly associated with GBMI. The odds of being underweight rather than normal weight during pregnancy increase by a factor of 2.145 (P < 0.05) for those who had a household income lower than R2000 per month. All other SEV were not significant. Logistic regression was therefore not carried out. Women who had a lower income were at risk of having a lower GBMI during pregnancy. This can lead to adverse birth outcomes such as premature birth, low birth weight, height and head circumference. Public health policy needs to be developed to include optimal nutrition health promotion strategies targeting women with a low income ante and post-natally. Once implemented, they need to be evaluated to assess the impact on maternal and child mortality.
doi:10.1007/s10995-011-0869-7
PMCID: PMC4059349  PMID: 21894501
Socioeconomic variables; Peri-urban settlement; Gestational body mass index; Pregnancy
8.  Household exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with decreased physical and mental health of mothers in the USA 
Maternal and child health journal  2011;15(1):128-137.
Background
Secondhand smoke is one of the most common toxic environmental exposures to children, and maternal health problems also have substantial negative effects on children. We are unaware of any studies examining the association of living with smokers and maternal health.
Objective
To investigate whether non-smoking mothers who live with smokers have worse physical and mental health than non-smoking mothers who live in homes without smokers.
Methods
Nationally representative data from the 2000–2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used. The health of non-smoking mothers with children <18 years (n=18,810) was assessed, comparing those living with one or more smokers (n=3,344) to those living in households with no adult smokers (n=14,836). Associations between maternal health, household smoking, and maternal age, race/ethnicity, and marital, educational, poverty and employment status were examined in bivariable and multivariable analyses using SUDAAN software to adjust for the complex sampling design. Scores on the Medical Outcomes Short Form-12 (SF-12) Physical Component Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Scale (MCS) were used to assess maternal health.
Results
79.2% of mothers in the USA are non-smokers and 17.4% of them live with ≥1 adult smokers: 14.2% with 1 and 3.2% with ≥ 2 smokers. Among non-smoking mothers, the mean MCS score is 50.5 and mean PCS is 52.9. The presence of an adult smoker and increasing number of smokers in the home are both negatively associated with MCS and PCS scores in bivariable analyses (p<0.001 for each). Non-smoking mothers with at least one smoker in the household had an 11 % (95% CI=0.80–0.99) lower odds of scoring at or above the mean MCS score and a 19 % (95%CI=0.73–0.90) lower odds of scoring at or above the mean PCS score_compared to non-smoking mothers with no smokers in the household. There is an evidence of a dose response relationship with increasing number of smokers in the household for PCS (p<0.001).
Conclusions
These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized child health risk: living with smokers is independently associated with worse physical and mental health among non-smoking mothers.
doi:10.1007/s10995-009-0549-z
PMCID: PMC4049417  PMID: 20012677
maternal health; secondhand smoke
9.  Racial Disparities in Economic and Clinical Outcomes of Pregnancy Among Medicaid Recipients 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(8):1518-1525.
To explore racial-ethnic disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes among Medicaid recipients, and to estimate excess Medicaid costs associated with the disparities. Cross-sectional study of adverse pregnancy outcomes and Medicaid payments using data from Medicaid Analytic eXtract files on all Medicaid enrollees in fourteen southern states. Compared to other racial and ethnic groups, African American women tended to be younger, more likely to have a Cesarean section, to stay longer in the hospital and to incur higher Medicaid costs. African-American women were also more likely to experience preeclampsia, placental abruption, preterm birth, small birth size for gestational age, and fetal death/stillbirth. Eliminating racial disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes (not counting infant costs), could generate Medicaid cost savings of $114 to $214 million per year in these 14 states. Despite having the same insurance coverage and meeting the same poverty guidelines for Medicaid eligibility, African American women have a higher rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes than White or Hispanic women. Racial disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes not only represent potentially preventable human suffering, but also avoidable economic costs. There is a significant financial return-on-investment opportunity tied to eliminating racial disparities in birth outcomes. With the Affordable Care Act expansion of Medicaid coverage for the year 2014, Medicaid could be powerful public health tool for improving pregnancy outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1162-0
PMCID: PMC4039287  PMID: 23065298
Disparities; Medicaid; Economic burden; Adverse maternal-child health outcomes and eliminating disparities
10.  The Role of Gender Empowerment on Reproductive Health Outcomes in Urban Nigeria 
Maternal and child health journal  2014;18(1):307-315.
Objectives
To date, limited evidence is available for urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically research into the association between urban women’s empowerment and reproductive health outcomes. The objective of this study is to investigate whether women’s empowerment in urban Nigerian settings is associated with family planning use and maternal health behaviors. Moreover, we examine whether different effects of empowerment exist by region of residence.
Methods
This study uses baseline household survey data from the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation Project (MLE) for the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI) being implemented in six major cities. We examine four dimensions of empowerment: economic freedom, attitudes towards domestic violence, partner prohibitions and decision-making. We determine if the empowerment dimensions have different effects on reproductive health outcomes by region of residence using multivariate analyses.
Results
Results indicate that more empowered women are more likely to use modern contraception, deliver in a health facility and have a skilled attendant at birth. These trends vary by empowerment dimension and by city/region in Nigeria.
Conclusions
We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings on future programs seeking to improve reproductive health outcomes in urban Nigeria and beyond.
doi:10.1007/s10995-013-1266-1
PMCID: PMC4022125  PMID: 23576403
Maternal Health; Gender; Family Planning; Reproductive Health; Nigeria; Urban
11.  Labor Epidural Anesthesia, Obstetric Factors and Breastfeeding Cessation 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(4):689-698.
Objective
Breastfeeding benefits both infant and maternal health. Use of epidural anesthesia during labor is increasingly common and may interfere with breastfeeding. Studies analyzing epidural anesthesia’s association with breastfeeding outcomes show mixed results; many have methodological flaws. We analyzed potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breast-feeding cessation within 30 days postpartum while adjusting for standard and novel covariates and uniquely accounting for labor induction.
Methods
A pooled analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and modified Cox Proportional Hazard models included 772 breastfeeding mothers from upstate New York who had vaginal term births of healthy singleton infants. Subjects were drawn from two cohort studies (recruited postpartum between 2005 and 2008) and included maternal self-report and maternal and infant medical record data.
Results
Analyses of potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breastfeeding cessation within one month included additional covariates and uniquely accounted for labor induction. After adjusting for standard demographics and intrapartum factors, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (hazard ratio 1.26 [95%confidence interval 1.10, 1.44], p<.01) as did hospital type, maternal age, income, education, planned breastfeeding goal, and breastfeeding confidence. In post hoc analyses stratified by Baby Friendly Hospital (BFH) status, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (BFH: 1.19 [1.01,1.41], p<.04; non-BFH: 1.65 [1.31, 2.08], p<.01).
Conclusions
A relationship between epidural anesthesia and breastfeeding was found but is complex and involves institutional, clinical, maternal and infant factors. These findings have implications for clinical care and hospital policies and point to the need for prospective studies.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1045-4
PMCID: PMC3622113  PMID: 22696104
12.  Social support during the postpartum period: Mothers’ views on needs, expectations, and mobilization of support 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(4):616-623.
Objectives
Research has indicated that social support is a major buffer of postpartum depression. Yet little is known concerning women’s perceptions on social support during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore postpartum women’s views and experiences with social support following childbirth.
Methods
Four focus groups were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of women (n=33) in a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. Participants had completed participation in a postpartum depression randomized trial and were 6 to 12 months postpartum. Data transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes.
Results
The main themes identified in the focus group discussions were mother’s major needs and challenges postpartum, social support expectations and providers of support, how mothers mobilize support, and barriers to mobilizing support. Women across all groups identified receipt of instrumental support as essential to their physical and emotional recovery. Support from partners and families was expected and many women believed this support should be provided without asking. Racial/ethnic differences existed in the way women from different groups mobilized support from their support networks.
Conclusions
Instrumental support plays a significant role in meeting women’s basic needs during the postpartum period. In addition, women’s expectations surrounding support can have an impact on their ability to mobilize support among their social networks. The results of this study suggest that identifying support needs and expectations of new mothers is important for mothers’ recovery after childbirth. Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1037-4
PMCID: PMC3518627  PMID: 22581378
13.  Protective Factors in American Indian Communities and Adolescent Violence 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(7):1199-1207.
Purpose
With their distinct cultural heritage and rural boundaries, American Indian reservation communities offer a unique opportunity to explore protective factors that help buffer adolescents from potential risk behaviors such as violence. Prior published research on Indian communities has not explored three potential protective factors for violence - parental monitoring of adolescents and friends, adolescents’ self-efficacy to avoid fighting, and adolescents’ interest in learning more about their traditional culture. This paper explores the relationship between these factors and reduced risk of reported violence.
Methods
In 1998, 630 American Indian students in grades 6–12 were surveyed in five Midwestern, rural Indian reservation schools. Path analysis was used to identify the direct and indirect association of the three potential protective factors with reduced violence behavior.
Results
There were significant gender differences both in perceived parental monitoring and in adolescents’ self-efficacy. For female adolescents, parental monitoring had the strongest inverse relationship with female adolescents’ involvement in violence. Female adolescents’ self-efficacy and their interest in learning more about their culture were also inversely associated with violence and therefore potentially important protectors. Male adolescents who reported more interest in learning the tribe’s culture had better self-efficacy to avoid violence. However, self-efficacy did not successfully predict their reported involvement in peer violence.
Conclusions
These findings support exploring gender differences, parental monitoring, self-efficacy training as well as cultural elements in future violence intervention studies. Further investigation is needed to identify protective factors for risk behaviors among male adolescents and test the generalizability to non-reservation based adolescents.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1111-y
PMCID: PMC3997049  PMID: 22926269
American Indian adolescents; protective factors for peer violence; parental monitoring; self-efficacy; traditional culture
14.  Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Relation to Maternal Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy in Peru 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(3):485-492.
Objective
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity. We assessed the relation between IPV and risk of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) among Peruvian women.
Methods
The study was conducted among 479 pregnant women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (<37 weeks gestation) and 480 controls (≥37 weeks gestation). Participants’ exposure to physical and emotional violence during pregnancy was collected during in-person interviews conducted after delivery and while patients were in hospital. Odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from logistic regression models.
Results
The prevalence of any IPV during pregnancy was 52.2% among cases and 34.6% among controls. Compared with those reporting no exposure to IPV during pregnancy, women reporting any exposure had a 2.1-fold increased risk of PTB (95% CI 1.59–2.68). The association was attenuated slightly after adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy weight, and other covariates (OR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.52–2.61). Emotional abuse in the absence of physical violence was associated with a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.21–2.15) increased risk of PTB. Emotional and physical abuse during pregnancy was associated with a 4.7-fold increased risk of PTB (95% CI 2.74–7.92). Associations of similar directions and magnitudes were observed when PTB were sub-categorized according to clinical presentation or severity.
Conclusion
IPV among pregnant women is common and is associated with an increased risk of PTB. Our findings and those of others support recent calls for coordinated global health efforts to prevent violence against women.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1012-0
PMCID: PMC3565008  PMID: 22527763
Preterm birth; intimate partner violence; pregnant women; Peru
15.  Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women Attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(3):441-447.
To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05–4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06–5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01–3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21–4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16–0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1015-x
PMCID: PMC3574621  PMID: 22569943
Intimate partner violence; Pregnancy; Kenya
16.  First Trimester Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution, Pregnancy Complications and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Allegheny County, PA 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(3):545-555.
Despite numerous studies of air pollution and adverse birth outcomes, few studies have investigated preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, two pregnancy disorders with serious consequences for both mother and infant. Relying on hospital birth records, we conducted a cohort study identifying 34,705 singleton births delivered at Magee-Women’s Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA between 1997 and 2002. Particle (<10 μm-PM10; <2.5 μm-PM2.5) and ozone (O3) exposure concentrations in the first trimester of pregnancy were estimated using the space–time ordinary Kriging interpolation method. We employed multiple logistic regression estimate associations between first trimester exposures and preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. PM2.5 and O3 exposures were associated with preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.96–1.39 per 4.0 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5; adjusted OR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 0.89–1.42 per 16.8 ppb increase in O3), gestational hypertension (for PM2.5 OR = 1.11, 95 % CI = 1.00–1.23; for O3 OR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 0.97–1.29), and preterm delivery (for PM2.5 ORs = 1.10, 95 % CI = 1.01–1.20; for O3 ORs = 1.23, 95 % CI = 1.01–1.50). Smaller 5–8 % increases in risk were also observed for PM10 with gestational hypertension and SGA, but not preeclampsia. Our data suggest that first trimester exposure to particles, mostly PM2.5, and ozone, may increase the risk of developing preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, as well as preterm delivery and SGA.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1028-5
PMCID: PMC3636771  PMID: 22544506
Air pollution; Particulate; Preeclampsia; Gestational hypertension; Preterm; Small for gestational; age (SGA)
17.  Predictors of Inadequate Prenatal Care in Methamphetamine-Using Mothers in New Zealand and the United States 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(3):566-575.
This study compared patterns of prenatal care among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy and non-using mothers in the US and New Zealand (NZ), and evaluated associations among maternal drug use, child protective services (CPS) referral, and inadequate prenatal care in both countries. The sample consisted of 182 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 196 in the Comparison groups in the US, and 107 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 112 in the Comparison groups in NZ. Positive toxicology results and/or maternal report of MA use during pregnancy were used to identify MA use. Information about sociodemographics, prenatal care and prenatal substance use was collected by maternal interview. MA-use during pregnancy is associated with lower socio-economic status, single marital status, and CPS referral in both NZ and the US. Compared to their non-using counterparts, MA-using mothers in the US had significantly higher rates of inadequate prenatal care. No association was found between inadequate care and MA-use in NZ. In the US, inadequate prenatal care was associated with CPS referral, but not in NZ. Referral to CPS for drug use only composed 40 % of all referrals in the US, but only 15 % of referrals in NZ. In our study population, prenatal MA-use and CPS referral eclipse maternal sociodemographics in explanatory power for inadequate prenatal care. The predominant effect of CPS referral in the US is especially interesting, and should encourage further research on whether the US policy of mandatory reporting discourages drug-using mothers from seeking antenatal care.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1033-8
PMCID: PMC3717345  PMID: 22588827
Methamphetamine; Adequate prenatal care; New Zealand; Kessner Index; Child protective services
18.  The Effect of Time in the U.S. on the Duration of Breastfeeding in Women of Mexican Descent 
Maternal and child health journal  2007;11(2):119-125.
Objectives
Although women of Mexican decent have high rates of breastfeeding, these rates may vary considerably by acculturation level. This study investigated whether increased years of residence in the U.S. is associated with poorer breastfeeding practices, including shorter duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding, in a population of low-income mothers of Mexican descent.
Methods
Pregnant women (n=490) were recruited from prenatal clinics serving a predominantly Mexican-origin population in an agricultural region of California. Women were interviewed during pregnancy, shortly postpartum, and when their child was 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3.5 years of age.
Results
Increased years of residence in the U.S. was associated with decreased likelihood of initiating breastfeeding and shorter duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding. Median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 2 months for women living in the U.S. for 5 years or less, 1 month for women living in the U.S. for 6 to 10 years, and less than one week for women living in the U.S. for 11 years or more, or for their entire lives (lifetime residents). After controlling for maternal age, education, marital status and work status, lifetime residents of the U.S. were 2.4 times more likely to stop breastfeeding, and 1.5 times more likely to stop exclusive breastfeeding, than immigrants who had lived in the U.S. for 5 years or less.
Conclusions
Efforts are needed to encourage and support Mexican-origin women to maintain their cultural tradition of breastfeeding as they become more acculturated in the U.S.
doi:10.1007/s10995-006-0152-5
PMCID: PMC3957412  PMID: 17279324
Breastfeeding; acculturation; Mexican Americans; Mexican immigrants; immigration
19.  Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(2):189-199.
Objectives
The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period.
Methods
Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings.
Results and Conclusions
Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0966-2
PMCID: PMC3391357  PMID: 22374319
prenatal care timing; prenatal care adequacy; child health outcomes
20.  Quality Disparities in Child Care for At-Risk Children: Comparing Head Start and Non-Head Start Settings 
Maternal and child health journal  2013;17(1):180-188.
The study objectives are to describe child care type and quality experienced by developmentally at-risk children, examine quality differences between Head Start and non-Head Start settings, and identify factors associated with receiving higher-quality child care. Data are analyzed from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Birth Cohort, a prospective study of a nationally representative sample of US children born in 2001. The sample consisted of 7,500 children who were assessed at 48 months of age. The outcome of interest is child care quality, measured by the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale (center care) and the Family Day Care Rating Scale (family day care). Results of descriptive and multivariate regression analyses are presented. Less than one-third of poor children were in Head Start. Child care quality was higher in Head Start centers than other centers, particularly among poor children (4.75 vs. 4.28, p < 0.001), Hispanics (4.90 vs. 4.45, p < 0.001), and whites (4.89 vs. 4.51, p < 0.001). African Americans experienced the lowest quality care in both Head Start and non-Head Start centers. Quality disadvantage was associated with Head Start family care settings, especially for low birthweight children (2.04 in Head Start vs. 3.58 in non-Head Start, p < 0.001). Lower family day care quality was associated with less maternal education and African American and Hispanic ethnicity. Center-based Head Start provides higher quality child care for at-risk children, and expansion of these services will likely facilitate school readiness in these populations. Quality disadvantages in Head Start family day care settings are worrisome and warrant investigation.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0961-7
PMCID: PMC3407821  PMID: 22392601
Child care; Head Start program; Low income population; Preschool child; Low birthweight; Poverty
21.  Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain and their association with birthweight with a focus on racial differences 
Objectives
To examine the interaction between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) and their association with birthweight, with a focus on racial differences.
Methods
We used birth certificate data from live singleton births of South Carolina resident mothers, who self-reported their race as non-Hispanic white (NHW, n=140,128) or non-Hispanic black (NHB, n=82,492) and who delivered at 34–44 weeks of gestation between 2004–2008 to conduct a cross-sectional study. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between our exposures (i.e., race, BMI and GWG) and our outcome birthweight.
Results
Based on 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines, the prevalence of adequate, inadequate and excessive GWG was 27.1%, 24.2% and 48.7%, respectively, in NHW women and 24.2%, 34.8% and 41.0%, respectively, in NHB women. Adjusting for infant sex, gestational age, maternal age, tobacco use, education, prenatal care, and Medicaid, the difference in birthweight between excessive and adequate GWG at a maternal BMI of 30 kg/m2 was 118g (95% CI: 109, 127) in NHW women and 101g (95% CI: 91, 111) in NHB women. Moreover, excessive versus adequate GWG conveyed similar protection from having a small for gestational age infant in NHW [OR=0.64 (95% CI 0.61, 0.67)] and NHB women [OR=0.68 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.72)].
Conclusions
We report a strong association between excessive GWG and higher infant birthweight across maternal BMI classes in NHW and NHB women. Given the high prevalence of excessive GWG even a small increase in birthweight may have considerable implications at the population level.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0950-x
PMCID: PMC3677820  PMID: 22322428
Gestational weight gain; racial/ethnic health differences; obesity; birthweight
22.  Regional Variation in Late Preterm Births in North Carolina 
Objective
Late preterm (LPT) neonates (34 0/7th to 36 6/7th weeks' gestation) account for 70% of all premature births in the United States. LPT neonates have a higher morbidity and mortality risk than term neonates. LPT birth rates vary across geographic regions. Unwarranted variation is variation in medical care that cannot be explained by sociodemographic or medical risk factors; it represents differences in health system performance, including provider practice variation. The purpose of this study is to identify regional variation in LPT births in North Carolina that cannot be explained by sociodemographic or medical/obstetric risk factors.
Methods
We searched the NC State Center for Health Statistics linked birth-death certificate database for all singleton term and LPT neonates born between 1999 and 2006. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to control for socio-demographic and medical/obstetric risk factors. The main outcome was the percent of late preterm birth in each of the six perinatal regions in North Carolina.
Results
We identified 884,304 neonates; 66,218 (7.5%) were LPT. After multivariable logistic regression, regions 2 (7.0%) and 6 (6.6%) had the highest adjusted percent of LPT birth.
Conclusions
Analysis of a statewide birth cohort demonstrates regional variation in the incidence of LPT births among NC's perinatal regions after adjustment for sociodemographic and medical risk factors. We speculate that provider practice variation might explain some of the remaining difference. This is an area where policy changes and quality improvement efforts can help reduce variation, and potentially decrease LPT births.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0945-7
PMCID: PMC3725330  PMID: 22350629
late preterm; preterm birth; unwarranted variation; practice variation
23.  Biases in studying gestational weight gain and infant mortality in U.S. birth certificates 
Maternal and child health journal  2012;16(4):10.1007/s10995-012-0987-x.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0987-x
PMCID: PMC3853097  PMID: 22453329
24.  Early predictors of obesity and cardiovascular risk among American Indian children 
Maternal and child health journal  2012;16(9):1879-1886.
American Indian (AI) children have the highest rates of obesity among ethnic groups in the United States, and rates continue to increase. This study was designed to examine the effects of prenatal and early postnatal factors on AI children’s body mass index (BMI) trajectories, adiposity, and cardiovascular risk markers during early childhood. We screened 471 AI children (ages 5–8) from three Wisconsin tribes. Screenings included anthropometric and body fat measures and non-fasting lipid and glucose via fingerstick blood samples. Tribal records from Women Infants and Children (WIC) programs and clinic charts provided data on children’s BMI trajectories, maternal prenatal factors, and the early postnatal feeding environment. Forty-seven percent of children were overweight or obese. Analysis of growth trajectories showed that children’s BMI category was largely determined within the first year of life. Significant predictors of children's BMI category at age 1 included macrosomia (OR: 4.38), excess gestational weight gain (OR: 1.64) and early termination of breastfeeding (OR: 1.66). Children who were overweight/obese at age 1 had greater odds of being overweight (OR: 3.42) or obese (OR: 3.36), and having unhealthy levels of body fat (OR: 2.95) and LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.64) at ages 5–8. Children’s BMI category is determined in the early post-natal environment, within the first year of life, by factors including excess gestational weight gain and early termination of breastfeeding. In turn, children’s BMI category at age 1 predicts the emergence of cardiovascular risk markers in early childhood.
doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1024-9
PMCID: PMC3438386  PMID: 22527771
American Indian; Breastfeeding; Gestational Weight gain; Growth trajectories; Macrosomia
25.  Perceptions of low-income African-American mothers about excessive gestational weight gain 
Maternal and child health journal  2012;16(9):10.1007/s10995-011-0930-6.
Objective
A rising number of low-income African-American mothers gain more weight in pregnancy than is recommended, placing them at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. Little is known about the perceptions of mothers in this population that may influence excessive gestational weight gain.
Methods
In 2010–2011, we conducted 4 focus groups with 31 low-income, pregnant African-Americans in Philadelphia. Two readers independently coded the focus group transcripts to identify recurrent themes.
Results
We identified 9 themes around perceptions that encouraged or discouraged high gestational weight gain. Mothers attributed high weight gain to eating more in pregnancy, which was the result of being hungrier and the belief that consuming more calories while pregnant was essential for babies’ health. Family members, especially participants own mothers, strongly reinforced the need to “eat for two” to make a healthy baby. Mothers and their families recognized the link between poor fetal outcomes and low weight gains but not higher gains, and thus, most had a greater pre-occupation with too little food intake and weight gain rather than too much. Having physical symptoms from overeating and weight retention after previous pregnancies were factors that discouraged higher gains.
Conclusions
Low-income African American mothers had more perceptions encouraging high gestational weight gain than discouraging it. Interventions to prevent excessive weight gain need to be sensitive to these perceptions. Messages that link guideline recommended weight gain to optimal infant outcomes and mothers’ physical symptoms may be most effective for weight control.
doi:10.1007/s10995-011-0930-6
PMCID: PMC3835695  PMID: 22160656
Pregnancy; Weight gain; African-American; Obesity; Diet

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