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1.  A Quantitative High Throughput Screen Identifies Novel Inhibitors of the Interaction of Thyroid Receptor β with a Peptide of Steroid Receptor Coactivator 2 
Journal of biomolecular screening  2011;16(6):618-627.
The thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily that regulate development, growth, and metabolism. Upon ligand binding, TR releases bound corepressors and recruits coactivators to modulate target gene expression. Steroid Receptor Coactivator 2 (SRC2) is an important coregulator that interacts with TRβ to activate gene transcription. To identify novel inhibitors of the TRβ and SRC2 interaction, we performed a quantitative high throughput screen (qHTS) of a TRβ-SRC2 fluorescence polarization assay against more than 290,000 small molecules. The qHTS assayed compounds at six concentrations up to 92 uM to generate titration-response curves and determine the potency and efficacy of all compounds. The qHTS dataset enabled the characterization of actives for structure-activity relationships as well as for potential artifacts such as fluorescence interference. Selected qHTS actives were tested in the screening assay using fluoroprobes labeled with Texas Red or fluorescein. The retest identified 19 series and 4 singletons as active in both assays with 40% or greater efficacy, free of compound interference and not toxic to mammalian cells. Selected compounds were tested as independent samples and a methylsulfonylnitrobenzoate series inhibited the TRβ-SRC2 interaction with 5 uM IC50. This series represents a new class of thyroid hormone receptor-coactivator modulators.
PMCID: PMC3162318  PMID: 21482722
thyroid receptor; small molecule; HTS; coactivator; protein-protein interaction
2.  Quantification of the Vitamin D Receptor - Coregulator Interaction 
Biochemistry  2009;48(7):1454-1461.
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates a diverse set of genes that control processes including bone mineral homeostasis, immune function and hair follicle cycling. Upon binding to its natural ligand, 1α,25(OH)2D3, the VDR undergoes a conformational change that allows the release of corepressor proteins and the binding of coactivator proteins necessary for gene transcription. We report the first comprehensive evaluation of the interaction of the VDR with a library of coregulator binding motifs in the presence of two ligands, the natural ligand 1α,25(OH)2D3 and a synthetic, non-secosteroidal agonist LG190178. We show that the VDR has relatively high affinity for the second and third LxxLL motifs of SRC1, SRC2 and SRC3 and second LxxLL motif of DRIP205. This pattern is distinct in comparison to other nuclear receptors. The pattern of VDR-coregulator binding affinities was very similar for the two agonists investigated, suggesting that the biologic functions of LG190178 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 are similar. Hairless binds the VDR in the presence of ligand through a LxxLL motif (Hr-1), repressing transcription in the presence and absence of ligand. The VDR binding patterns identified in this study may be used to predict functional differences among different tissues expressing different sets of coregulators, thus facilitating the goal of developing tissue and gene specific vitamin D response modulators.
PMCID: PMC2654718  PMID: 19183053

Results 1-2 (2)