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1.  DNA Damage Triggers Golgi Dispersal via DNA-PK and GOLPH3 
Cell  2014;156(3):413-427.
SUMMARY
The response to DNA damage, which regulates nuclear processes such as DNA repair, transcription, and cell cycle, has been studied thoroughly. However, the cytoplasmic response to DNA damage is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that DNA damage triggers dramatic reorganization of the Golgi, resulting in its dispersal throughout the cytoplasm. We further show that DNA-damage-induced Golgi dispersal requires GOLPH3/MYO18A/F-actin and the DNA damage protein kinase, DNA-PK. In response to DNA damage, DNA-PK phosphorylates GOLPH3, resulting in increased interaction with MYO18A, which applies a tensile force to the Golgi. Interference with the Golgi DNA damage response by depletion of DNA-PK, GOLPH3, or MYO18A reduces survival after DNA damage, whereas over-expression of GOLPH3, as is observed frequently in human cancers, confers resistance to killing by DNA-damaging agents. Identification of the DNA-damage-induced Golgi response reveals an unexpected pathway through DNA-PK, GOLPH3, and MYO18A that regulates cell survival following DNA damage.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.12.023
PMCID: PMC4018323  PMID: 24485452
2.  HNF4α Antagonists Discovered by a High-Throughput Screen for Modulators of the Human Insulin Promoter 
Chemistry & biology  2012;19(7):806-818.
SUMMARY
Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor (HNF)4α is a central regulator of gene expression in cell types that play a critical role in metabolic homeostasis, including hepatocytes, enterocytes, and pancreatic β-cells. Although fatty acids were found to occupy the HNF4α ligand-binding pocket and proposed to act as ligands, there is controversy about both the nature of HNF4α ligands as well as the physiological role of the binding. Here, we report the discovery of potent synthetic HNF4α antagonists through a high-throughput screen for effectors of the human insulin promoter. These molecules bound to HNF4α with high affinity and modulated the expression of known HNF4α target genes. Notably, they were found to be selectively cytotoxic to cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo, although in vivo potency was limited by suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties. The discovery of bioactive modulators for HNF4α raises the possibility that diseases involving HNF4α, such as diabetes and cancer, might be amenable to pharmacologic intervention by modulation of HNF4α activity.
doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2012.05.014
PMCID: PMC3447631  PMID: 22840769
3.  Phenothiazine Neuroleptics Signal to the Human Insulin Promoter as Revealed by a Novel High-Throughput Screen 
Journal of Biomolecular Screening  2010;15(6):663-670.
A number of diabetogenic stimuli interact to influence insulin promoter activity, making it an attractive target for both mechanistic studies and therapeutic interventions. High-throughput screening (HTS) for insulin promoter modulators has the potential to reveal novel inputs into the control of that central element of the pancreatic β-cell. A cell line from human islets in which the expression of insulin and other β-cell-restricted genes are modulated by an inducible form of the bHLH transcription factor E47 was developed. This cell line, T6PNE, was adapted for HTS by transduction with a vector expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the human insulin promoter. The resulting cell line was screened against a library of known drugs for those that increase insulin promoter activity. Members of the phenothiazine class of neuroleptics increased insulin gene expression upon short-term exposure. Chronic treatment, however, resulted in suppression of insulin promoter activity, consistent with the effect of phenothiazines observed clinically to induce diabetes in chronically treated patients. In addition to providing insights into previously unrecognized targets and mechanisms of action of phenothiazines, the novel cell line described here provides a broadly applicable platform for mining new molecular drug targets and central regulators of β-cell differentiated function.
doi:10.1177/1087057110372257
PMCID: PMC3374493  PMID: 20547533
diabetes; chlorpromazine; ethopropazine
4.  GOLPH3 Bridges Phosphatidylinositol-4- Phosphate and Actomyosin to Stretch and Shape the Golgi to Promote Budding 
Cell  2009;139(2):337-351.
SUMMARY
Golgi membranes, from yeast to humans, are uniquely enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), although the role of this lipid remains poorly understood. Using a proteomic lipid binding screen, we identify the Golgi protein GOLPH3 (also called GPP34, GMx33, MIDAS, or yeast Vps74p) as a PtdIns(4)P-binding protein that depends upon PtdIns(4)P for its Golgi localization. We further show that GOLPH3 binds the unconventional myosin MYO18A, thus connecting the Golgi to F-actin. We demonstrate that this linkage is necessary for normal Golgi trafficking and morphology. The evidence suggests that GOLPH3 binds to PtdIns(4)P-rich trans-Golgi membranes and MYO18A conveying a tensile force required for efficient tubule and vesicle formation. Consequently, this tensile force stretches the Golgi into the extended ribbon observed by fluorescence microscopy and the familiar flattened form observed by electron microscopy.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.07.052
PMCID: PMC2779841  PMID: 19837035

Results 1-4 (4)