As broadly demonstrated for the formation of a functional skeleton, proper mineralization of periodontal alveolar bone and teeth – where calcium phosphate crystals are deposited and grow within an extracellular matrix – is essential to dental function. Mineralization defects in tooth dentin and cementum of the periodontium invariably lead to a weak (soft or brittle) dentition such that teeth become loose and prone to infection and are lost prematurely. Mineralization of the extremities of periodontal ligament fibres (Sharpey's fibres) where they insert into tooth cementum and alveolar bone is also essential for the function of the tooth suspensory apparatus in occlusion and mastication. Molecular determinants of mineralization in these tissues include mineral ion concentrations (phosphate and calcium), pyrophosphate, small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs), and matrix vesicles. Amongst the enzymes important in regulating these mineralization determinants, two are discussed at length here with clinical examples given, namely tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (PHEX). Inactivating mutations in these enzymes in humans and in mouse models lead to the soft bones and teeth characteristic of hypophosphatasia (HPP) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), respectively, where levels of local and systemic circulating mineralization determinants are perturbed. In XLH, in addition to renal phosphate wasting causing low circulating phosphate levels, phosphorylated mineralization-regulating SIBLING proteins such as matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and osteopontin (OPN), and the phosphorylated peptides proteolytically released from them such as the acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif (ASARM) peptide, may accumulate locally to impair mineralization in this disease.
During endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes and osteoblasts synthesize and mineralize the extracellular matrix through a process that initiates within matrix vesicles (MVs) and ends with bone mineral propagation onto the collagenous scaffold. pH gradients have been identified in the growth plate of long bones, but how pH changes affect the initiation of skeletal mineralization is not known. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) degrades extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi), a mineralization inhibitor produced by ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/ phosphodiesterase-1 (NPP1), while contributing Pi from ATP to initiate mineralization. TNAP and NPP1, alone or combined, were reconstituted in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes to mimic the microenvironment of MVs. The hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, AMP and PPi was studied at pH 8 and 9 and compared to the data determined at pH 7.4. While catalytic efficiencies in general were higher at alkaline pH, PPi hydrolysis was maximal at pH 8 and indicated a preferential utilization of PPi over ATP, at pH 8 versus 9. In addition, all proteoliposomes induced mineral formation when incubated in a synthetic cartilage lymph (SCL) containing 1 mM ATP as substrate and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) or calciumphosphate- phosphatidylserine complexes (PS-CPLX) as nucleators. Propagation of mineralization was significantly more efficient at pHs 7.5 and 8 than at pH 9. Since a slight pH elevation from 7.4 to 8 promotes considerably more hydrolysis of ATP, ADP and AMP primarily by TNAP, this small pH change facilitates mineralization, especially via upregulated PPi hydrolysis by both NPP1 and TNAP, further elevating the Pi/PPi ratio, thus enhancing bone mineralization.
biomineralization; alkaline pH; microenvironment; proteoliposomes; pyrophosphate; ATP
Mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene can result in skeletal and dental hypomineralization and severe neurological symptoms. TNAP is expressed in the synaptic cleft and the node of Ranvier in normal adults. Using TNAP knockout (KO) mice (Akp2−/−), we studied synaptogenesis and myelination with light- and electron microscopy during the early postnatal days. Ablation of TNAP function resulted in a significant decrease of the white matter of the spinal cord accompanied by ultrastructural evidence of cellular degradation around the paranodal regions and a decreased ratio and diameter of the myelinated axons. In the cerebral cortex, myelinated axons, while present in wild-type, were absent in the Akp2−/− mice and these animals also displayed a significantly increased proportion of immature cortical synapses. The results suggest that TNAP deficiency could contribute to neurological symptoms related to myelin abnormalities and synaptic dysfunction, among which epilepsy, consistently present in the Akp2−/− mice and observed in severe cases of hypophosphatasia.
Alkaline phosphatase; Electron microscopy; Node of Ranvier; Hypophosphatasia; Epilepsy
Background: Newborns have elevated plasma adenosine levels, which may influence their immunological function.
Results: Compared with adults, newborns have elevated plasma 5′-NT and alkaline phosphatase activities and lower adenosine deaminase activity.
Conclusion: Soluble enzymes significantly influence extracellular purine metabolism in blood, and the levels of these enzymes in newborns promote elevated adenosine.
Significance: Higher adenosine generation in newborn blood may promote an anti-inflammatory immunological status.
Extracellular adenosine, a key regulator of physiology and immune cell function that is found at elevated levels in neonatal blood, is generated by phosphohydrolysis of adenine nucleotides released from cells and catabolized by deamination to inosine. Generation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in blood is driven by cell-associated enzymes, whereas conversion of AMP to adenosine is largely mediated by soluble enzymes. The identities of the enzymes responsible for these activities in whole blood of neonates have been defined in this study and contrasted to adult blood. We demonstrate that soluble 5′-nucleotidase (5′-NT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) mediate conversion of AMP to adenosine, whereas soluble adenosine deaminase (ADA) catabolizes adenosine to inosine. Newborn blood plasma demonstrates substantially higher adenosine-generating 5′-NT and AP activity and lower adenosine-metabolizing ADA activity than adult plasma. In addition to a role in soluble purine metabolism, abundant AP expressed on the surface of circulating neonatal neutrophils is the dominant AMPase on these cells. Plasma samples from infant observational cohorts reveal a relative plasma ADA deficiency at birth, followed by a gradual maturation of plasma ADA through infancy. The robust adenosine-generating capacity of neonates appears functionally relevant because supplementation with AMP inhibited whereas selective pharmacologic inhibition of 5′-NT enhanced Toll-like receptor-mediated TNF-α production in neonatal whole blood. Overall, we have characterized previously unrecognized age-dependent expression patterns of plasma purine-metabolizing enzymes that result in elevated plasma concentrations of anti-inflammatory adenosine in newborns. Targeted manipulation of purine-metabolizing enzymes may benefit this vulnerable population.
Adenosine; Adenosine Receptor; ADP; AMP; ATP; Immunology; Infectious Diseases; Innate Immunity; Purine; Purinergic Agonists
Studies on various compounds of inorganic phosphate, as well as on organic phosphate added by post-translational phosphorylation of proteins, all demonstrate a central role for phosphate in biomineralization processes. Inorganic polyphosphates are chains of orthophosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds that can be up to hundreds of orthophosphates in length. The role of polyphosphates in mammalian systems, where they are ubiquitous in cells, tissues and bodily fluids, and are at particularly high levels in osteoblasts, is not well understood. In cell-free systems, polyphosphates inhibit hydroxyapatite nucleation, crystal formation and growth, and solubility. In animal studies, polyphosphate injections inhibit induced ectopic calcification. While recent work has proposed an integrated view of polyphosphate function in bone, little experimental data for bone are available. Here we show in osteoblast cultures producing an abundant collagenous matrix that normally shows robust mineralization, that two polyphosphates (PolyP5 and PolyP65, polyphosphates of 5 and 65 phosphate residues in length) are potent mineralization inhibitors. Twelve-day MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures with added ascorbic acid (for collagen matrix assembly) and β-glycerophosphate (a source of phosphate for mineralization) were treated with either PolyP5 or PolyP65. Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification revealed that mineralization was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both polyphosphates, with complete mineralization inhibition at 10 μM PolyP. Cell proliferation and collagen assembly were unaffected by polyphosphate treatment, indicating that polyphosphate inhibition of mineralization results not from cell and matrix effects but from direct inhibition of mineralization. This was confirmed by showing that PolyP5 and PolyP65 bound to synthetic hydroxyapatite in a concentration-dependent manner. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) efficiently hydrolyzed the two PolyPs as measured by Pi release. Importantly, at the concentrations of polyphosphates used in this study which inhibited bone cell culture mineralization, the polyphosphates competitively saturated TNAP, thus potentially interfering with its ability to hydrolyze mineralization-inhibiting pyrophosphate (PPi) and mineralizing-promoting β-glycerophosphate (in cell culture). In the biological setting, TNAP may regulate mineralization by shielding the essential inhibitory substrate pyrophosphate from TNAP degradation, and in the same process, delay the release of phosphate from this source. In conclusion, the inhibition of mineralization by polyphosphates is shown to occur via direct binding to apatitic mineral and by mixed inhibition of TNAP.
polyphosphates; phosphate; bone; biomineralization; extracellular matrix; osteoblasts
Hypophosphatasia (HPP), caused by mutations in the gene ALPL encoding tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP), is an inherited systemic skeletal disease characterized by mineralization defects of bones and teeth. The clinical severity of HPP varies widely, from a lethal perinatal form to mild odontohypophosphatasia showing only dental manifestations. HPP model mice (Akp2−/−) phenotypically mimic the severe infantile form of human HPP; they appear normal at birth but die by 2 weeks of age because of growth failure, hypomineralization, and epileptic seizures. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of fetal gene therapy using the lethal HPP model mice. On day 15 of gestation, the fetuses of HPP model mice underwent transuterine intraperitoneal injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) expressing bone-targeted TNALP. Treated and delivered mice showed normal weight gain and seizure-free survival for at least 8 weeks. Vector sequence was detected in systemic organs including bone at 14 days of age. ALP activities in plasma and bone were consistently high. Enhanced mineralization was demonstrated on X-ray images of the chest and forepaw. Our data clearly demonstrate that systemic injection of AAV9 in utero is an effective strategy for the treatment of lethal HPP mice. Fetal gene therapy may be an important choice after prenatal diagnosis of life-threatening HPP.
Sugano and colleagues investigate the feasibility of fetal gene therapy for hypophosphatasia (HPP), which is caused by mutations in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP). Mice that phenotypically mimic the severe infantile form of human HPP underwent transuterine intraperitoneal injection of adeno-associated viral vector type 9 (AAV9) expressing bone-targeted TNALP. Treated mice showed normal weight gain and seizure-free survival for at least 8 weeks after birth, with consistently high levels of ALP activity in plasma and bone.
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inherited disease caused by a deficiency of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP). The major symptom of human HPP is hypomineralization, rickets, or osteomalacia, although the clinical severity is highly variable. The phenotypes of TNALP knockout (Akp2-/-) mice mimic those of the severe infantile form of HPP. Akp2-/- mice appear normal at birth, but they develop growth failure, epileptic seizures, and hypomineralization and die by 20 days of age. Previously, we have shown that the phenotype of Akp2-/- mice can be prevented by enzyme replacement of bone-targeted TNALP in which deca-aspartates are linked to the C-terminus of soluble TNALP (TNALP-D10). In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) vectors that express various forms of TNALP, including TNALP-D10, soluble TNALP tagged with the Flag epitopes (TNALP-F), and native glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored TNALP (TNALP-N). A single intravenous injection of 5×1010 vector genomes of AAV8-TNALP-D10 into Akp2-/- mice at day 1 resulted in prolonged survival and phenotypic correction. When AAV8-TNALP-F was injected into neonatal Akp2-/- mice, they also survived without epileptic seizures. Interestingly, survival effects were observed in some animals treated with AAV8-TNALP-N. All surviving Akp2-/- mice showed a healthy appearance and a normal activity with mature bone mineralization on X-rays. These results suggest that sustained alkaline phosphatase activity in plasma is essential and sufficient for the rescue of Akp2-/- mice. AAV8-mediated systemic gene therapy appears to be an effective treatment for the infantile form of human HPP.
Matsumoto and colleagues evaluate the therapeutic effects of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) vectors that express various forms of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) in a mouse model of hypophosphatasia (HPP). A single intravenous injection of 5 × 1010 vector genomes of AAV8-TNALP in neonatal HPP mice results in prolonged survival and phenotypic correction.
Re-refinement of three models of human placental alkaline phosphatase resulted in improved models for the protein and led to proper definition of the bound ligands. The PNP molecules found in the new models have consistent interactions at the original peripheral site and an additional peripheral site.
In order to gain deeper insights into the functional sites of human placental alkaline phosphatase, the structures of the enzyme with the putative regulators l-Phe, pNPP and 5′-AMP [Llinas et al. (2005 ▶), J. Mol. Biol.
350, 441–451] were re-refined. Significant variations in ligand positioning and identity were found compared with the previous report. The multiple corrections to the model improved the phases and the electron-density maps, allowing the modeling of omitted side chains and multiple disordered residues. These improvements led to a change in the position of l-Phe at the peripheral binding site, which appeared to be reversed. The structure with pNPP contained only p-nitrophenol in three distinct sites, while the structure with 5′-AMP contained the p-nitrophenyl group in two of the sites instead of 5′-AMP. Comparison of the re-refined models shows a consistent pattern of interactions at the peripheral site.
placental alkaline phosphatase; re-refinement
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) features rickets or osteomalacia from tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency due to deactivating mutations within the ALPL gene. Enzyme replacement therapy with a bone-targeted, recombinant TNSALP (sALP-FcD10, renamed ENB-0040) prevents manifestations of HPP when initiated at birth in TNSALP knockout (Akp2−/−) mice. Here, we evaluated the dose-response relationship of ENB-0040 to various phenotypic traits of Akp2−/− mice receiving daily subcutaneous (SC) injections of ENB-0040 from birth at 0.5, 2.0, or 8.2 mg/kg for 43 days. Radiographs, μCT, and histomorphometric analyses documented better bone mineralization with increasing doses of ENB-0040. We found a clear, positive correlation between ENB-0040 dose and prevention of mineralization defects of the feet, rib cage, lower limbs, and jaw bones. According to a dose-response model, the ED80 (the dose prevents the bone defects in 80% of mice) was 3.2, 2.8 and 2.9 mg/kg/day for these sites, respectively. Long bones seemed to respond to lower daily doses of ENB-0040. There was also a positive relationship between ENB-0040 dose and survival. Median survival, body weight, and bone length all improved with increasing doses of ENB-0040. Urinary PPi concentrations remained elevated in all treatment groups, indicating that while this parameter is a good biochemical marker for diagnosing HPP, it may not be a good follow up marker for evaluating response to treatment when administering bone-targeted TNSALP. These dose-response relationships strongly support the pharmacological efficacy of ENB-0040 for HPP, and provide the experimental basis for the therapeutic range of ENB-0040 chosen for clinical trials.
alkaline phosphatase; calcification; ENB-0040; rickets; osteomalacia
Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) plays a major role in maintaining a ratio of phosphate to inorganic pyrophosphate (Pi/PPi) in biological fluids that is conducive to controlled skeletal mineralization while preventing inappropriate ectopic calcification. Medial calcification associated with Enpp1 or Ank deficiency or with end–stage renal disease is associated with an increase in TNAP activity in arteries that leads to reduced levels of PPi and increased vascular calcification. Here, we describe in detail a high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign to identify inhibitors of TNAP, performed within the Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN). A homogeneous luminescent TNAP assay was developed and optimized for identification of compounds with diverse mechanism of action (MOA). The MLSCN compound collection, containing 64,394 molecules at the time of screening, was tested in the assay. Several novel inhibitory scaffold classes were identified and demonstrated to have diverse selectivity and mode of inhibition (MOI) profiles. Representatives of the novel scaffolds exhibited nanomolar potency surpassing the inhibitors known to date.
This paper sets a successful example in which pharmacologically active compounds, with outstanding selectivity in a panel of more than 200 assays, are identified from high throughput screening. Integral to the success of the project were a well-designed compound collection, an industrial-level screening facility and a deep knowledge of target biology that were brought together through the NIH-sponsored Roadmap Initiative.
NIH Roadmap Initiatives; MLSCN; TNAP inhibitors; diverse MOA; compound selectivity
The tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozyme is centrally involved in the control of normal skeletal mineralization and pathophysiological abnormalities that lead to disease states such as hypophosphatasia, osteoarthritis, ankylosis and vascular calcification. TNAP acts in concert with the nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase-1 (NPP1) and the Ankylosis protein to regulate the extracellular concentrations of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent inhibitor of mineralization. In this review we describe the serial development of two miniaturized high-throughput screens (HTS) for TNAP inhibitors that differ in both signal generation and detection formats, but more critically in the concentrations of a terminal alcohol acceptor used. These assay improvements allowed the rescue of the initially unsuccessful screening campaign against a large small molecule chemical library, but moreover enabled the discovery of several unique classes of molecules with distinct mechanisms of action and selectivity against the related placental (PLAP) and intestinal (IAP) alkaline phosphatase isozymes. This illustrates the underappreciated impact of the underlying fundamental assay configuration on screening success, beyond mere signal generation and detection formats.
diethanolamine (DEA); absorption spectroscopy; luminescence; high throughput screening; CDP-Star®; Molecular Libraries; tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase; alkaline phosphatase; chemical library; para-nitrophenylphosphate
Nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) is required for the conversion of extracellular ATP into inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a recognised inhibitor of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal formation. A detailed phenotypic assessment of a mouse model lacking NPP1 (Enpp1−/−) was completed to determine the role of NPP1 in skeletal and soft tissue mineralization in juvenile and adult mice. Histopathological assessment of Enpp1−/− mice at 22 weeks of age revealed calcification in the aorta and kidney and ectopic cartilage formation in the joints and spine. Radiographic assessment of the hind-limb showed hyper-mineralization in the talocrural joint and hypo-mineralization in the femur and tibia. MicroCT analysis of the tibia and femur disclosed altered trabecular architecture and bone geometry at 6 and 22 weeks of age in Enpp1−/− mice. Trabecular number, trabecular bone volume, structure model index, trabecular and cortical thickness were all significantly reduced in tibiae and femurs from Enpp1−/− mice (P<0.05). Bone stiffness as determined by 3-point bending was significantly reduced in Enpp1−/− tibiae and femurs from 22-week-old mice (P<0.05). Circulating phosphate and calcium levels were reduced (P<0.05) in the Enpp1−/− null mice. Plasma levels of osteocalcin were significantly decreased at 6 weeks of age (P<0.05) in Enpp1−/− mice, with no differences noted at 22 weeks of age. Plasma levels of CTx (Ratlaps™) and the phosphaturic hormone FGF-23 were significantly increased in the Enpp1−/− mice at 22 weeks of age (P<0.05). Fgf-23 messenger RNA expression in cavarial osteoblasts was increased 12-fold in Enpp1−/− mice compared to controls. These results indicate that Enpp1−/− mice are characterized by severe disruption to the architecture and mineralization of long-bones, dysregulation of calcium/phosphate homeostasis and changes in Fgf-23 expression. We conclude that NPP1 is essential for normal bone development and control of physiological bone mineralization.
Endochondral ossification is a carefully orchestrated process mediated by promoters and inhibitors of mineralization. Phosphatases are implicated, but their identities and functions remain unclear. Alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) plays a crucial role promoting mineralization of the extracellular matrix by restricting the concentration of the calcification inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Mutations in the TNAP gene cause hypophosphatasia, a heritable form of rickets and osteomalacia. Here we show that PHOSPHO1, a phosphatase with specificity for phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine, plays a functional role in the initiation of calcification and that ablation of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP function prevents skeletal mineralization. Phospho1−/− mice display growth plate abnormalities, spontaneous fractures, bowed long bones, osteomalacia, and scoliosis in early life. Primary cultures of Phospho1−/− tibial growth plate chondrocytes and chondrocyte-derived matrix vesicles (MVs) show reduced mineralizing ability, and plasma samples from Phospho1−/− mice show reduced levels of TNAP and elevated plasma PPi concentrations. However, transgenic overexpression of TNAP does not correct the bone phenotype in Phospho1−/− mice despite normalization of their plasma PPi levels. In contrast, double ablation of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP function leads to the complete absence of skeletal mineralization and perinatal lethality. We conclude that PHOSPHO1 has a nonredundant functional role during endochondral ossification, and based on these data and a review of the current literature, we propose an inclusive model of skeletal calcification that involves intravesicular PHOSPHO1 function and Pi influx into MVs in the initiation of mineralization and the functions of TNAP, nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, and collagen in the extravesicular progression of mineralization. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
OSTEOMALACIA; OSTEOIDOSIS; SCOLIOSIS; CALCIFICATION; BIOMINERALIZATION; HYPOPHOSPHATASIA; AKP2; TNAP
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inherited systemic skeletal disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) isozyme. The clinical severity of HPP varies widely, with symptoms including rickets and osteomalacia. TNALP knockout (Akp2−/−) mice phenotypically mimic the severe infantile form of HPP; that is, TNALP-deficient mice are born with a normal appearance but die by 20 days of age owing to growth failure, hypomineralization, and epileptic seizures. In this study, a lentiviral vector expressing a bone-targeted form of TNALP was injected into the jugular vein of newborn Akp2−/− mice. We found that alkaline phosphatase activity in the plasma of treated Akp2−/− mice increased and remained at high levels throughout the life of the animals. The treated Akp2−/− mice survived for more than 10 months and demonstrated normal physical activity and a healthy appearance. Epileptic seizures were completely inhibited in the treated Akp2−/− mice, and X-ray examination of the skeleton showed that mineralization was significantly improved by the gene therapy. These results show that severe infantile HPP in TNALP knockout mice can be treated with a single injection of lentiviral vector during the neonatal period. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Alkaline phosphatase; Lentiviral vector; Enzyme replacement; Epilepsy; Calcification
The brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) functions as a gut mucosal defense factor and is protective against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute injury in rats. The present study evaluated the potential therapeutic role for orally administered calf IAP (cIAP) in two independent mouse models of chronic colitis: (1) DSS-induced chronic colitis, and (2) chronic spontaneous colitis in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) deficient (knockout) mice that is accelerated by irradiation.
The wild-type (WT) and IAP knockout (IAP-KO) mice received 4 cycles of 2% DSS ad libitum for 7 days. Each cycle was followed by a 7-day DSS-free interval during which mice received either cIAP or vehicle in the drinking water. The WASP-KO mice received either vehicle or cIAP for 6 weeks beginning on the day of irradiation.
Microscopic colitis scores of DSS-treated IAP-KO mice were higher than DSS-treated WT mice (52 ± 3.8 vs. 28.8 ± 6.6, respectively, P < 0.0001). cIAP treatment attenuated the disease in both groups (KO = 30.7 ± 6.01, WT = 18.7 ± 5.0, P < 0.05). In irradiated WASP-KO mice cIAP also attenuated colitis compared to control groups (3.3 ± 0.52 vs. 6.2 ± 0.34, respectively, P < 0.001). Tissue myeloperoxidase activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly decreased by cIAP treatment.
Endogenous IAP appears to play a role in protecting the host against chronic colitis. Orally administered cIAP exerts a protective effect in two independent mouse models of chronic colitis and may represent a novel therapy for human IBD.
DSS-induced chronic colitis; WASP-KO and spontaneous chronic colitis; inflammatory bowel disease; gut mucosal defense; lipopolysaccharides
Vascular calcification is an indicator of elevated cardiovascular risk. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the predominant cell type involved in medial vascular calcification, can undergo phenotypic transition to both osteoblastic and chondrocytic cells within a calcifying environment.
In the present study, using in vitro VSMC calcification studies in conjunction with ex vivo analyses of a mouse model of medial calcification, we show that vascular calcification is also associated with the expression of osteocyte phenotype markers. As controls, the terminal differentiation of murine calvarial osteoblasts into osteocytes was induced in vitro in the presence of calcifying medium (containing ß-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid), as determined by increased expression of the osteocyte markers DMP-1, E11 and sclerostin. Culture of murine aortic VSMCs under identical conditions confirmed that the calcification of these cells can also be induced in similar calcifying medium. Calcified VSMCs had increased alkaline phosphatase activity and PiT-1 expression, which are recognized markers of vascular calcification. Expression of DMP-1, E11 and sclerostin was up-regulated during VSMC calcification in vitro. Increased protein expression of E11, an early osteocyte marker, and sclerostin, expressed by more mature osteocytes was also observed in the calcified media of Enpp1−/− mouse aortic tissue.
This study has demonstrated the up-regulation of key osteocytic molecules during the vascular calcification process. A fuller understanding of the functional role of osteocyte formation and specifically sclerostin and E11 expression in the vascular calcification process may identify novel potential therapeutic strategies for clinical intervention.
During the process of endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes and osteoblasts mineralize their extracellular matrix by promoting the formation of hydroxyapatite seed crystals in the sheltered interior of membrane-limited matrix vesicles (MVs). Here, we have studied phosphosubstrate catalysis by osteoblast-derived MVs at physiologic pH, analyzing the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, and PPi by isolated wild-type (WT) as well as TNAP-, NPP1- and PHOSPHO1-deficient MVs. Comparison of the catalytic efficiencies identified ATP as the main substrate hydrolyzed by WT MVs. The lack of TNAP had the most pronounced effect on the hydrolysis of all physiologic substrates. The lack of PHOSPHO1 affected ATP hydrolysis via a secondary reduction in the levels of TNAP in PHOSPHO1-deficient MVs. The lack of NPP1 did not significantly affect the kinetic parameters of hydrolysis when compared with WT MVs for any of the substrates. We conclude that TNAP is the enzyme that hydrolyzes both ATP and PPi in the MV compartment. NPP1 does not have a major role in PPi generation from ATP at the level of MVs, in contrast to its accepted role on the surface of the osteoblasts and chondrocytes, but rather acts as a phosphatase in the absence of TNAP. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
biomineralization; knockout mice; calcification; pyrophosphatases; atpases
Placental Alkaline Phosphatase (PLAP) is a tissue-restricted isozyme of the Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) superfamily. PLAP is an oncodevelopmental enzyme expressed during pregnancy and in a variety of human cancers, but its biological function remains unknown. We report here a series of catechol compounds with great affinity for the PLAP isozyme and significant selectivity over other members of the AP superfamily. These selective PLAP inhibitors will provide small molecule probes for the study of the pathophysiological role of PLAP.
Enzyme inhibitor; Placental Alkaline Phosphatase; cancer; oncodevelopmental
We report the characterization and optimization of drug-like small molecule inhibitors of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), an enzyme critical for the regulation of extracellular matrix calcification during bone formation and growth. High-throughput screening (HTS) of a small molecule library led to the identification of arylsulfonamides as potent and selective inhibitors of TNAP. Critical structural requirements for activity were determined, and the compounds were subsequently profiled for in vitro activity and bioavailability parameters including metabolic stability and permeability. The plasma levels following subcutaneous administration of a member of the lead series in rat was determined, demonstrating the potential of these TNAP inhibitors as systemically active therapeutic agents to target various diseases involving soft tissue calcification. A representative member of the series was also characterized in mechanistic and kinetic studies.
Three circulating human bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) isoforms (B1, B2, and B/I) can be distinguished in healthy individuals and a fourth isoform (B1x) has been discovered in patients with chronic kidney disease and in bone tissue. The present study was designed to correlate differing glycosylation patterns of each BALP isoform with their catalytic activity towards presumptive physiological substrates and to compare those properties with two recombinant isoforms of the tissue-nonspecific ALP (TNALP) isozyme, i.e., TNALP-flag, used extensively for mutation analysis of hypophosphatasia mutations and sALP-FcD10, a chimeric enzyme recently used as therapeutic drug in a mouse model of infantile hypophosphatasia.
The BALP isoforms were prepared from human osteosarcoma (SaOS-2) cells and the kinetic properties were evaluated using the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) at pH 7.4 and 9.8, and the three suggested endogenous physiological substrates, i.e., inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and phosphoethanolamine (PEA) at pH 7.4. Qualitative glycosylation differences were also assessed by lectin binding and precipitation.
The kcat/KM was higher for B2 for all the investigated substrates. The catalytic activity towards PEA was essentially undetectable. The kinetic activity for TNALP-flag and sALP-FcD10 was similar to the activity of the human BALP isoforms. The BALP isoforms differed in their lectin-binding properties and dose-dependent lectin precipitation, which also demonstrated differences between native and denatured BALP isoforms. The observed differences in lectin specificity were attributed to N-linked carbohydrates.
In conclusion, we demonstrate significantly different catalytic properties among the BALP isoforms due to structural differences in posttranslational glycosylation. Our data also suggests that PEA is not an endogenous substrate for the BALP isoforms or for the recombinant TNALP isoforms. The TNALP-flag and the sALP-FcD10 isoforms faithfully mimic the biological properties of the human BALP isoforms in vivo validating the use of these recombinant enzymes in studies aimed at dissecting the pathophysiology and treating hypophosphatasia.
bone turnover; glycosylation; hypophosphatasia; kinetics; pyrophosphate
The physiologic selectivity of calcification in bone tissue reflects selective co-expression by osteoblasts of fibrillar collagen I and of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), which hydrolyzes the calcification inhibitor pyrophosphate (PPi) and generates phosphate (Pi). Humans and mice deficient in the PPi-generating ecto-enzyme NPP1 demonstrate soft tissue calcification, occurring at sites of extracellular matrix expansion. Significantly, the function in osteoblasts of cytosolic inorganic pyrophosphatase (abbreviated iPPiase), which generates Pi via PPi hydrolysis with neutral pH optimum, remains unknown. We assessed iPPiase in Enpp1−/− and wild type (WT) mouse osteoblasts and we tested the hypothesis that iPPiase regulates collagen I expression.
We treated mouse calvarial osteoblasts with ascorbate and β-glycerol phosphate to promote calcification, and we assessed cytosolic Pi and PPi levels, sodium-dependent Pi uptake, Pit-1 Pi co-transporter expression, and iPPiase and TNAP activity and expression. We also assessed the function of transfected Ppa1 in osteoblasts.
Inorganic pyrophosphatase but not TNAP was elevated in Enpp1−/− calvariae in situ. Cultured primary Enpp1−/− calvarial osteoblasts demonstrated increased calcification despite flat TNAP activity rather than physiologic TNAP up-regulation seen in WT osteoblasts. Despite decreased cytosolic PPi in early culture, Enpp1−/− osteoblasts maintained cytosolic Pi levels comparable to WT osteoblasts, in association with increased iPPiase, enhanced sodium-dependent Pi uptake and expression of Pit-1, and markedly increased collagen I synthesis. Suppression of collagen synthesis in Enpp1−/− osteoblasts using 3,4-dehydroproline markedly suppressed calcification. Last, transfection of Ppa1 in WT osteoblasts increased cytosolic Pi and decreased cytosolic but not extracellular PPi, and induced both collagen I synthesis and calcification.
Increased iPPiase is associated with “Pi hunger” and increased calcification by NPP1-deficient osteoblasts. Furthermore, iPPiase induces collagen I at the levels of mRNA expression and synthesis and, unlike TNAP, stimulates calcification by osteoblasts without reducing the extracellular concentration of the hydroxyapatite crystal inhibitor PPi.
PPi; Pi; Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase; Calcification; Enpp1
We have established a proteoliposome system as an osteoblast-derived matrix vesicle (MV) biomimetic to facilitate the study of the interplay of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and NPP1 (nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1) during catalysis of biomineralization substrates. First, we studied the incorporation of TNAP into liposomes of various lipid compositions (i.e. in pure dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), DPPC/dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (9:1 and 8:2), and DPPC/dioctadecyl-dimethylammonium bromide (9:1 and 8:2) mixtures. TNAP reconstitution proved virtually complete in DPPC liposomes. Next, proteoliposomes containing either recombinant TNAP, recombinant NPP1, or both together were reconstituted in DPPC, and the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, AMP, pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP), p-nitrophenyl phosphate, p-nitrophenylthymidine 5′-monophosphate, and PPi by these proteoliposomes was studied at physiological pH. p-Nitrophenylthymidine 5′-monophosphate and PLP were exclusively hydrolyzed by NPP1-containing and TNAP-containing proteoliposomes, respectively. In contrast, ATP, ADP, AMP, PLP, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and PPi were hydrolyzed by TNAP-, NPP1-, and TNAP plus NPP1-containing proteoliposomes. NPP1 plus TNAP additively hydrolyzed ATP, but TNAP appeared more active in AMP formation than NPP1. Hydrolysis of PPi by TNAP-, and TNAP plus NPP1-containing proteoliposomes occurred with catalytic efficiencies and mild cooperativity, effects comparable with those manifested by murine osteoblast-derived MVs. The reconstitution of TNAP and NPP1 into proteoliposome membranes generates a phospholipid microenvironment that allows the kinetic study of phosphosubstrate catabolism in a manner that recapitulates the native MV microenvironment.
Calcium/ATPase; Cell/Compartmentation; Enzymes/ATPases; Membrane/Enzymes; Membrane/Reconstitution; Methods/Liposomes; Subcellular Organelles/Vesicles
Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) plays a central role in regulating extracellular matrix calcification during bone formation and growth. High throughput screening (HTS) for small molecule TNAP inhibitors led to the identification of hits in the sub-micromolar potency range. We report the design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a series of pyrazole derivatives of a screening hit which are potent TNAP inhibitors exhibiting IC50 values as low as 5 nM. A representative of the series was characterized in kinetic studies and determined to have a mode of inhibition not previously observed for TNAP inhibitors.
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn error of metabolism that features rickets or osteomalacia caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) within the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNALP). Consequently, natural substrates for this ectoenzyme accumulate extracellulary including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of mineralization, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), a co-factor form of vitamin B6. Babies with the infantile form of HPP often die with severe rickets and sometimes hypercalcemia and vitamin B6-dependent seizures. There is no established medical treatment.
Materials and Methods
Human TNALP was bioengineered with the C terminus extended by the Fc region of human IgG for one-step purification and a deca-aspartate sequence (D10) for targeting to mineralizing tissue (sALP-FcD10). TNALP-null mice (Akp2−/−), an excellent model for infantile HPP, were treated from birth using sALP-FcD10. Short-term and long-term efficacy studies consisted of once daily subcutaneous injections of 1, 2, or 8.2 mg/kg sALP-FcD10 for 15, 19, and 15 or 52 days, respectively. We assessed survival and growth rates, circulating levels of sALP-FcD10 activity, calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal, as well as skeletal and dental manifestations using radiography, μCT, and histomorphometry.
Akp2−/− mice receiving high-dose sALP-FcD10 grew normally and appeared well without skeletal or dental disease or epilepsy. Plasma calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal concentrations remained in their normal ranges. We found no evidence of significant skeletal or dental disease.
Enzyme replacement using a bone-targeted, recombinant form of human TNALP prevents infantile HPP in Akp2−/− mice.
alkaline phosphatase; calcification; epilepsy; osteomalacia; rickets