The virulence attributes of Trichosporon asahii are virtually unknown, despite its growing relevance as causative agent of superficial and invasive diseases in humans. Glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) is a well described virulence factor of pathogenic species in the Cryptococcus genus. GXM is also produced by species of the Trichosporon genus, and both polysaccharides share antigenic determinants, but unlike cryptococcal GXM, relatively little work has been done on trichosporal GXMs. In this study, we analyzed structural and functional aspects of GXM produced by T. asahii and compared them to the properties of the cryptococcal polysaccharide. Trichosporal and cryptococcal GXM shared antigenic reactivity, but the former polysaccharide had smaller effective diameter and negative charge. GXM anchoring to the cell wall was perturbed by dimethylsulfoxide and required interactions of chitin-derived oligomers with the polysaccharide. GXM from T. asahii supernatants are incorporated by acapsular mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans, which renders these cells more resistant to phagocytosis by mouse macrophages. In summary, our results establish that despite similarities in cell wall anchoring, antigenic and antiphagocytic properties, trichosporal and cryptococcal GXMs manifest major structural differences that may directly affect polysaccharide assembly at the fungal surface.
Trichosporon; Glucuronoxylomannan; Phagocytosis
Fungal infections are often difficult to treat due to the inherent similarities between fungal and animal cells and the resulting host toxicity from many antifungal compounds. Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans that causes life-threatening disease, primarily in immunocompromised patients. Since antifungal therapy for this microorganism is limited, many investigators have explored novel drug targets aim at virulence factors, such as the ability to grow at mammalian physiological temperature (37°C). To address this issue, we used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene delivery system to create a random insertion mutagenesis library that was screened for altered growth at elevated temperatures. Among several mutants unable to grow at 37°C, we explored one bearing an interruption in the URA4 gene. This gene encodes dihydroorotase (DHOase) that is involved in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides. Loss of the C. neoformans Ura4 protein, by targeted gene interruption, resulted in an expected uracil/uridine auxotrophy and an unexpected high temperature growth defect. In addition, the ura4 mutant displayed phenotypic defects in other prominent virulence factors (melanin, capsule and phospholipase) and reduced stress response compared to wild type and reconstituted strains. Accordingly, this mutant had a decreased survival rate in macrophages and attenuated virulence in a murine model of cryptococcal infection. Quantitative PCR analysis suggests that this biosynthetic pathway is induced during the transition from 30°C to 37°C, and that transcriptional regulation of de novo and salvage pyrimidine pathway are under the control of the Ura4 protein.
pyrimidine biosynthesis; thermal tolerance; basidiomycete yeast
Improving cellulolytic enzyme production by plant biomass degrading fungi holds great potential in reducing costs associated with production of next-generation biofuels generated from lignocellulose. How fungi sense cellulosic materials and respond by secreting enzymes has mainly been examined by assessing function of transcriptional regulators and via transcriptional profiling. Here, we obtained global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of the plant biomass degrading filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa grown on different carbon sources, i.e. sucrose, no carbon, and cellulose, by performing isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based LC–MS/MS analyses. A comparison between proteomes and transcriptomes under identical carbon conditions suggests that extensive post-transcriptional regulation occurs in N. crassa in response to exposure to cellulosic material. Several hundred amino acid residues with differential phosphorylation levels on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) or carbon-free medium vs sucrose medium were identified, including phosphorylation sites in a major transcriptional activator for cellulase genes, CLR1, as well as a cellobionic acid transporter, CBT1. Mutation of phosphorylation sites on CLR1 did not have a major effect on transactivation of cellulase production, while mutation of phosphorylation sites in CBT1 increased its transporting capacity. Our data provides rich information at both the protein and phosphorylation levels of the early cellular responses to carbon starvation and cellulosic induction and aids in a greater understanding of the underlying post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in filamentous fungi.
Neurospora crassa; Proteome; Phosphoproteome; Cellulase; Carbon starvation; Plant biomass
Reverse-genetics analysis has played a significant role in advancing fungal biology, but is limited by the number of available selectable marker genes (SMGs). The Cre-loxP recombination system has been adapted for use in filamentous fungi to overcome this limitation. Expression of the Cre recombinase results in excision of an integrated SMG that is flanked by loxP sites, allowing a subsequent round of transformation with the same SMG. However, current protocols for regulated expression or presentation of Cre require multiple time-consuming steps. During efforts to disrupt four different RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes in a single strain of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, we tested whether Cre could successfully excise loxP-flanked SMGs when provided in trans via anastomosis. Stable Cre-producing donor strains were constructed by transformation of wild-type C. parasitica strain EP155 with the Cre-coding domain under the control of a constitutive promoter. Excision of multiple loxP-flanked SMGs was efficiently achieved by simply pairing the Cre-donor strain and the loxP-flanked SMGs-transformed recipient strain and recovering mycelia from the margin of the recipient colony near the anastomosis zone. This method was shown to be as efficient as and much less time consuming than excision by transformation-mediated expression of Cre. It also allows unlimited recycling of loxP-flanked SMGs and the generation of disruption mutant strains that are free of any foreign gene. The successful application of this method to Metarhizium robertsii suggests potential use for optimizing reverse-genetics analysis in a broad range of filamentous fungi.
selectable marker gene; Cre-loxP recombination; anastomosis; fungal transformation; Cryphonectria parasitica; gene knockout
Sumoylation, the reversible covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) peptides has emerged as an important regulator of target protein function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not in Schizosaccharyomes pombe, deletion of the gene encoding SUMO peptides is lethal. We have characterized the SUMO-encoding gene, sumO, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The sumO gene was deleted in a diploid and sumO• haploids were recovered. The mutant was viable but exhibited impaired growth, reduced conidiation and self-sterility. Overexpression of epitope-tagged SumO peptides revealed multiple sumoylation targets in A. nidulans and SumO overexpression resulted in greatly increased levels of protein sumoylation without obvious phenotypic consequences. Using five-piece fusion PCR, we generated a gfp-sumO fusion gene expressed from the sumO promoter for live cell imaging of GFP-SumO and GFP-SumO-conjugated proteins. Localisation of GFP-SumO is dynamic, accumulating in punctate spots within the nucleus during interphase, lost at the onset of mitosis and re-accumulating during telophase.
SUMO; conidiation; sexual development; fusion PCR; cell cycle
•The transriptomic response of Aspergillus niger to wheat straw is sequential.•The early response consists of genes encoding hemicellulolytic enzymes.•The later response to straw consists of genes encoding cellulases and pectinases.•The early response to carbon starvation overlaps with that to wheat straw.•CAZymes in starved cultures release mono- and oligosaccharides from lignocellulose.
Fungi are an important source of enzymes for saccharification of plant polysaccharides and production of biofuels. Understanding of the regulation and induction of expression of genes encoding these enzymes is still incomplete. To explore the induction mechanism, we analysed the response of the industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger to wheat straw, with a focus on events occurring shortly after exposure to the substrate. RNA sequencing showed that the transcriptional response after 6 h of exposure to wheat straw was very different from the response at 24 h of exposure to the same substrate. For example, less than half of the genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes that were induced after 24 h of exposure to wheat straw, were also induced after 6 h exposure. Importantly, over a third of the genes induced after 6 h of exposure to wheat straw were also induced during 6 h of carbon starvation, indicating that carbon starvation is probably an important factor in the early response to wheat straw. The up-regulation of the expression of a high number of genes encoding CAZymes that are active on plant-derived carbohydrates during early carbon starvation suggests that these enzymes could be involved in a scouting role during starvation, releasing inducing sugars from complex plant polysaccharides. We show, using proteomics, that carbon-starved cultures indeed release CAZymes with predicted activity on plant polysaccharides. Analysis of the enzymatic activity and the reaction products, indicates that these proteins are enzymes that can degrade various plant polysaccharides to generate both known, as well as potentially new, inducers of CAZymes.
pNP-Cel, 4-Nitrophenyl-β-d-cellobioside; pNP-Ara, 4-Nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside; pNP-β-Glc, 4-Nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside; pNP-Xyl, 4-Nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside; pNP-α-Glc, 4-Nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside; MWCO, molecular weight cut-off; DASH, DNA sequencer-assisted saccharide analysis in high throughput; DP, degree of polymerization; Aspergillus niger; Lignocellulose; CAZy enzymes; Transcriptome; Carbon starvation; Inducer
Microbial secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are among the last discovered and least known members of this functionally diverse family of enzymes. We analyzed here two sPLA2s, named sPlaA and sPlaB, of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus oryzae. sPlaA and sPlaB consist of 222 and 160 amino acids, respectively, and share the conserved Cys and catalytic His-Asp residues typical of microbial sPLA2s. Two sPLA2s differ in pH optimum, Ca2+ requirement and expression profile. The splaA mRNA was strongly upregulated in response to carbon starvation, oxidative stress and during conidiation, while splaB was constitutively expressed at low levels and was weakly upregulated by heat shock. Experiments with sPLA2-overexpressing strains demonstrated that two enzymes produce subtly different phospholipid composition variations and also differ in their subcellular localization: sPlaA is most abundant in hyphal tips and secreted to the medium, whereas sPlaB predominantly localizes to the ER-like intracellular compartment. Both sPLA2-overexpressing strains were defective in conidiation, which was more pronounced for sPlaB overexpressors. Although no major morphological abnormality was detected in either ΔsplaA or ΔsplaB mutants, hyphal growth of ΔsplaB, but not that of ΔsplaA, displayed increased sensitivity to H2O2 treatment. These data indicate that two A. oryzae sPLA2 enzymes display distinct, presumably non-redundant, physiological functions.
Fungal species are continuously being studied to not only understand
disease in humans and plants but also to identify novel antibiotics and other
metabolites of industrial importance. Genetic manipulations, such as gene
deletion, gene complementation, and gene over-expression, are common techniques
to investigate fungal gene functions. Although advances in transformation
efficiency and promoter usage have improved genetic studies, some basic steps in
vector construction are still laborious and time-consuming. Gateway cloning
technology solves this problem by increasing the efficiency of vector
construction through the use of λ phage integrase proteins and
att recombination sites. We developed a series of
Gateway-compatible vectors for use in genetic studies in a range of fungal
species. They contain nutritional and drug-resistance markers and can be
utilized to manipulate different filamentous fungal genomes.
Genetic engineering; filamentous fungi; Gateway technology; recombination
•History of seven fungal species used as models for studying development and pathogenicity.•Outline of central stages of their life cycle and their infection processes.•Molecular toolkits used to study different aspects of pathogenicity.•Insight gained from genome sequencing projects.•Current research trends and future challenges.
Fungi have the capacity to cause devastating diseases of both plants and animals, causing significant harvest losses that threaten food security and human mycoses with high mortality rates. As a consequence, there is a critical need to promote development of new antifungal drugs, which requires a comprehensive molecular knowledge of fungal pathogenesis. In this review, we critically evaluate current knowledge of seven fungal organisms used as major research models for fungal pathogenesis. These include pathogens of both animals and plants; Ashbya gossypii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Ustilago maydis and Zymoseptoria tritici. We present key insights into the virulence mechanisms deployed by each species and a comparative overview of key insights obtained from genomic analysis. We then consider current trends and future challenges associated with the study of fungal pathogenicity.
Fungal model organism; Plant fungal pathogen; Human fungal pathogen; Genomics; Virulence
A genome wide analysis of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii has revealed a number of duplications of highly conserved genes involved in morphogenesis. Previously, we reported that duplicate Cdc42 paralogs provide C. neoformans with niche-specific responses to environmental stresses: Cdc42 is required for thermotolerance, while Cdc420 supports the formation of titan cells. The related Rho-GTPase Rac1 has been shown in C. neoformans var. neoformans to play a major role in filamentation and to share Cdc42/Cdc420 binding partners. Here we report the characterization of a second Rac paralog in C. neoformans, Rac2, and describe its overlapping function with the previously described CnRac, Rac1. Further, we demonstrate that the Rac paralogs play a primary role in polarized growth via the organization of reactive oxygen species and play only a minor role in the organization of actin. Finally, we provide preliminary evidence that pharmacological inhibitors of Rac activity and actin stability have synergistic activity.
Cryptococcus neoformans; Rac GTPase; paralogs; polarization; hyphal growth; ROS
Aspergillus fumigatus is the major filamentous fungal pathogen in humans. Although A. fumigatus can be treated with many of the available antifungal drugs, including azole compounds, drug resistant isolates are being recovered at an increasing rate. In other fungal pathogens such as the Candida species, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins play important roles in development of clinically-significant azole resistance phenotypes. Central among these ABC transporter proteins are homologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr5 multidrug transporter. In this work, we test the two A. fumigatus genes encoding proteins sharing the highest degree of sequence similarity to S. cerevisiae Pdr5 for their ability to be function in a heterologous pdr5Δ strain of S. cerevisiae. Expression of full-length cDNAs for these two Afu proteins failed to suppress the drug sensitive phenotype of a pdr5Δ strain and no evidence could be obtained for their expression as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions. To improve the expression of one of these Afu ABC transporters (XP_755847), we changed the sequence of the cDNA to use codons corresponding to the major tRNA species in S. cerevisiae. This codon-optimized (CO Afu abcA) cDNA was efficiently expressed in pdr5Δ cells and able to be detected as a GFP fusion protein. The CO Afu abcA did not correct the drug sensitivity of the pdr5Δ strain and exhibited a high degree of perinuclear fluorescence suggesting that this fusion protein was localized to the S. cerevisiae ER. Interestingly, when these experiments were repeated at 37 °C, the CO Afu abcA was able to complement the drug sensitive phenotype of pdr5Δ cells and exhibited less intracellular fluorescence. Additionally, we found that the CO Afu abcA was able to reduce resistance to drugs like phytosphingosine that act via causing mislocalization of amino acid permeases in fungi. These data suggest that the Afu abcA protein can carry out two different functions of Pdr5: drug transport and regulation of protein internalization from the plasma membrane.
Aspergillus fumigatus; ABC transporter; Heterologous expression; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Functional complementation
B. dermatitidis belongs to a group of thermally dimorphic fungi that grow as sporulating mold in the soil and convert to pathogenic yeast in the lung following inhalation of spores. Knowledge about the molecular events important for fungal adaptation and survival in the host remains limited. The development of high-throughput analytic tools such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has potential to provide novel insight on fungal pathogenesis especially if applied in vivo during infection. However, in vivo transcriptional profiling is hindered by the low abundance of fungal cells relative to mammalian tissue and difficulty in isolating fungal cells from the tissues they infect. For the purpose of obtaining B. dermatitidis RNA for in vivo transcriptional analysis by RNA-Seq, we developed a simple technique for isolating yeast from murine lung tissue. Using a two-step approach of filtration and centrifugation following lysis of murine lung cells, 91% of yeast cells causing infection were isolated from lung tissue. B. dermatitidis recovered from the lung yielded high-quality RNA with minimal murine contamination and was suitable for RNA-Seq. Approximately 87% of the sequencing reads obtained from the recovered yeast aligned with the B. dermatitidis genome. This was similar to 93% alignment for yeast grown in vitro. The use of near-freezing temperature along with short ex vivo time minimized transcriptional changes that would have otherwise occurred with higher temperature or longer processing time. In conclusion, we have developed a technique that recovers the majority of yeast causing pulmonary infection and yields high-quality fungal RNA with minimal contamination by mammalian RNA.
Blastomyces dermatitidis; RNA-Seq; in vivo transcriptional profiling; experimental murine infection
Hyphae of filamentous fungi maintain generally linear growth over long distances. In C. albicans, hyphae are able to reorient their growth in the direction of certain environmental cues. In previous work, the C. albicans bud-site selection proteins Rsr1 and Bud2 were identified as important for hyphae to maintain linear growth and were necessary for hyphal responses to directional cues in the environment (tropisms). To ask if hyphal directional responses are general functions of all yeast bud-site selection proteins, we studied the role of Rax2, ortholog of the S. cerevisiae bud-site selection protein Rax2, in C. albicans hyphal morphogenesis. Rax2-YFP localized to the hyphal cell surface in puncta and at the hyphal tip in a crescent. Strains lacking Rax2 had hyphal morphologies that did not differ from control strains. In non-cued growth conditions, rax2 mutant strains had defects in both yeast (bud) and hyphal (branch) site selection and mutant hyphae exhibited non-linear growth trajectories as compared to control hyphae. In contrast, when encountering a directional environmental cue, hyphae lacking Rax2 retained the ability to reorient growth in response to both topographical (thigmotropism) and electric-field (galvanotropism) stimuli but exhibited a reduced ability to establish hyphal growth in the direction of a cathodal stimulus. In conclusion, these results indicate that C. albicans Rax2 is important for establishing sites of emergence of yeast and hyphal daughters and for maintaining the linearity of hyphal growth. In contrast to Rsr1 and Bud2, Rax2 is not involved in responses that require a reorientation of the direction of already established hyphal growth (tropisms). Thus, it appears that some hyphal directionality responses are separable in that they are mediated by a different set of polarity proteins.
Candida albicans; Fungal morphogenesis; Polarity establishment; Hyphal tropisms
Amatoxins, including α-amanitin, are bicyclic octapeptides found in mushrooms (Agaricomycetes, Agaricales) of certain species in the genera Amanita, Galerina, Lepiota, and Conocybe. Amatoxins and the chemically similar phallotoxins are synthesized on ribosomes in Amanita bisporigera, Amanita phalloides, and Amanita ocreata. In order to determine if amatoxins are synthesized by a similar mechanism in another, distantly related mushroom, we obtained genome survey sequence data from a monokaryotic isolate of Galerina marginata, which produces α-amanitin. The genome of G. marginata contains two copies of the α-amanitin gene (GmAMA1-1 and GmAMA1-2). The α-amanitin proprotein sequences of G. marginata (35 amino acids) are highly divergent from AMA1 of A. bisporigera except for the toxin region itself (IWGIGCNP in single-letter amino acid code) and the amino acids immediately upstream (N[A/S]TRLP). G. marginata does not contain any related toxin-encoding sequences besides GmAMA1-1 and GmAMA1-2. DNA from two other α-amanitin-producing isolates of Galerina (G. badipes and G. venenata) hybridized to GmAMA1, whereas DNA from the toxin non-producing species Galerina hybrida did not. Expression of the GmAMA1 genes was induced by growth on low carbon. RNASeq evidence indicates that both copies of GmAMA1 are expressed approximately equally. A prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is strongly implicated in processing of the cyclic peptide toxins of A. bisporigera and Conocybe apala. G. marginata has two predicted POP genes; one, like AbPOPB of A. bisporigera, is present only in the toxin-producing isolates of Galerina and the other, like AbPOPA of A. bisporigera, is present in all species. Our results indicate that G. marginata biosynthesizes amatoxins on ribosomes by a pathway similar to Amanita species, involving a genetically encoded proprotein of 35 amino acids that is post-translationally processed by a POP. However, due to the high degree of divergence, the evolutionary relationship between AMA1 in the genera Amanita and Galerina is unclear.
Amatoxin; Amanita; Cyclic peptide
Chromatin, composed of DNA wrapped around an octamer of histones, is the relevant substrate for all genetic processes in eukaryotic nuclei. Changes in chromatin structure are associated with the activation and silencing of gene transcription and reversible post-translational modifications of histones are now known to direct chromatin structure transitions. Recent studies in several fungal species have identified a chromatin-based regulation of secondary metabolism (SM) gene clusters representing an upper-hierarchical level for the coordinated control of large chromosomal elements. Regulation by chromatin transition processes provides a mechanistic model to explain how different SM clusters located at dispersed genomic regions can be simultaneously silenced during primary metabolism. Activation of SM clusters has been shown to be associated with increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and, consequently, inhibition of histone de-acetylase activities also leads to increased production of secondary metabolites. New findings suggest that SM clusters are silenced by heterochromatic histone marks and that the “closed” heterochromatic structures are reversed during SM activation. This process is mediated by the conserved activator of SM, LaeA. Despite the increase in knowledge about these processes, much remains to be learned from chromatin-level regulation of SM. For example, which proteins “position” the chromatin restructuring signal onto SM clusters or how exactly LaeA works to mediate the low level of heterochromatic marks inside different clusters remain open questions. Answers to these and other chromatin-related questions would certainly complete our understanding of SM gene regulation and signaling and, because for many predicted SM clusters corresponding products have not been identified so far, anti-silencing strategies would open new ways for the identification of novel bioactive substances.
Chromatin; Epigenetics; Heterochromatin; Secondary metabolism; Aspergillus; Neurospora
Double-stranded break (DSB) repair during meiotic recombination in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to the formation of heteroduplex DNA, a hybrid DNA molecule composed of single strands from two homologous chromosomes. Differences in sequence between the strands within heteroduplex DNA generate mismatches or large unpaired loops that are substrates for repair. At least two pathways function to repair large loops that form within heteroduplex DNA: the RAD1-dependent large loop repair (LLR) pathway and another as yet uncharacterized RAD1-independent LLR pathway. Repair of large loops during meiotic recombination is especially important for the genomic stability of the repetitive DNA sequences known as minisatellites. Minisatellite DNA tracts are generally stable during mitotic cell divisions but frequently alter in length during meiosis. Using a yeast minisatellite system in which the human minisatellite associated with the HRAS1 proto-oncogene has been inserted into the recombination hotspot region upstream of HIS4 in S. cerevisiae, our lab previously showed that the RAD1-dependent LLR pathway controls minisatellite length expansions, but not contractions. Here we show that minisatellite length expansions are controlled by the products of the CSM3 and TOF1 genes, while contractions are controlled by MRC1. By examining meiotic segregation patterns in yeast strains heterozygous for the 26bp his4-lopd insert, we found that deleting CSM3 caused a loss of LLR activity similar to that seen in a RAD1 mutant. Double mutant analysis revealed that failure to repair loops is exacerbated upon deleting both RAD1 and CSM3 - specifically the type of repair that fills in loops, which would generate minisatellite length expansions. A model for minisatellite length alteration based on these results is presented.
Meiosis; Recombination; DNA repair; Gene conversion
Aspergillus fumigatus is an increasingly serious pathogen of immunocompromised patients, causing the often fatal disease invasive aspergillosis (IA). One A. fumigatus virulence determinant of IA is LaeA, a conserved virulence factor in pathogenic fungi. To further understand the role of LaeA in IA, the expression profile of laeA was compared to wild type, and several transcription factors were found significantly misregulated by LaeA loss. One of the transcription factors up-regulated over 4 fold in the laeA strain was Afu4g09710, similar in sequence to A. nidulans NosA, which is involved in sexual development. Here we assessed loss of nosA ( nosA) and over expression of nosA (OE::nosA) on A. fumigatus in both a wild type and laeA background. Based on the multiple alterations of physiological development of single and double mutants, we suggest that NosA mediates the decreased radial growth and delayed conidial germination observed in laeA strains, the former in a light dependent manner. The ΔnosA mutant showed increased virulence in the Galleria mellonella larvae model of disseminated aspergillosis, potentially due to its increased growth and germination rate. Furthermore, the A. fumigatus nosA allele was able to partially remediate sexual development in an A. nidulans ΔnosA background. Likewise, the A. nidulans nosA allele was able to restore the menadione sensitivity defect of the A. fumigatus ΔnosA strain, suggesting conservation of function of the NosA protein in these two species.
LaeA; NosA; virulence; germination; vegetative growth; menadione; reactive oxygen species
The pacemaker of the Neurospora circadian clock is composed of a transcriptional-translational feedback loop that has been intensively studied during the last two decades. Invaluable information has been derived from measuring the expression of the central clock component frequency (frq) under liquid culture conditions. Direct analyses of frq mRNA and protein levels on solid media -where overt circadian rhythms are normally visualized- have not been trivial due to technical issues. Nevertheless, a frq promoter-luciferase reporter has recently allowed the study of frq transcription under these conditions. It is known that FRQ undergoes extensive posttranslational modifications, and changes in its levels provide important information regarding the clockworks. Here we describe a FRQ-Luciferase translational fusion reporter that directly tracks FRQ levels, granting access to a better understanding and analysis of FRQ dynamics in vivo. More generally the method, which allows the investigator to follow continuous gene expression in real time in a spatially and temporally unrestricted manner, should be widely applicable to analyses of environmentally and developmentally regulated gene expression in ascomycete filamentous fungi as well as in basidiomycetes.
Neurospora crassa; circadian; FREQUENCY; luciferase; bioluminescence
We have inserted a histone H1-GFP fusion gene adjacent to three loci on different chromosomes of Neurospora crassa and made mating pairs in which a wild type version of GFP is crossed to one with a mutation in the 5′ end of GFP. The loci are his-3, am and his-5, chosen because recombination mechanisms appear to differ between his-3 and am, and because crossing over adjacent to his-5, like his-3, is regulated by rec-2. At his-3, the frequencies of crossing over between GFP and the centromere and of conversion of 5′GFP to GFP+ are comparable to those obtained by classical recombination assays, as is the effect of rec-2 on these frequencies, suggesting that our system does not alter the process of recombination. At each locus we have obtained sufficient data, on both gene conversion and crossing over, to be able to assess the effect of deletion of any gene involved in recombination. In addition, crosses between a GFP+ strain and one with normal sequence at all three loci have been used to measure the interval to the centromere and to show that GFP experiences gene conversion with this system. Since any gene expressed in meiosis is silenced in Neurospora if hemizygous, any of our GFP+ strains can be used as a quick screen to determine if a gene deleted by the Neurospora Genome Project is involved in crossing over or gene conversion.
Meiotic Recombination; Gene Conversion; Crossover; GFP; Octad; Tetrad
The impact of loci that determine sexual identity upon the asexual, dominant stage of fungal life history has been well studied. To investigate their impact, expression differences between strains of different mating type during asexual development were assayed, with RNA sampled from otherwise largely isogenic mat A and mat a strains of Neurospora crassaat early, middle, and late clonal stages of development. We observed significant differences in overall gene expression between mating types across clonal development, especially at late development stages. The expression levels of mating-type genes and pheromone genes were assayed by reverse transcription and quantitative PCR, revealing expression of pheromone and receptor genes instrains of both mating types in all development stages, and revealing that mating type (mat) genes were increasingly expressed over the course of asexual development. Interestingly, among differentially expressed genes, the mat A genotype more frequently exhibited a higher expression level than mat a, and demonstrated greater transcriptional regulatory dynamism. Significant up-regulation of expression was observed for many late light-responsive genes at late asexual development stages. Further investigation of the impact of light and the roles of light response genes in asexual development of both mating types are warranted.
mating type; pheromone; transcription; light; conidiation; microarray
•Reporters for dissection of N-glycosylation in Candida albicans.•Detection of glycosylation at the single site on epitope-tagged reporter.•Reporter faithfully reflects glycosylation defects in cell wall mutants.
A large proportion of Candida albicans cell surface proteins are decorated post-translationally by glycosylation. Indeed N-glycosylation is critical for cell wall biogenesis in this major fungal pathogen and for its interactions with host cells. A detailed understanding of N-glycosylation will yield deeper insights into host-pathogen interactions. However, the analysis of N-glycosylation is extremely challenging because of the complexity and heterogeneity of these structures. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce this complexity and facilitate the analysis of N-glycosylation, we have developed new synthetic C. albicans reporters that carry a single N-linked glycosylation site derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suc2. These glycosylation reporters, which carry C. albicans Hex1 or Sap2 signal sequences plus carboxy-terminal FLAG3 and His6 tags, were expressed in C. albicans from the ACT1 promoter. The reporter proteins were successfully secreted and hyperglycosylated by C. albicans cells, and their outer chain glycosylation was dependent on Och1 and Pmr1, which are required for N-mannan synthesis, but not on Mnt1 and Mnt2 which are only required for O-mannosylation. These reporters are useful tools for the experimental dissection of N-glycosylation and other related processes in C. albicans, such as secretion.
Candida albicans; Glycosylation; Cell wall; Glycosylation reporter
Fungal fruiting body size and form are influenced by the ecology of the species, including diverse environmental stimuli. Accordingly, nutritional resources available to the fungus during development can be vital to successful production of fruiting bodies. To investigate the effect of nutrition, perithecial development of N. crassa was induced on two different media, a chemically sparsely nutritive Synthetic Crossing Medium (SCM) and a natural Carrot Agar (CA). Protoperithecia were collected before crossing, and perithecia were collected at 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and at full maturity 144 hours after crossing. No differences in fruiting body morphology were observed between the two media at any time point. A circuit of microarray hybridizations comparing cDNA from all neighboring stages was performed. For a majority of differentially expressed genes, expression was higher in SCM than in CA, and expression of core metabolic genes was particularly affected. Effects of nutrition were highest in magnitude before crossing, lowering in magnitude during early perithecial development. Interestingly, metabolic effects of the media were also large in magnitude during late perithecial development, at which stage the lower expression in CA presumably reflected the continued intake of diverse complex initial compounds, diminishing the need for expression of anabolic pathways. However, for genes with key regulatory roles in sexual development, including pheromone precursor ccg-4 and poi2, expression patterns were similar between treatments. When possible, a common nutritional environment is ideal for comparing transcriptional profiles between different fungi. Nevertheless, the observed consistency of the developmental program across media, despite considerable metabolic differentiation is reassuring. This result facilitates comparative studies that will require different nutritional resources for sexual development in different fungi.
perithecial development; medium impact; transcription; microarray