Laser surgical ablation is achieved by selecting laser parameters that remove confined volumes of target tissue and cause minimal collateral damage. Previous studies have measured the effects of wavelength on ablation, but neglected to measure the cellular impact of ablation on cells outside the lethal zone. In this study, we use optical imaging in addition to conventional assessment techniques to evaluate lethal and sublethal collateral damage after ablative surgery with a free-electron laser (FEL). Heat shock protein (HSP) expression is used as a sensitive quantitative marker of sublethal damage in a transgenic mouse strain, with the hsp70 promoter driving luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression (hsp70A1-L2G). To examine the wavelength dependence in the mid-IR, laser surgery is conducted on the hsp70A1-L2G mouse using wavelengths targeting water (OH stretch mode, 2.94 μm), protein (amide-II band, 6.45 μm), and both water and protein (amide-I band, 6.10 μm). For all wavelengths tested, the magnitude of hsp70 expression is dose-dependent and maximal 5 to 12 h after surgery. Tissues treated at 6.45 μm have approximately 4× higher hsp70 expression than 6.10 μm. Histology shows that under comparable fluences, tissue injury at the 2.94-μm wavelength was 2× and 3× deeper than 6.45 and 6.10 μm, respectively. The 6.10-μm wavelength generates the least amount of epidermal hyperplasia. Taken together, this data suggests that the 6.10-μm wavelength is a superior wavelength for laser ablation of skin.
ablation; free-electron laser; heat shock protein expression; skin; wound healing; bioluminescence; optical imaging
Multispectral near-infrared (NIR) tomographic imaging has the potential to provide information about molecules absorbing light in tissue, as well as subcellular structures scattering light, based on transmission measurements. However, the choice of possible wavelengths used is crucial for the accurate separation of these parameters, as well as for diminishing crosstalk between the contributing chromophores. While multispectral systems are often restricted by the wavelengths of laser diodes available, continuous-wave broadband systems exist that have the advantage of providing broadband NIR spectroscopy data, albeit without the benefit of the temporal data. In this work, the use of large spectral NIR datasets is analyzed, and an objective function to find optimal spectral ranges (windows) is examined. The optimally identified wavelength bands derived from this method are tested using both simulations and experimental data. It is found that the proposed method achieves images as qualitatively accurate as using the full spectrum, but improves crosstalk between parameters. Additionally, the judicious use of these spectral windows reduces the amount of data needed for full spectral tomographic imaging by 50%, therefore increasing computation time dramatically.
iomedical optics; image reconstruction; inverse problems
Fluorescence measurements have been used to track the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for many years, and this approach can be especially important for treatments with aminolevulinic-acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX). PpIX photobleaches rapidly, and the bleaching is known to be oxygen dependent, and at the same time, fractionation or reduced irradiance treatments have been shown to significantly increase efficacy. Thus, in vivo measurement of either the bleaching rate and/or the total bleaching yield could be used to track the deposited dose in tissue and determine the optimal treatment plans. Fluorescence in rat esophagus and human Barrett’s esophagus are measured during PDT in both continuous and fractionated light delivery treatment, and the bleaching is quantified. Reducing the optical irradiance from 50 to 25 mW/cm did not significantly alter photobleaching in rat esophagus, but fractionation of the light at 1-min on and off intervals did increase photobleaching up to 10% more (p value=0.02) and up to 25% more in the human Barrett’s tissue (p value<0.001). While two different tissues and two different dosimetry systems are used, the data support the overall hypothesis that light fractionation in ALA-PpIX PDT esophageal treatments should have a beneficial effect on the total treatment effect.
fluorescence; photodetection; fiber optic sensors; photodynamic therapy; fiber optics; targets
The recycling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) to the cell surface after internalization plays an important role in the regulation of overall GPCR activity. The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) belongs to class B GPCRs that recycle slowly back to the cell surface. Previous studies have proposed that Rab11 controls the recycling of AT1R; however, recent reports show that Rab4, a rapid recycling regulator, co-localizes also with internalized AT1R. Different from the sub-cellular co-localization provided by fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy provided the spatial relationship of AT1R with Rab4 and Rab11 in the nanometer-range proximity during the entire course of AT1R recycling. During the early recycling stage, internalized AT1Rs were mainly associated with Rab4 in the cytoplasm. During the mid-recycling stage, AT1Rs were associated with both Rab4 and Rab11 in the perinuclear compartments. However, during the late-recycling stage, AT1Rs were mainly associated with Rab11, both in the perinuclear compartments and the plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation data confirmed these dynamic associations, which were disrupted by silencing of either the Rab4 or Rab11 gene. Based on these observations, we propose a Rab4 and Rab11 coordinated model for AT1R recycling.
angiotensin II type I receptors; recycling; fluorescence resonance energy transfer; Rab4; Rab11; G-protein-coupled receptors
We propose a novel method for speckle reduction for optical coherence tomography based on angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding (AngularCBD). By de-centering the probe beam from the pivot of a scanning mirror, the illumination angle represented by different components of the beam can be encoded in Doppler shift. Compounding multiple images reconstructed from different Doppler-shift bands, we can suppress speckle without sacrificing image acquisition speed. Speckle reduction with AngularCBD is demonstrated by imaging a phantom and tissue sample in vitro and in vivo.
Speckle reduction; Optical Coherence Tomography; Doppler shift; Angular compounding
Controlling two-photon molecular fluorescence leading to selective fluorophore excitation has been a long sought after goal in fluorescence microscopy. In this letter, we thoroughly explore selective fluorescence suppression through simultaneous two-photon absorption by two different fluorophores followed by selective one-photon stimulated emission for one particular fluorophore. We achieve this by precisely controlling the time delay between two identical ultrafast near infrared laser pulses.
two-photon fluorescence; selective stimulated emission; one color scheme; laser-scanning microscopy
The Nikon C1 confocal laser scanning microscope is a relatively inexpensive and user-friendly instrument. We describe here a straightforward method to convert the C1 for multiphoton microscopy utilizing direct coupling of a femtosecond near infrared (NIR) laser into the scanhead and fiber optic transmission of emission light to the three-channel detector box. Our adapted system can be rapidly switched between confocal and multiphoton mode, requires no modification to the original system, and uses only a few custom-made parts. The entire system, including scan mirrors and detector box, remain under the control of the user-friendly Nikon software without modification.
The cochlea is the mammalian organ of hearing. Its predominant vibratory element, the basilar membrane, is tonotopically tuned, based on the spatial variation of its mass and stiffness. The constituent collagen fibers of the basilar membrane affect its stiffness. Laser irradiation can induce collagen remodeling and deposition in various tissues. We tested whether similar effects could be induced within the basilar membrane. Trypan blue was perfused into the scala tympani of anesthetized mice to stain the basilar membrane. We then irradiated the cochleas with a 694-nm pulsed ruby laser at 15 or 180 J /cm2. The mice were sacrificed 14 to 16 days later and collagen organization was studied. Polarization microscopy revealed that laser irradiation increased the birefringence within the basilar membrane in a dose-dependent manner. Electron microscopy demonstrated an increase in the density of collagen fibers and the deposition of new fibrils between collagen fibers after laser irradiation. As an assessment of hearing, auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were found to increase moderately after 15 J/cm2 and substantially after 180 J /cm2. Our results demonstrate that collagen remodeling and new collagen deposition occurs within the basilar membrane after laser irradiation in a similar fashion to that found in other tissues.
collagen; resonant frequency; hearing; photocoagulation; remodeling
Iron oxide particles are becoming an important contrast agent for MRI cell tracking studies using MRI. Simultaneous delivery of fluorescence indicators with the particles to individual cells offers the possibility of correlating optical and MRI. In this paper, it was demonstrated that micron sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs) can be used as a carrier to deliver fluorescent probes to cells in culture as well as to migrating neural progenitors in vivo. Migrating progenitors were tracked with MRI and easily identified by histology because of the fluorescent probe. These data suggest that using MPIOs to deliver fluorescent probes should make it possible to combine MRI and optical imaging for in vivo cell tracking.
The ability to inject exogenous material as well as to alter subcellular structures in a minimally invasive manner using a laser microbeam has been useful for cell biologists to study the structure-function relationship in complex biological systems. We describe a quantitative phase laser microsurgery system, which takes advantage of the combination of laser microirradiation and short-coherence interference microscopy. Using this method, quantitative phase images and the dynamic changes of phase during the process of laser microsurgery of red blood cells (RBCs) can be evaluated in real time. This system would enable absolute quantitation of localized alteration/damage to transparent phase objects, such as the cell membrane or intracellular structures, being exposed to the laser microbeam. Such quantitation was not possible using conventional phase-contrast microscopy.
laser scissors; short-coherence interference microscopy; quantitative phase imaging; optical micromanipulation; cellular damage
We present a detailed description of an adaptive harmonic generation (HG) microscope and culture techniques that permit long-term, three-dimensional imaging of mouse embryos. HG signal from both pre- and postimplantation stage (0.5–5.5 day-old) mouse embryos are fully characterized. The second HG images reveal central spindles during cytokinesis whereas third HG images show several features, such as lipid droplets, nucleoli, and plasma membranes. The embryos are found to develop normally during one-day-long discontinuous HG imaging, permitting the observation of several dynamic events, such as morula compaction and blastocyst formation.
nonlinear microscopy; adaptive optics; three-dimensional microscopy; medical and biological imaging
Cells respond to forces through coordinated biochemical signaling cascades that originate from changes in single-molecule structure and dynamics and proceed to large-scale changes in cellular morphology and protein expression. To enable experiments that determine the molecular basis of mechanotransduction over these large time and length scales, we construct a confocal molecular dynamics microscope (CMDM). This system integrates total-internal-reflection fluorescence (TIRF), epifluorescence, differential interference contrast (DIC), and 3-D deconvolution imaging modalities with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) instrumentation and an optical trap. Some of the structures hypothesized to be involved in mechanotransduction are the glycocalyx, plasma membrane, actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, and cell-cell junctions. Through analysis of fluorescence fluctuations, single-molecule spectroscopic measurements [e.g., fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and time-resolved fluorescence] can be correlated with these subcellular structures in adherent endothelial cells subjected to well-defined forces. We describe the construction of our multimodal microscope in detail and the calibrations necessary to define molecular dynamics in cell and model membranes. Finally, we discuss the potential applications of the system and its implications for the field of mechanotransduction.
endothelial cell; membrane; total internal reflection fluorescence; mechanotransduction; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; time-correlated single-photon counting
FTIR spectroscopy is sensitive to the molecular composition of tissue and has the potential to identify pre-malignant tissue (dysplasia) as an adjunct to endoscopy. We demonstrate collection of mid-infrared absorption spectra with a silver halide (AgCl0.4Br0.6) optical fiber and use spectral pre-processing to identify optimal sub-ranges that classify colonic mucosa as normal, hyperplasia, or dysplasia. We collected spectra (n = 83) in the 950 to 1800 cm−1 regime on biopsy specimens obtained from human subjects (n = 37). Subtle differences in the magnitude of the absorbance peaks at specific wavenumbers were observed. The best double binary algorithm for distinguishing normal-versus-dysplasia and hyperplasia-versus-dysplasia was determined from an exhaustive search of spectral intervals and pre-processing techniques. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to classify the spectra using a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation strategy. The results were compared with histology reviewed independently by two gastrointestinal pathologists. The optimal thresholds identified resulted in an overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value of 96%, 92%, 93%, and 82%, respectively. These results indicated that mid-infrared absorption spectra collected remotely with an optical fiber can be used to identify colonic dysplasia with high accuracy, suggesting that continued development of this technique for the early detection of cancer is promising.
FTIR; dysplasia; optical fiber; early detection; cancer; endoscopy
A mechanically scanned CO2 laser operated at high laser pulse repetition rates can be used to rapidly and precisely remove dental decay. This study aims to determine whether these laser systems can safely ablate enamel and dentin without excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. Samples were derived from noncarious extracted molars. Pulpal temperatures were recorded using microthermocouples situated at the pulp chamber roof of samples (n=12), which were occlusally ablated using a rapid-scanning, water-cooled 300 Hz CO2 laser over a two minute time course. The mechanical strength of facially ablated dentin (n=10) was determined via four-point bend test and compared to control samples (n=10) prepared with 320 grit wet sand paper to simulate conventional preparations. Composite-to-enamel bond strength was measured via single-plane shear test for ablated/non-etched (n=10) and ablated/acid-etched (n=8) samples and compared to control samples (n=9) prepared by 320 grit wet sanding.
Thermocouple measurements indicated that the temperature remained below ambient temperature at 19.0°C (s.d.=0.9) if water-cooling was used. There was no discoloration of either dentin and enamel, the treated surfaces were uniformly ablated and there were no cracks observable on the laser treated surfaces. Four-point bend tests yielded mean mechanical strengths of 18.2 N (s.d.=4.6) for ablated dentin and 18.1 N (s.d.=2.7) for control (p>0.05). Shear tests yielded mean bond strengths of 31.2 MPa (s.d.=2.5, p<0.01) for ablated/acid-etched samples, 5.2 MPa (s.d.=2.4, p<0.001) for ablated/non-etched samples, and 37.0 MPa (s.d.=3.6) for control. The results indicate that a rapid-scanning 300 Hz CO2 laser can effectively ablate dentin and enamel without excessive heat accumulation and with minimal thermal damage. It is not clear whether the small (16%) but statistically significant reduction in the shear bond strength to enamel is clinically significant since the mean shear bond strength exceeded 30 MPa.
enamel; CO2 laser; adhesion; heat accumulation; peripheral thermal damage
We used a nonimpact inertial rotational model of a closed head injury in neonatal piglets to simulate the conditions following traumatic brain injury in infants. Diffuse optical techniques, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), were used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation and blood flow continuously and noninvasively before injury and up to 6 h after the injury. The DCS measurements of relative cerebral blood flow were validated against the fluorescent microsphere method. A strong linear correlation was observed between the two techniques (R = 0.89, p < 0.00001). Injury-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes were quantified, and significant changes were found in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation, and cerebral blood flow after the injury. The diffuse optical measurements were robust and also correlated well with recordings of vital physiological parameters over the 6-h monitoring period, such as mean arterial blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Finally, the diffuse optical techniques demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as apnea, cardiac arrest, and hypertonic saline infusion. In total, the investigation corraborates potential of the optical methods for bedside monitoring of pediatric and adult human patients in the neurointensive care unit.
diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS); diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS); cerebral hemodynamics; cerebral blood flow; traumatic brain injury; near—infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
An integrated miniature multi-modal microscope (4M device) for microendoscopy was built and tested. Imaging performance is evaluated and imaging results are presented for both fluorescence and reflectance samples. Images of biological samples show successful imaging of both thin layers of fixed cells prepared on a slide as well as thick samples of excised fixed porcine epithelial tissue, thus demonstrating the potential for in vivo use.
microscopy; endoscopy; micro-optics; optical testing; modulation transfer functions; medical imaging
We constructed a multiphoton (2-P) microscope with space to mount and operate microphysiology hardware, and still acquire high quality 2-P images of tumor cells deep within tissues of live mice. We reconfigured for nondescanned 2-P imaging, a dedicated electro-physiology microscope, the Nikon FN1. This microscope is compact, with retractable objectives, allowing more stage space. The instrument is fitted with long-working-distance objectives (2.5- to 3.5-mm WD) with a narrow bore, high NA, and efficient UV and IR light transmission. The system is driven by a powerful 3.5-W peak power pulsed Ti-sapphire laser with a broad tuning range. This 2-P system images a fluorescent standard to a depth of 750 to 800 μm, acquires images of murine pancreatic tumors in vivo, and also images fluorescently labeled T-cells inside live, externalized mouse lymph nodes. Effective imaging depths range between 100 and 500 μm. This compares favorably with the 100- to 300 μm micron depth attained by many 2-P systems, especially descanned 2-P instruments, and 40-μm-deep imaging with confocal microscopes. The greater depth penetration is attributable to the use of high-NA long-working-distance water-dipping lenses incorporated into a nondescanned instrument with carefully configured laser beam introduction and image-acquisition optics. Thus the new system not only has improved imaging capabilities, but allows micromanipulation and maintenance of tissues and organs.
multiphoton microscope; micromanipulation; tumor imaging; GFP; RFP; tumor microenvironment
Clinical studies of carotenoid macular pigments (MP) have been limited by the lack of noninvasive, objective instruments. We introduce a novel noninvasive optical instrument, an MP Raman detector, for assessment of the carotenoid status of the human retina in vivo. The instrument uses resonant excitation of carotenoid molecules in the visible wavelength range, and quantitatively measures the highly specific Raman signals that originate from the single- and double-bond stretch vibrations of the π-conjugated carotenoid molecule’s carbon backbone. The instrument is a robust, compact device and suitable for routine measurements of MP concentrations in a clinical setting. We characterized and tested the instrument in clinical studies of human subjects to validate its function and to begin to establish its role as a possible screening test for macular pathologies. We also show that the MP Raman spectroscopy technology has potential as a novel, highly specific method for rapid screening of carotenoid antioxidant levels in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness of the elderly in the developed world.
age-related macular degeneration; macular pigments; lutein; zeaxanthin; Raman spectroscopy; noninvasive detector
Increasing evidence points to the beneficial effects of carotenoid antioxidants in the human body. Several studies, for example, support the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the prevention of age-related eye diseases. If present in high concentrations in the macular region of the retina, lutein and zeaxanthin provide pigmentation in this most light sensitive retinal spot, and as a result of light filtering and/or antioxidant action, delay the onset of macular degeneration with increasing age. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, play an important role as well in the protection of skin from UV and short-wavelength visible radiation. Lutein and lycopene may also have protective function for cardiovascular health, and lycopene may play a role in the prevention of prostate cancer. Motivated by the growing importance of carotenoids in health and disease, and recognizing the lack of any accepted noninvasive technology for the detection of carotenoids in living human tissue, we explore resonance Raman spectroscopy as a novel approach for noninvasive, laser optical carotenoid detection. We review the main results achieved recently with the Raman detection approach. Initially we applied the method to the detection of macular carotenoid pigments, and more recently to the detection of carotenoids in human skin and mucosal tissues. Using skin carotenoid Raman instruments, we measure the carotenoid response from the stratum corneum layer of the palm of the hand for a population of 1375 subjects and develope a portable skin Raman scanner for field studies. These experiments reveal that carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status. They show that people with high oxidative stress, like smokers, and subjects with high sunlight exposure, in general, have reduced skin carotenoid levels, independent of their dietary carotenoid consumption. We find the Raman technique to be precise, specific, sensitive, and well suitable for clinical as well as field studies. The noninvasive laser technique may become a useful method for the correlation between tissue carotenoid levels and risk for malignancies or other degenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.
Raman spectroscopy; carotenoids; human skin; macula; antioxidants; noninvasive detection; lutein; zeaxanthin; lycopene; β-carotene
We present polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for quantitative assessment of retinal pathologies in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). On the basis of the polarization scrambling characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium, novel segmentation algorithms were developed that allow one to segment pathologic features such as drusen and atrophic zones in dry AMD as well as to determine their dimensions. Results from measurements in the eyes of AMD patients prove the ability of PS-OCT for quantitative imaging based on the retinal features polarizing properties. Repeatability measurements were performed in retinas diagnosed with drusen and geographic atrophy in order to evaluate the performance of the described methods. PS-OCT appears as a promising imaging modality for three-dimensional retinal imaging and ranging with additional contrast based on the structures’ tissue-inherent polarization properties.
optical coherence tomography; polarization sensitive devices; medical imaging; ophthalmology; algorithms; segmentation; age-related macular degeneration
Near-infrared (NIR) region-based spectroscopy is examined for accuracy with spectral recovery using frequency domain data at a discrete number of wavelengths, as compared to that with broadband continuous wave data. Data with more wavelengths in the frequency domain always produce superior quantitative spectroscopy results with reduced noise and error in the chromophore concentrations. Performance of the algorithm in the situation of doing region-guided spectroscopy within the MRI is also considered, and the issue of false positive prior regions being identified is examined to see the effect of added wavelengths. The results indicate that broadband frequency domain data are required for maximal accuracy. A broadband frequency domain experimental system was used to validate the predictions, using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser for the source between 690- and 850-nm wavelengths. The 80-MHz pulsed signal is heterodyned with photomultiplier tube detection, to lower frequency for data acquisition. Tissue-phantom experiments with known hemoglobin absorption and tissue-like scatter values are used to validate the system, using measurements every 10 nm. More wavelengths clearly provide superior quantification of total hemoglobin values. The system and algorithms developed here should provide an optimal way to quantify regions with the goal of image-guided breast tissue spectroscopy within the MRI.
frequency domain; region-guided spectroscopy; spectral tomography; near infrared
Tau is a microtubule associated protein that is localized to the axon in neurons. During pathological conditions including frontotemporal dementia (FTD) a shift in tau isoforms occurs that leads to enhanced expression of a form of tau with four (rather than 3) microtubule binding repeats; this has been postulated to alter microtubule structure. Second harmonic generation (SHG) is a technique that allows the visualization of intact microtubules in axons of living neurons without the need for labeling or fixing. We examined how the presence of exogenous tau influences SHG in living neurons. Results show the presence of tau significantly enhances SHG, specifically in neuronal axons, despite the presence of tau throughout the entire cell. Data also suggest that the presence or absence of the fourth microtubule binding repeat does not significantly alter tau’s ability to enhance SHG. These results provide evidence that SHG is a useful, noninvasive tool to study tau-microtubule interactions in axons; further, it appears that tau overexpression, rather than specific isoforms, is the major contributor to tau-induced changes in axonal microtubule SHG signal.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a viable treatment option for a wide range of applications, including oncology, dermatology, and ophthalmology. Singlet oxygen is believed to play a key role in the efficacy of PDT, and on-line monitoring of singlet oxygen during PDT could provide a methodology to establish and customize the treatment dose clinically. This work is the first report of monitoring singlet oxygen luminescence in vivo in human subjects during PDT, demonstrating the correlation of singlet oxygen levels during PDT with the post-PDT photobiological response.
photodynamic therapy; singlet oxygen; luminescence
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment that involves optical excitation of photosensitizers that promote oxygen molecules to the metastable O2(a1Δ) state (singlet oxygen). This species is believed to be responsible for the destruction of cancerous cells during PDT. We describe a fiber optic-coupled, pulsed diode laser-based diagnostic for singlet oxygen. We use both temporal and spectral filtering to enhance the detection of the weak O2(a →X) emission near 1.27 µm. We present data that demonstrate real-time singlet oxygen production in tumor-laden rats with chlorin e6 and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin photosensitizers. We also observe a positive correlation between post-PDT treatment regression of the tumors and the relative amount of singlet oxygen measured. These results are promising for the development of the sensor as a real-time dosimeter for PDT.
photodynamic therapy; singlet oxygen; light dosimetry
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment. PDT uses the affinity of photosensitizers to be selectively retained in malignant tumors. When tumors, pretreated with the photosensitizer, are irradiated with visible light, a photochemical reaction occurs and tumor cells are destroyed. Oxygen molecules in the metastable singlet delta state O2(1Δ) are believed to be the species that destroys cancerous cells during PDT. Monitoring singlet oxygen produced by PDT may lead to more precise and effective PDT treatments. Our approach uses a pulsed diode laser-based monitor with optical fibers and a fast data acquisition system to monitor singlet oxygen during PDT. We present results of in vitro singlet oxygen detection in solutions and in a rat prostate cancer cell line as well as PDT mechanism modeling.
photodynamic therapy; singlet oxygen; light dosimetry