In Ethiopia, 94% of births take place at home unattended by trained persons. The government introduced an innovative strategy, Health Services Extension Program in 2003. Clean and safe delivery service is a component of maternal and child healthcare package of the program. However, little is known about the status of uptake of the service. This study thus aimed to assess utilization of clean and safe delivery service and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Ethiopia.
A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in rural kebeles of Kefa Zone from January 21st to February 25th, 2009 using a sample of 229 mothers. Kafa Zone is located 465 kilometres away from Addis Ababa to southwest of Ethiopia. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16. OR and 95% CI were calculated. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Utilization of clean and safe delivery service was 43(19%). Women with formal schooling and those who knew at least two danger signs of pregnancy and labor were more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=5.8, 95% CI=2.1, 16) and (AOR=3.0, 95% CI=2.2, 10.6), respectively. Of 108(47.8%) mothers who had at least one antenatal care visit, 36(33.3%), were not advised about danger signs. Women who had at least one ANC visit and those who were advised about the danger signs of pregnancy and labor appeared to be more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=6.1, 95% CI=1.9, 21.3), and (AOR=5.4, 95%CI= 1.4, 21.7), respectively.
Utilization of the service is low and was determined by women's educational status, history of abortion, knowledge of danger signs and antenatal care attendance. Educating women and improving their knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy and labor is recommended. Health extension workers should consider antenatal care visits as opportunities for this purpose.
Clean and Safe Delivery Service; Health Services Extension Program; Kafa; Ethiopia
As breast milk is normally the only source of food in the early stages of life, the dietary levels of the essential elements in the milk of lactating mothers are significantly important. Ethiopia is a country of many nations and nationalities with distinct dietary habits. This variation in food habit may result in the variation of the nutritional quality of milk of lactating mothers who live in different part of the country, which in turn may affect the intake of nutrients by breast-fed infants. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of the levels of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu in milk of mothers from societies with cereal and ‘enset’ based dietary habits was carried out to assess the influence of maternal diet on the levels of the elements in human milk.
Milk samples were collected from 27 voluntary mothers in Jimma and in 18 rural areas of Welkite. Breast milk samples were collected within four days postpartum and the concentrations of the elements were determined by using FAAS.
Average concentrations (mg/L) of the elements determined in the milk of mothers from Jimma and rural Welkite respectively were: Ca (758 ± 107, 579 ± 168); Mg (22.6 ± 7.87, 30.5 ± 13.4); Fe (0.50 ± 0.08, 0.41 ± 0.17); Zn (2.3 ± 1.2, 2.49 ± 0.88) and Cu (0.28 ± 0.14, 0.16 ± 0.08).
Milk samples from Jimma were found to have significantly higher levels of Ca and Cu than those of rural Welkite (P < 0.05). Breast milk Ca and Cu levels were thus found to be influenced by dietary intake.
Human milk; Ethiopia; Welkite; Jimma; Essential elements; ‘Teff’; ‘Enset’
The adverse health effects of stress are enormous, and vary among people, probably because of differences in how stress is appraised and the strategies individuals use to cope with it. This study assessed the association between academic stress and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among 1365 undergraduates.
This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a Nigerian university at the beginning of the 2010/2011 academic session with the same group of participants. The Life Stress Assessment Inventory, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment were administered as tools of data gathering.
Students' stress level and associated MSDs were higher during the examination period than the pre-examination periods. Stressors were significantly associated with increased risk of MSDs in both sexes were those related to changes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, p = 0.002) and pressures (OR = 2.09, p = 0.001). Emotional and physiological reactions to stress were significantly associated with MSDs in both sexes, with higher odds for MSDs in females, whereas cognitive and behavioral reactions showed higher odds (though non-significant) in males. The risk of MSDs was higher in respondents who adopted avoidance and religious coping strategies compared with those who adopted active practical and distracting coping strategies.
Stress among students could be significantly associated with MSDs depending on individuals' demographics, stressors, reactions to stress, and coping methods. Interventions to reduce stress-induced MSDs among students should consider these factors among others.
Academic stressors; Coping strategies; Musculoskeletal disorders
This cross-cultural study was designed to examine cultural differences in empathy levels of first-year medical students.
A total of 257 students from the academic year 2010/11, 131 at Jimma University, Ethiopia, and 126 at the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany, completed the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME-R) test, and a questionnaire on sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Furthermore, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the students' personal views on the definition of empathy and possible influencing factors. Group comparisons and correlation analyses of empathy scores were performed for the entire cohort and for the Jimma and Munich students separately. We used a regression tree analysis to identify factors influencing the BEES.
The male students in Jimma (39.1 ± 22.3) scored significantly higher in the BEES than those male students from Munich (27.2 ± 22.6; p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference between the female groups. We found a moderate, positive correlation between the BEES and RME-R test, i.e. between emotional and cognitive empathy, within each university. Nevertheless, the RME-R test, which shows only Caucasian eyes, appears not to be suitable for use in other cultures.
The main findings of our study were the influence of culture, religion, specialization choice, and gender on emotional empathy (assessed with the BEES) and cognitive empathy (assessed with the RME-R test) in first-year medical students. Further research is required into the nature of empathy in worldwide medical curricula.
Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale; Cross-cultural; Empathy; Medical Students
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a psycho-stimulant substance grown in East Africa. But its adverse effects and its prevalence are not well studied. The main aim of the present study is thus to assess the association between khat chewing and GI problems among students in Ambo University.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2010 on 1005 Ambo University students. Study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling technique, and data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was made using SPSS version 16.0 for windows package.
The mean age of the respondents was 20.79 ± 1.39 ranging from 18–30 years. Seven hundred twenty (71.6 %) of the study participants were males and 994 (98.9%) were in the age group of 15–24 years. The prevalence of gastritis was 580 (57.7%); constipation 235 (23.4%); hemorrhoids 54 (5.4%) and that of dental problems (carries, decay, filling and extraction) was 225 (22.4%) of all study participants. Gastrointestinal disorders were found to be higher among khat chewers, where 64(36.2%) of them had dental problems; 127(71.8%) symptoms of gastritis; 86(48.6%) constipation and 26(14.7%) hemorrhoids which demonstrated statistically significant association with p < 0.001.
The prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders was found to be higher among khat chewers, indicating that khat chewing could be a predisposing factor to gastrointestinal disorders. Community-based awareness creation about the adverse effect of khat use is thus recommended.
Khat chewing; Gastritis; Constipation; Hemorrhoids
Surgery to correct trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is recommended to prevent blindness caused by trachoma. This study evaluated the outcomes of community-based trichiasis surgery with absorbable sutures, conductd in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.
A simple random sample of 431 patients was selected from surgical campaign records of which 363 (84.2%) were traced and enrolled into the study. Participants were interviewed and examined for trichiasis recurrence, complications of TT surgery and corneal opacity. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between trichiasis recurrence, corneal opacity and explanatory variables at the eye level.
The prevalence of trichiasis recurrence was 9.4% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 6.6–12.8) and corneal opacity was found in 14.3% (95% CI 10.9–18.3) of the study participants. The proportion of participants with complications of TT surgery was: granuloma 0.6% (95% CI 0.1–2.0); lid closure defects 5.5% (95% CI 3.4–8.4) and lid notching 16.8% (95% CI 13.1–21.1). No factors were identified for trichiasis recurrence. Corneal opacity was associated with increased age (Ptrend=0.001), more than 12 months post surgery (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.3–5.6), trichiasis surgery complications (OR=2.9; 95%CI 1.4–5.9) and trichiasis recurrence (OR=2.5; 95%CI 1.0–6.3).
Prevalence of recurrent trichiasis and granuloma were lower than expected but higher for lid closure defects and lid notching. The majority of the participants reported satisfaction with the trichiasis surgery they had undergone. The findings suggest that recurrence of trichiasis impacts on the patients' risk of developing corneal opacity but longitudinal studies are required to confirm this.
Corneal opacity; Trichiasis; Trichiasis recurrence; Ethiopia
In low income countries, surgical site infections (SSIs) are costly and impose a heavy and potentially preventable burden on both patients and healthcare providers. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of SSI, pathogens associated with SSI, the antibiogram of the causative pathogens and specific risk factors associated with SSI at the hospital.
Two hundred and sixty-eight respondents admitted for general surgical procedures (other than neurological and cardiothoracic surgeries) at the Aga Khan University Hospital were eligible to take part in the study. Post-surgery patients were observed for symptoms of infection. Follow ups were done through the consulting clinics, breast clinic and casualty dressing clinic by a team of surgeons. In cases of infection, pus swabs were collected for culture.
SSI incidence rate was 7.0%, pathogens isolated from SSI included gram negative enteric bacilli and S. aureus which was the most prevalent bacterial isolate. Only one isolate of MRSA was found and all staphylococci were susceptible to Vancomycin. Preoperative stay ≥ 2 days and wound class were the risk factors associated with SSI.
The SSI incidence rates (7.0%) observed in this study were relatively lower than the ones documented in other studies in Kenya. S. aureus is the most prevalent pathogen associated with SSI. Similar to findings from other studies done in the region; prolonged hospital stay and dirty wounds were the risks associated with postsurgical sepsis at the hospital.
Surgical sites; Infection; Surveillance; Antibiotics
Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women all over the world. In addition to hormonal and environmental causes, family history is emerging as an important risk factor in the etiology of this disease. The aim of the present study is thus to compare the clinico-pathological features of familial and sporadic breast cancer in Moroccan patients.
A comparative retrospective cohort study was conducted on 570 women with familial and sporadic breast cancer who were diagnosed and treated in the Oncology Center of Ibn Rochd University Hospital in 2009. Data on breast cancer risk factors and clinico-pathological characteristics of the tumors were extracted from patients' medical records.
Familial cases represented 18.4% of breast cancer patients. The age of onset appears to be earlier in familial breast cancers (P=0.0024). There were no significant differences between familial and sporadic groups according to histological type, tumor size and estrogen receptor status. However, Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade III was found in 43.8% of familial cases vs 26.7% of sporadic cases (P=0.0127) and the lymph node involvement was observed in 72.4% of familial cases vs 58.9% in sporadic cases (P=0.0213). Moreover, familial breast cancer patients present especially progesterone receptor-negative tumors (P=0.0380).
Our initial significant findings show that familial breast cancer seems to affect young women and tends to present high Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade tumors with lymph node involvement and absence of progesterone receptors. These preliminary results may be useful as clinical marker to identify familial breast cancer allowing the development of careful follow-up for this patients subtype.
Breast neoplasm; family history; clinico-pathological characteristics; Morocco
Patients' willingness to the involvement of medical students in their health care is the mandatory input to medical education. Admitted patients' willingness level should be known and factors affecting willingness should be identified and it is necessary to act upon them for better medical care.
A cross-sectional hospital based survey was conducted to assess the admitted patients' attitude towards medical students' involvement in their health care at Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital in 2010. Data were collected from 422 adult patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital from April to May 2010 using structured questionnaire and by interview method. The data gathered in this way were then processed using SPSS version 15.
Three hundred and ninety-two participants had responded to all questions they were asked (response rate = 92.8%). One hundred and five (26.8%) patients had negative attitude to medical students' involvement in their health care. The proportion of patients' having positive attitude towards students was slightly reduced from medical to surgical and to gynecology wards 77.4%, 72.0%, 69.2% respectively. Patients who had previous interactions with students were more likely to have negative attitude (AOR (95% CI) = 1.72(1.03, 2.87). The odds patients admitted in gynecology and obstetrics ward to prefer female students to care for them was higher (AOR (95% CI) =1.93(1.13, 3.30).
Almost half of the patients admitted to Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital objected to clinical procedures on them even physical examination, hence developing clinical skills in TASH might be challenging for the majority of students. The challenge might be worsened for male students in gynecology wards.
Patients' attitude; Medical students; Medical Education; TASH
Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem in developing countries and affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women.
Facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted from June to August, 2011 on 374 pregnant women. Mothers who came for ANC during the study period and who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed and a capillary blood sample was taken. Hemoglobin level was determined by using HemoCue photometer, and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were cleaned, coded and fed into SPSS version 16.0 for analysis.
The mean hemoglobin concentration was 12.05±1.5 g/dl and prevalence of anemia was 36.6%. Family sizes (COR=2.67, CI (1.65, 4.32), third trimester (COR=1.45, CI (1.11, 2.23), meat consumption <1x/wk (COR=3.47, CI (1.58, 7.64) and pica (COR=2.33, CI (1.52, 3.58) were significantly associated with anemia. Having five or more children (AOR=5.2, CI [1.29, 21.09]), intake of vegetables and fruits less than once per day (AOR= 6.7, CI [2.49, 17.89]), intake of tea always after meal (AOR = 12.83.CI [45-28.9]), and recurrence of illness during pregnancy (AOR=7.3, CI [2.12–25.39]) were factors associated with anemia.
This study showed that anemia is a moderate public health problem. Less frequent meat and vegetable consumption, parity ≥5 are risk factors for anemia. Therefore, reducing parity, taking balanced diet and use of mosquito nets during pregnancy are recommended.
Hemoglobin; Anemia; Pregnancy; ANC
Stromal tumors of the jejunum (GIST) and omentum (EGIST) are uncommon and dearth of information still exists on their occurrence concurrently.
Here, we report a nine year old girl that presented with tender abdominal mass measuring 14 × 8 cm associated with features of gastric outlet obstruction and hyponatremia of 115mmol/L. A diagnosis of hyponatremia in a child with gastric outlet obstruction secondary to intraabdominal mass was made for which exploratory laparotomy was carried out. Histology of the tumour revealed stromal spindle epithelioid as well as myxoid cells. Complete resection of the tumour and correction for hyponatremia was done in addition to antibiotics therapy with remarkable improvement.
Index case is that of mixed stromal tumours that presented with features of gastric outlet obstruction, and the patient did well after surgery.
Gastrointestinal/extraintestinal stromal tumors; Jejunum; Omentum; Paediatrics; Adamawa state; Nigeria
Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is a rare soft tissue lesion of unknown etiology. Clinically, it is most commonly found on the gingiva and presents as a painless, sessile or pedunculated mass of the same colour as the surrounding mucosa. Histologically, it is characterized by focal myxoid degeneration of connective tissue. OFM occurs predominantly in adults during the fourth and fifth decade of life, although it has been reported infrequently in children and adolescents. Its diagnosis mainly relies on histological analysis and the treatment involves complete surgical excision. Its recurrence is unreported. The aim of this report of two cases is to describe the clinical and histological presentation and subsequent management of OFM. The cause of OFM remains unknown. The cases presented in this report bring OFM to the attention of anatomical pathologists while considering the differential diagnosis of myxoid lesions of the oral cavity.
Oral focal mucinosis; Soft tissue lesions; Gingival lesions
Plasma cell gingivitis (PGC) is a rare disease of gingival tissues which is difficult to treat. It has a higher rate of reoccurrence and needs a detailed and careful analysis of etiology. Further, its association with chelitis is rare, only few cases have been reported and the condition with this presentation poses a diagnostic dilemma.
This paper reports a 16 year old male with a complaint of bleeding and swelling of gingiva since 3 years. The gingival enlargement occurred on facial aspect of upper and lower anterior teeth involving attached gingival. He also presented with swelling of both lips which was recurrent and for the same duration of 3 years.
Based on clinical features and histopathological findings, a diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis with inflammatory chelitis was made. A detailed history of possible allergen exposure was taken and patch test was conducted to identify any such allergens. Other conditions were ruled out by blood investigation, detailed medical and drug history.
A close collaboration between Periodontist and Dermatologist is essential to manage such a case.
Plasma cell gingivitis; inflammatory chelitis
Trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Though trachoma can be treated with antibiotics (active trachoma) or surgery (trachomatous trichiasis), it is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia. Despite the prevalence of this infectious disease in different parts of the country, district level data is lacking. This study was thus conducted to assess the prevalence estimate of trachoma and its risk factors in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia.
A community based cross sectional Rapid Assessment of Trachoma was conducted using a WHO guideline. Six sub-districts were selected from Kersa District based on primary high risk assessment and from each sub-district; 21–27 households were randomly selected. Active trachoma for children aged 1–9 years, trachomatous trichiasis for people above 15 years old and environmental risk factors for trachoma were assessed. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.
The overall prevalence estimate of active trachoma was 25.2% (95% CI: 20.7–30.4%). Forty three percent of children had unclean faces, 11.5% of households had water source at more than half hour walking distance, 18.2% did not have functional latrine, and 95.3% of the households had solid waste disposal within a distance of 20 meters. Households with environmental risk factors were at an increased risk to active trachoma, but the association was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The prevalence estimate of trachomatous trichiasis inclusive of “trachoma suspects” was 4.5%.
Trachoma is endemic in Kersa District with active trachoma being a public health problem in the studied sub-districts. Hence, SAFE strategy should be implemented.
Trachoma; Trichiasis; Preventable blindness; SAFE strategy
Whereas street vended foods are readily available sources of meals for many people across the world, the microbial safety of such food is always uncertain. In developing countries the major sources of food-borne illnesses are street vended foods. The aim of this study was thus to assess the prevalence and antibiogram of bacteria from white lupin in Bahir Dar Town.
A total of 40 samples were processed for detection of indicator bacteria and pathogens from December, 2011 to February, 2012 using standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method.
The total coliform counts were 954.2±385 and 756.2±447.3 at the surface and the core of white lupin, respectively. On the other hand, the fecal coliform counts were 880.9±396.6 and 662.1±461.9 at surface and the core, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in total colifoms and fecal coliform counts between the surface and core of white lupin (p <0.05). Escherichia coli 29 (72.5%), Salmonella spp. 23 (57.5%) and Shigella spp. 8 (20%) were the pathogens isolated. Most bacterial isolates were resistant to tetracycline, cotriamoxazole and erythromycin whereas many of them were sensitive to chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The overall multiple antimicrobial resistances rate was 75%.
This study revealed contamination of white lupin and a potential health to consumers, and the bacteria isolated showed high rates of multiple drug resistance. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance should be done on food borne pathogens. In addition, further studies should be conducted on the bacteriological quality of waters used for soaking white lupin.
Coliforms; antimicrobial resistance; pathogens; white lupin
Adverse drug reactions account for the highest proportion among the causes of morbidity and mortality in clinical wards and are posing a considerable challenge. Hence, the objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of adverse drug reactions and the factors which contribute to their prevalence.
A prospective patient record review was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in North India from August 2010–May 2011. A total of 1033 subjects admitted to hospital for any kind of treatment were included while patients admitted in the ward because of adverse drug reactions were excluded. The ward where we collected the data includes multispecialty and cardiovascular wards. The causality, severity, and preventability of adverse drug reactions were assessed using Naranjo, modified Hartwig, and Schumock and Thornton criteria, respectively. Kolmogorov-Smyrnov, chi -square and multiple logistic regression tests were used to determine adverse drug reactions ascribed to drugs.
Out of 1033 patients whose records were assessed, 167(16.2%) experienced one or more adverse drug reactions. The metabolic systems, which accounted for 49(24.6%) were most frequently affected by adverse drug reactions, followed by gastrointestinal, 45(22.6%); hematological, 28(14.1%) and cutaneous, 21(10.6%) systems. The drug classes most frequently associated with the reactions were antibiotics 40(20.1%), diuretics 35(17.6%) and anticoagulants 30(15.1%). According to the selected preventability scale, 72(36.2%) adverse drug reactions were classified as probably or definitely preventable. About 165(83%) of the reactions were type A, which represents augmentation of the pharmacological action of a drug. Number of drugs, length of hospitalization and number of diagnosis were identified as significant predisposing factors for ADRs.
The result of this study suggested that adverse drug reactions were significant causes of superimposed health problems that occur following hospitalization. The major risk factors associated with ADR include number of drugs, length of hospitalization and number of diagnosis. Based on the findings a rigorous study is recommended to determine the burden and identify the risk factors of adverse drug reactions to target interventions.
Adverse drug reactions; Causality assessments; Type A reactions; Predisposing factor
This paper presents a case of a 7 year-old child who presented with a 14-days history of blood stained saliva and shortness of breath of 3 days with signs of upper airway obstruction. Laryngoscopy revealed a blackish living foreign body in the proximal trachea. Under general anesthesia the leech was removed by applying forceps. I conclude that a high index of suspicion of leech infestation is required when faced with a child presenting with unexplained bleeding per mouth and signs of upper airway obstruction.
Leech; Foreign body; Trachea; upper airway obstruction
gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhea for which humans are the only natural host. The causative organism is highly adapted to the genital tract and often causing asymptomatic and undetected infection in females in which Acquisition of gonococcal infection late in pregnancy can adversely affect labor and delivery as well as the well-being of the fetus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and drug susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhea among symptomatic women in Hawassa Referral Hospital.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 1 2010 to February 30, 2011 at Hawassa Referral Hospital. All women who visited gynecology outpatient department (OPD) with suspected gonococcal infection were included. Endocervical swab was collected by the attending physician. The presence of gonorrhea was confirmed by culture, gram staining and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using disc diffusion method and the result was interpreted accordingly.
Of the total 215 cases examined, 11 (5.1%) were confirmed to have gonococcal infection. Although not statistically significant, most of the cases 5/11 (45.5%) were in age group of 20–24 years and the identified organism had low level susceptibility to quinolones (ciprofloxacin 55%, ofloxacin 64% & lomefloxacin 64%).
Despite low rates of gonorrhea infection, it is important to focus on high-risk populations (reproductive age group) because of the great physical and emotional costs of the disease. A high resistance for quinolones, the commonly used antibiotics was observed for this laboratory-based diagnosis is recommended.
Neisseria gonorrhea; drug susceptibility; symptomatic women; Southern Ethiopia
Increasing age has been hypothesized with wear and tear (weathering) in mothers, which may result to low birthweight of their babies. The prevalence of low birthweight could be heightened if maternal weathering is associated with poor maternal socioeconomic variables. In this current study, we analyzed the effects of maternal weathering on babies' birthweights.
One hundred and twenty four mother-baby pairs were selected using systematic random sampling method. Maternal age formed part of the demographic data that was obtained from the mothers' case notes and from interviews held with them. Maternal socioeconomic variables were assessed using Oyedeji's parameters and birthweights of babies were determined using bassinet weighing scale. Associations between maternal socioeconomic variables and birthweight of babies were assessed using univariate analysis. Differences in mean birthweight of babies according to their maternal age were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA.
Among the 124 babies, 66(53.2%) were males and 58(46.8%) females of whom the majority 104(83.9%, had normal birthweight. The mean birthweight of babies was 3.05±0.57 (95% CI, 2.95–3.15) kg, while the mean maternal age was 23.60 (5.2) 95% CI, (22.68–24.52) years. The difference between mean birthweight of babies and mean maternal age was not significant (F=1.35, p=0.255). Similarly, the association between birthweight, maternal education and occupation computed using univariate analysis was not significant (F=2.163, p=0.120) for education and (F=1.825, p=0.166) for occupation.
In this study, maternal weathering was not found to be associated with LBW outcome. This implies that an increase in maternal age may not be significantly associated with LBW. However, there is need for further research on this subject from different centers using larger sample size in order to enhance the precision of the study.
Mother-baby pairs; Maternal Weathering; Low birthweight; Maiduguri; Nigeria
Arguably, the sexual abuse of children raises a number of important questions for researchers at different times. Thus, the present study was aimed to examine psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse.
This cross-sectional survey study compared the degree of vulnerability to psychopathological variables among respondents with a history of sexual abuse and their unabused counter parts in Jimma Zone. To this end, 400 female students were selected from five high schools as the sample population using multi-stage sampling procedure. Data were gathered using Reynold's Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), Adolescent Panic Anxiety Scale, and Posttraumatic stress disorder test. The collected data via self-administered questionnaire were analyzed through the two sample t-test statistical procedure.
The study revealed a result of t=3.83 for depression, t=2.46 for panic episode, and t=4.23 for PTSD score, whereas, the critical value of all the three psychopathological variables showed t (52) =1.676 at P=0.05. Results illustrate the presence of statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the above mentioned psychopathologies between females with history of sexual abuse and females who were not victims of this sexual attack at df =52 and P=0.05.
The findings of the present study indicate that history of childhood sexual abuse has adverse consequences on the future psychological wellbeing of females. Specifically, females with experience of sexual abuse were found to be more susceptible to develop depression, panic anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders than unabused females. Thus, parents, and teachers should give the necessary care and protection to female children. Primary bio-psychosocial care services need to be established in the school system, and both the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education should work together against sexual exploitation of female children.
Child Sexual Abuse (CSA); Psychopathologies; Correlates
Leadership style of nurse managers plays a significant role in nurses' job satisfaction. However, there is limited literature in areas related to nurses' manager leadership style. The objective of this research was thus to investigate the relationship between leadership style of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital.
The study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from January to June 2012 and used a non-experimental correlation design. All full time, non-supervisory nurses with an experience of more than one year in nursing profession were participated in the study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics followed by the application of inferential statistics on the variables. Significance level was considered when p<0.05.
A total of 175 copies of the questionnaires were returned out of 186 copies distributed to respondents. The result indicated that nurses can prefer transformational leadership style over transactional leadership style and had moderate-level intrinsic (M=2.72, SD=0.71) but low level of extrinsic job satisfaction (M=1.83, SD=0.68). Furthermore, from transactional leadership, only contingent reward was found to be statically significant and correlated with extrinsic (B=0.45, p<0.01) and intrinsic job satisfaction (B=0.32, p<0.05) while all five dimension of transformational leadership style were statistically significant and correlated with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction.
Nurses tended to be more satisfied with the transformational leadership than transactional leadership style. Therefore, nurses' managers should use transformational leadership style in order to increase nurses' job satisfaction.
Leadership; Nurses; Job satisfaction; Jimma University Specialized Hospital
Weight gains in pregnancy within the recommended guidelines are associated with healthy fetal and maternal outcomes; higher weight gains are associated with fetal macrosomia. This study was a systemic review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training on maternal weight in pregnancy.
The study data source was publications through May 2012 in the MEDLINE (PubMed) database. The citation lists of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training and maternal weight were extracted. Data on participants' characteristics, study quality, population, intervention, treatment outcome (maternal weight gain) were collected and analyzed.
There were 11 randomized controlled studies using body weight (kg) as measure of treatment outcome. A total of 1177 subjects were recruited in the 11 studies. The mean± SD weight gain (kg) for the exercise (11.31± 7.44kg) and control (14.42± 6.60kg) groups; Meta-analysis result indicated significant effect of aerobic training on maternal weight (t= -7.580, p= .000) at p< 0.05.
It was concluded that aerobic training is an effective tool in maternal weight gain control in pregnancy. More randomized controlled trials are warranted.
Aerobic exercise; Pregnancy; Maternal weight; Meta-analysis
Endometriosis is a common disease generally, but appendiceal endometriosis causing acute appendicitis is a very uncommon clinical phenomenon and a few cases have been reported. The authors aim to highlight the rarity of such clinical entity in Nigeria. A 29 year old nulliparous woman presented with severe right iliac fossa pains, tenderness and rebound tenderness on her second day of menstruation. She subsequently had appendicectomy and a histopathological diagnosis of appendiceal endometriosis causing acute appendicitis. Appendiceal endometriosis causing acute appendicitis is rare, and definitive diagnosis is performed through histopathological evaluation. Post-operative gynaecological follow-up is highly recommended.
Appendix; Endometriosis; Appendicitis