The unexpected discovery that somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state yielding induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has made it possible to produce cardiovascular cells exhibiting inherited traits and disorders. Use of these cells in high throughput analyses should broaden our insight into fundamental disease mechanisms and provide many benefits for patients, including new therapeutics and individually tailored therapies. Here we review recent progress in generating iPSC-based models of cardiovascular disease and their multiple applications in drug development.
induced pluripotent stem cells; high throughput screening; functional genomics; chemical biology
Recent advances in RNA-seq methodologies from limiting amounts of mRNA have facilitated the characterization of rare cell-types in various biological systems. So far, however, technical variations in these methods have not been adequately characterized, vis-à-vis sensitivity, starting with reduced levels of mRNA. Here, we generated sequencing libraries from limiting amounts of mRNA using three amplification-based methods, viz. Smart-seq, DP-seq and CEL-seq, and demonstrated significant technical variations in these libraries. Reduction in mRNA levels led to inefficient amplification of the majority of low to moderately expressed transcripts. Furthermore, noise in primer hybridization and/or enzyme incorporation was magnified during the amplification step resulting in significant distortions in fold changes of the transcripts. Consequently, the majority of the differentially expressed transcripts identified were either high-expressed and/or exhibited high fold changes. High technical variations ultimately masked subtle biological differences mandating the development of improved amplification-based strategies for quantitative transcriptomics from limiting amounts of mRNA.
A medium-throughput murine embryonic stem cell (mESC)-based high-content screening of 17,000 small molecules for cardiogenesis led to the identification of a b-annulated 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) that inhibited Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ)/Smad signaling by clearing the type II TGFβ receptor from the cell surface. Since this is an unprecedented mechanism of action, we explored the series' structure activity relationship (SAR) based on TGFβ inhibition, and evaluated SAR aspects for cell-surface clearance of TGFβ receptor II (TGFBR2) and for biological activity in mESCs. We determined a pharmacophore and generated 1,4-DHPs with IC50's for TGFβ inhibition in the nanomolar range (e.g., compound 28, 170 nM). Stereochemical consequences of a chiral center at the 4-position was evaluated, revealing 10- to 15-fold more potent TGFβ inhibition for the (+)- than the (−) enantiomer. This stereopreference was not observed for the low level inhibition against Activin A signaling, and was reversed for effects on calcium handling in HL-1 cells.
1,4-dihydropyridines; enantiomers; TGFβ inhibition; inducers of TGFβ type II receptor degradation; ITD-1; structure-activity-relationship; cardiomyogenesis; murine embryonic stem cells
This unit describes a robust protocol for producing multipotent Kdr-expressing mesoderm progenitor cells in serum-free conditions and functional genomics screening using these cells. Kdr-positive cells are known to be able to differentiate into a wide array of mesoderm derivatives including, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, hematopietic progenitors and smooth muscle cells. The efficient generation of such progenitor cells is of particular interest because it permits subsequent steps in cardiovascular development to be analyzed in detail, including deciphering the mechanisms that direct differentiation. The oligonucleotide transfection protocol used to functionally screen siRNA and microRNA libraries is a powerful tool to reveal networks of genes, signaling proteins and microRNAs that control the diversification of cardiovascular lineages from multipotent progenitors. The discussion addresses technical limitations, troubleshooting and potential applications.
mouse embryonic stem cells; mesendoderm; mesoderm; endoderm; siRNA transfection; Kdr; Foxa2
Current methods to measure physiological properties of cardiomyocytes and predict fatal arrhythmias that can cause sudden death, such as Torsade de Pointes, lack either the automation and throughput needed for early-stage drug discovery and/or have poor predictive value. To increase throughput and predictive power of in vitro assays, we developed kinetic imaging cytometry (KIC) for automated cell-by-cell analyses via intracellular fluorescence Ca2+ indicators. The KIC instrument simultaneously records and analyzes intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i at 30-ms resolution from hundreds of individual cells/well of 96-well plates in seconds, providing kinetic details not previously possible with well averaging technologies such as plate readers. Analyses of human embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes revealed effects of known cardiotoxic and arrhythmogenic drugs on kinetic parameters of Ca2+ dynamics, suggesting that KIC will aid in the assessment of cardiotoxic risk and in the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms of heart disease associated with drugs treatment and/or genetic background.
The Transforming Growth Factor–β (TGFβ) family member Nodal promotes cardiogenesis, but the mechanism is unclear despite the relevance of TGFβ family proteins for myocardial remodeling and regeneration.
Determine the function(s) of TGFβ family members during stem cell cardiogenesis.
Methods and Results
Murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were engineered with a constitutively active human Type I Nodal receptor (caACVR1b) to mimic activation by Nodal and found to secrete a paracrine signal that promotes cardiogenesis. Transcriptome and gain- and loss-of-function studies identified the factor as TGFβ2. Both Nodal and TGFβ induced early cardiogenic progenitors in ESC cultures at day 0–2 of differentiation. However, Nodal expression declines by day 4 due to feedback inhibition whereas TGFβ persists. At later stages (day 4–6), TGFβ suppresses the formation of cardiomyocytes from multipotent Kdr+ progenitors, while promoting the differentiation of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.
Nodal induces TGFβ, and both stimulate the formation of multipotent cardiovascular Kdr+ progenitors. TGFβ, however, becomes uniquely responsible for controlling subsequent lineage segregation by stimulating vascular smooth muscle and endothelial lineages and simultaneously blocking cardiomyocyte differentiation.
Nodal; Cripto; TGFβ2; Kdr; cardiogenesis
Originally discovered as regulators of developmental timing in C. elegans, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as modulators of nearly every cellular process, from normal development to pathogenesis. With the advent of whole genome libraries of miRNA mimics suitable for high throughput screening, it is possible to comprehensively evaluate the function of each member of the miRNAome in cell-based assays. Since the relatively few microRNAs in the genome are thought to directly regulate a large portion of the proteome, miRNAome screening, coupled with the identification of the regulated proteins, might be a powerful new approach to gaining insight into complex biological processes.
systems biology and network biology; microRNA target; protein-protein interaction; functional genomics; functional screens; proteomics
The cellular signals controlling the formation of cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells from stem cell-derived mesoderm are poorly understood. To identify these signals, a mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC)-based differentiation assay was screened against a small molecule library resulting in a novel 1,4-dihydropyridine inducer of type II TGFβ receptor (TGFBR2) degradation-1 (ITD-1). ITD analogs enhanced proteasomal degradation of TGFBR2, effectively clearing the receptor from the cell surface and selectively inhibiting intracellular signaling (IC50 ~ 0.4-0.8μM). ITD-1 was used to evaluate TGFβ involvement in mesoderm formation and cardiopoietic differentiation, which occur sequentially during early development, revealing an essential role in both processes in ESC cultures. ITD-1 selectively enhanced the differentiation of uncommitted mesoderm to cardiomyocytes, but not to vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Together, ITD-1 is the first selective TGFβ inhibitor and reveals an unexpected role for TGFβ signaling in controlling cardiomyocyte differentiation from multipotent cardiovascular precursors.
Small molecule inhibitor; TGFβ; proteasomal degradation; embryonic stem cells; mesoderm; cardiogenesis; 1,4-dihydropyridine
Mutations in Notch2, Jagged1 or homologs of the Hairy-related transcriptional repressor Hey2 cause congenital malformations involving the non-chamber atrioventricular canal (AVC) and inner curvature (IC) regions of the heart, but the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. By manipulating signaling directly within the developing chick heart, we demonstrated that Notch2, Hey1 and Hey2 initiate a signaling cascade that delimits the non-chamber AVC and IC regions. Specifically, misactivation of Notch2 signaling, or misexpression of either Hey1 or Hey2, repressed Bmp2. Because Jagged (also known as Serrate in non-mammalian species) ligands were found to be present in prospective chamber myocardium, these data support the model that Notch2 and Hey proteins cause the progressive restriction of Bmp2 expression to within the developing AVC and IC, where it is essential for differentiation. Misactivation or inhibition of Notch2 specifically induced or inhibited Hey1, respectively, but these manipulations did not affect Hey2, implicating Hey1 as the direct mediator of Notch2. Bmp2 within the developing AVC and IC has been shown to induce Tbx2, and we found that Tbx2 misexpression inhibited the expression of both Hey1 and Hey2. Tbx2, therefore, is envisaged to constitute a feedback loop that sharpens the border with the developing AVC and IC by delimiting Hey gene expression to within prospective chamber regions. Analysis of the loss-of-function phenotype in mouse embryos homozygous for targeted disruption of Hey2 revealed an expanded AVC domain of Bmp2. Similarly, zebrafish gridlock (Hey2 homolog) mutant embryos showed ectopic expression of Bmp4, which normally marks AVC myocardium in this species. Thus, Hey pathway regulation of cardiac Bmp appears to be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to delimit AVC and IC fate, and provides a potential mechanistic explanation for cardiac malformations caused by mutations in Serrate/Jagged1 and Notch signaling components.
Notch; Hairy-related transcription factor; HRT; HES; Hey; Gridlock; Atrioventricular canal; T-box; Tbx
Cardiac hypertrophy is initiated as an adaptive response to sustained overload but progresses pathologically as heart failure ensues1. Here we report that genetic loss of APJ confers resistance to chronic pressure overload by dramatically reducing myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. In contrast, mice lacking apelin (the endogenous APJ ligand) remain sensitive, suggesting an apelin independent function of APJ. Freshly isolated APJ-null cardiomyocytes exhibit an attenuated response to stretch, indicating that APJ is a mechano-sensor. Activation of APJ by stretch increases cardiomyocyte cell size and induces molecular markers of hypertrophy. Whereas apelin stimulates APJ to activate Gαi and elicits a protective response, stretch signals in an APJ-dependent G-protein-independent fashion to induce hypertrophy. Stretch-mediated hypertrophy is prevented by knockdown of β-arrestins or by pharmacological doses of apelin acting through Gαi. Taken together, our data indicate that APJ is a bifunctional receptor for both mechanical stretch and for the endogenous peptide apelin. By sensing the balance between these stimuli, APJ occupies a pivotal point linking sustained overload to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
Human embryonic stem cell-based high content screening of 550 known signal transduction modulators showed that one “lead” (1, a recently described inhibitor of the proteolytic degradation of Axin) stimulated cardiomyogenesis. Because Axin controls canonical Wnt signaling, we conducted an investigation to determine whether the cardiogenic activity of 1 is Wnt dependent, and developed a structure activity relationship to optimize the cardiogenic properties of 1. We prepared analogs with a range of potencies (low nanomolar to inactive) for Wnt/β-catenin inhibition and for cardiogenic induction. Both functional activities correlated positively (r2 = 0.72). The optimal compounds induced cardiogenesis 1.5-fold greater than 1 at 30-fold lower concentrations. In contrast, no correlation was observed for cardiogenesis and modulation of TGFβ/SMAD signaling, that prominently influences cardiogenesis. Taken together, these data show that Wnt signaling inhibition is essential for cardiogenic activity and that the pathway can be targeted for the design of drug-like cardiogenic molecules.
Human Embryonic Stem Cell; Wnt inhibition; SAR; cardiomyogenesis; IWR-1; inhibitors
Blood vessel formation is important for many physiological and pathological processes, and is therefore a critical target for drug development. Inhibiting angiogenesis to starve a tumor or promoting “normalization” of tumor blood vessels in order to facilitate delivery of anticancer drugs are both areas of active research. Recapitulation of vessel formation by human cells in vitro allows investigating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in a controlled environment, and is thereby a crucial step in developing high content (HC) and high throughput (HT) screening assays to search for modulators of blood vessel formation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exemplify primary cells used in angiogenesis assays. However, primary cells have significant limitations that include phenotypic decay and/or senescence by 6–8 passages in culture, making stable integration of fluorescent markers and large-scale expansion for high throughput screening problematic. To overcome these limitations for HTS, we developed a novel angiogenic model system that employs stable fluorescent endothelial cell lines based on immortalized human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1, hereafter HMECs). We then evaluated HMEC cultures, both alone and co-cultured with an epicardial mesothelial cell (EMC) line that contributes vascular smooth muscle cells, to determine suitability for HTS or HCS.
The endothelial and epicardial lines were engineered to express a panel of nuclear- and cytoplasm-localized fluorescent proteins to be mixed and matched to suit particular experimental goals. HMECs retained their angiogenic potential and stably expressed fluorescent proteins for at least 13 passages after transduction. Within 8 hours upon plating on Matrigel, the cells migrated and coalesced into networks of vessel-like structures. If co-cultured with EMCs, the branches formed cylindrical-shaped structures of HMECs surrounded by EMC-derivatives reminiscent of vessels. Network formation measurements revealed responsiveness to media composition and control compounds.
HMEC-based lines retain most of the angiogenic features of primary endothelial cells, yet possess long-term stability and ease of culture, making them intriguing candidates for large-scale primary HC and HT screening (of ~10,000–1,000,000 molecules). Furthermore, inclusion of EMCs demonstrates the feasibility of using epicardial-derived cells, which normally contribute to smooth muscle, to model large vessel formation. In summary, the immortalized fluorescent HMEC and EMC lines and straightforward culture conditions will enable assay development for HCS of angiogenesis.
Angiogenesis; microvascular; fluorescent proteins; time-lapse microscopy of live cells in culture
Defining the mechanisms underlying the control of mitochondrial fusion and fission is critical to understanding cellular adaptation to diverse physiological conditions. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia induces fission of mitochondrial membranes, dependent on availability of the mitochondrial scaffolding protein AKAP121. AKAP121 controls mitochondria dynamics through PKA-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of Drp1 and PKA-independent inhibition of Drp1-Fis1 interaction. Reduced availability of AKAP121 by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 relieves Drp1 inhibition by PKA and increases its interaction with Fis1, resulting in mitochondrial fission. High AKAP121 levels, seen in cells lacking Siah2, attenuate fission and reduce apoptosis of cardiomyocytes under simulated ischemia. Infarct size and degree of cell death were reduced in Siah2−/− mice subjected to myocardial infarction. Inhibition of Siah2 or Drp1 in hatching C. elegans reduces their life span. Through modulating Fis1/Drp1 complex availability, our studies identify Siah2 as a key regulator of hypoxia-induced mitochondrial fission and its physiological significance in ischemic injury and nematode life span.
Debilitating cardiomyocyte loss underlies the progression to heart failure. Although there have been significant advances in treatment, current therapies are intended to improve or preserve heart function rather than regenerate lost myocardium. A major hurdle in implementing a cell-based regenerative therapy is the inefficient differentiation of cardiomyocytes from either endogenous or exogenous stem cell sources. Moreover, cardiomyocytes that develop in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) or human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC) cultures are comparatively immature, even after prolonged culture, and differences in their calcium handling, ion channel, and force generation properties relative to adult cardiomyocytes raise concerns of improper integration and function after transplantation. Thus, the discovery of natural and novel small molecule synthetic regulators of differentiation and maturation would accelerate the development of stem-cell-based myocardial therapies. Here, we document recent advances in defining natural signaling pathways that direct the multistep cardiomyogenic differentiation program and the development of small molecules that might be used to enhance differentiation as well as the potential characteristics of lead candidates for pharmaceutical stimulation of endogenous myocardial replacement.
Cardiomyocyte; Embryonic stem cell; Chemical screening
Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor (HNF)4α is a central regulator of gene expression in cell types that play a critical role in metabolic homeostasis, including hepatocytes, enterocytes, and pancreatic β-cells. Although fatty acids were found to occupy the HNF4α ligand-binding pocket and proposed to act as ligands, there is controversy about both the nature of HNF4α ligands as well as the physiological role of the binding. Here, we report the discovery of potent synthetic HNF4α antagonists through a high-throughput screen for effectors of the human insulin promoter. These molecules bound to HNF4α with high affinity and modulated the expression of known HNF4α target genes. Notably, they were found to be selectively cytotoxic to cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo, although in vivo potency was limited by suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties. The discovery of bioactive modulators for HNF4α raises the possibility that diseases involving HNF4α, such as diabetes and cancer, might be amenable to pharmacologic intervention by modulation of HNF4α activity.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can form cardiomyocytes when cultured under differentiation conditions. Although the initiating step of mesoderm formation is well characterized, the subsequent steps that enrich for cardiac lineages are poorly understood and limit the yield of cardiomyocytes.
Our aim was to develop a hESC-based high content screening (HCS) assay to discover small molecules that drive cardiogenic differentiation after mesoderm is established to improve our understanding of the biology. Screening of libraries of small molecule pathway modulators was predicted to provide insight into the cellular proteins and signaling pathways that control stem cell cardiogenesis.
Methods and results
About 550 known pathway modulators were screened in a HCS assay with hits being called out by the appearance of a red fluorescent protein driven by the promoter of the cardiac specific MYH6 gene. One potent small molecule was identified that inhibits transduction of the canonical Wnt response within the cell, demonstrating that Wnt inhibition alone is sufficient for deriving cardiomyocytes from hESC originating mesoderm cells. Transcriptional profiling of inhibitor-treated compared to vehicle-treated samples further indicated that inhibition of Wnt does not induce other mesoderm lineages. Notably, several other Wnt inhibitors are very efficient in inducing cardiogenesis, including a molecule that prevents Wnts from being secreted by the cell, confirming Wnt inhibition as the relevant biological activity.
Pharmacological inhibition of Wnt signaling is sufficient to drive human mesoderm cells to form cardiomyocytes, yielding novel tools for the benefit of pharmaceutical and clinical applications.
human embryonic stem cells; small molecule Wnt inhibitors; cardiogenesis
A number of diabetogenic stimuli interact to influence insulin promoter activity, making it an attractive target for both mechanistic studies and therapeutic interventions. High-throughput screening (HTS) for insulin promoter modulators has the potential to reveal novel inputs into the control of that central element of the pancreatic β-cell. A cell line from human islets in which the expression of insulin and other β-cell-restricted genes are modulated by an inducible form of the bHLH transcription factor E47 was developed. This cell line, T6PNE, was adapted for HTS by transduction with a vector expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the human insulin promoter. The resulting cell line was screened against a library of known drugs for those that increase insulin promoter activity. Members of the phenothiazine class of neuroleptics increased insulin gene expression upon short-term exposure. Chronic treatment, however, resulted in suppression of insulin promoter activity, consistent with the effect of phenothiazines observed clinically to induce diabetes in chronically treated patients. In addition to providing insights into previously unrecognized targets and mechanisms of action of phenothiazines, the novel cell line described here provides a broadly applicable platform for mining new molecular drug targets and central regulators of β-cell differentiated function.
diabetes; chlorpromazine; ethopropazine
Proper maintenance of stem cells is essential for successful utilization of ESCs/iPSCs as tools in developmental and drug discovery studies and in regenerative medicine. Standardization is critical for all future applications of stem cells and necessary to fully understand their potential. This study reports a novel approach for the efficient, consistent expansion of human ESCs and iPSCs using laser sectioning, instead of mechanical devices or enzymes, to divide cultures into defined size clumps for propagation. Laser-mediated propagation maintained the pluripotency, quality, and genetic stability of ESCs/iPSCs and led to enhanced differentiation potential. This approach removes the variability associated with ESC/iPSC propagation, significantly reduces the expertise, labor, and time associated with manual passaging techniques and provides the basis for scalable delivery of standardized ESC/iPSC lines. Adoption of standardized protocols would allow researchers to understand the role of genetics, environment, and/or procedural effects on stem cells and would ensure reproducible production of stem cell cultures for use in clinical/therapeutic applications.
Heart failure is one of the major causes of death in the Western world because cardiac muscle loss is largely irreversible and can lead to a relentless decline in cardiac function. Novel therapies are needed since the only therapy to effectively replace lost myocytes today is transplantation of the entire heart. The advent of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell (ESC/iPSC) technologies offers the unprecedented possibility of devising cell replacement therapies for numerous degenerative disorders. Not only are ESCs and iPSCs a plausible source of cardiomyocytes in vitro for transplantation, they are also useful tools to elucidate the biology of stem cells that reside in the adult heart and define signaling molecules that might enhance the limited regenerative capability of the adult human heart. Here, we review the extracellular factors that control stem cell cardiomyogenesis and describe new approaches that combine embryology with stem cell biology to discover drug-like small molecules that stimulate cardiogenesis and potentially contribute to the development of pharmaceutical strategies for heart muscle regeneration.
Cardiogenesis; Small molecules; Drug discovery; Regeneration
automaticity; trigger; reentry
Combining embryological insight with careful analysis of early stage cardiomyocyte differentiation, Kattman et al. (2011), in this issue of Cell Stem Cell, have defined minimal culture conditions to efficiently produce cardiomyocytes from hESCs and hiPSCs. The lessons learned are applicable to the derivation of other organotypic cell types.
Various types of cardiomyocytes undergo changes in automaticity and electrical properties during fetal heart development. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs), like fetal cardiomyocytes, are electrophysiologically immature and exhibit automaticity. We used hESC-CMs to investigate developmental changes in mechanisms of automaticity and to determine whether electrophysiological maturation is driven by an intrinsic developmental clock and/or is regulated by interactions with non-cardiomyocytes in embryoid bodies (EBs). We isolated pure populations of hESC-CMs from EBs by lentivirus-engineered Puromycin resistance at various stages of differentiation. Using pharmacological agents, calcium (Ca2+) imaging, and intracellular recording techniques, we found that intracellular Ca2+-cycling mechanisms developed early and contributed to dominant automaticity throughout hESC-CM differentiation. Sarcolemmal ion channels evolved later upon further differentiation within EBs and played an increasing role in controlling automaticity and electrophysiological properties of hESC-CMs. In contrast to the development of intracellular Ca2+-handling proteins, ion channel development and electrophysiological maturation of hESC-CMs did not occur when hESC-CMs were isolated from EBs early and maintained in culture without further interaction with non-cardiomyocytes. Adding back non-cardiomyocytes to early-isolated hESC-CMs rescued the arrest of electrophysiological maturation, indicating that non-cardiomyocytes in EBs drive electrophysiological maturation of early hESC-CMs. Non-cardiomyocytes in EBs contain most cell types present in the embryonic heart that are known to influence early cardiac development. Our study is the first to demonstrate that non-cardiomyocytes influence electrophysiological maturation of early hESC-CMs in cultures. Defining the nature of these extrinsic signals will aid in the directed maturation of immature hESC-CMs to mitigate arrhythmogenic risks of cell-based therapies.
Microtiter plate (MTP) assays often exhibit distortions, such as caused by edge-dependent drying and robotic fluid handling variation. Distortions vary by assay system but can have both systematic patterns (predictable from plate to plate) and random (sporadic and unpredictable) components. Random errors can be especially difficult to resolve by assay optimization alone, and postassay algorithms reported to date have smoothing effects that often blunt hits. We implemented a 5 × 5 bidirectional hybrid median filter (HMF) as a local background estimator to scale each data point to the MTP global background median and compared it with a recently described Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) technique for correcting errors on computationally and experimentally generated MTP datasets. Experimental data were generated from a 384-well format fluorescent bioassay using cells engineered to express eGFP and DsRED. MTP arrays were produced with and without control treatments used to simulate hits in random wells. The HMF demonstrated the greatest improvements in MTP coefficients of variation and dynamic range (defined by the ratio of average hit amplitude to standard deviation, SD) for all synthetic and experimental MTPs examined. After HMF application to a MTP of eGFP signal from mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells obtained by a plate-reader, the assay coefficient of variation (CV) decreased from 8.0% in the raw dataset to 5.1% and the hit amplitudes were reduced by only 1% while the DFT method increased the CV by 36.0% and reduced the hit amplitude by 21%. Thus, our results show that the bidirectional HMF provides superior corrections of MTP data distortions while at the same time preserving hit amplitudes and improving dynamic range.
The software to perform hybrid median filter MTP corrections is available at http://bccg.burnham.org/HTS/HMF_Download_Page.aspx, password is pbushway.
The secreted Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) protein mediates numerous cell fate decisions and morphogenetic processes. Its carboxyl terminal cysteine-rich region (termed C1) binds LRP5/6 and inhibits canonical Wnt signaling. Paradoxically, the isolated C1 domain of Dkk1 as well as Wnt antagonists that act by sequestering Wnts, such as Frz-B, WIF-1 and Crescent, are poor mimics of the inductive and patterning activities of Dkk1 critical for heart and axial development. To understand the basis for the unique properties of Dkk1, we investigated the function of its amino terminal cysteine-rich region (N1). N1 does not bind LRP or Kremen nor inhibit Wnt signaling and has had no known function. We show that it can synergize with BMP antagonism to induce prechordal and axial mesoderm when expressed as an independent protein in Xenopus embryos. Moreover, we show that it can function in trans to complement the activity of C1 protein to mediate two embryologic functions of Dkk1: induction of chordal and prechordal mesoderm and specification of heart tissue from non-cardiogenic mesoderm. Remarkably, N1 also synergizes with WIF-1 and Crescent, indicating that N1 signals independently of C1 and its interactions with LRP. Since cleavage of Dkk1 is not detected, these results define N1 as a novel signaling domain within the intact protein that is responsible for the potent effects of Dkk1 on the induction and patterning of the body axis and heart. We conclude that this new activity is also likely to synergize with canonical Wnt inhibitory in the numerous developmental and disease processes that involve Dkk1.
Dkk1; axial patterning; heart induction; Xenopus
The maturation of cardiac myocytes during the immediate prenatal period coincides with changes in the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix. We investigated the effects of extracellular stiffness on cardiomyocyte maturation in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes grown on collagen-coated gels. Cells on 10 kPa substrates developed aligned sarcomeres, while cells on stiffer substrates had unaligned sarcomeres and stress fibers. Cells generated greater mechanical force on gels with stiffness similar to the native myocardium than on stiffer or softer substrates. To investigate the differentiation of myocyte progenitors, we used clonal expansion of engineered human embryonic stem cells. Puromycin-selected cardiomyocytes exhibited a gene expression profile similar to that of adult human cardiomyocytes and generated force and action potentials consistent with normal fetal cardiomyocytes. These results suggest extracellular stiffness significantly affects maturation and differentiation of immature ventricular myocytes.
cardiac myocyte; mechanotransduction; substrate stiffness; gel; stem cell; differentiation