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issn:1008-682
1.  A developmental stage-dependent switch of the mechanisms for prostate epithelial maintenance 
Asian journal of andrology  2012;15(1):85-86.
Previous studies demonstrated that adult murine prostate basal and luminal cells are independently self-sustained, but prostate basal cells possess the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages upon induction by embryonic urogenital sinus mesenchyme. Nevertheless, it is unknown how prostate epithelia mature during the postnatal stage. Recently, Ousset et al. showed that some prostate basal cells in neonatal mice still possess the capacity for multilineage differentiation, while luminal cells have committed to become unipotent. This study demonstrates a developmental stage-dependent switch of the mechanisms for prostate epithelial maintenance, and implies a critical role of the stromal environment in regulating epithelial maintenance.
doi:10.1038/aja.2012.136
PMCID: PMC3684388  PMID: 23223032
2.  Characterization of nucleohistone and nucleoprotamine components in the mature human sperm nucleus 
Asian journal of andrology  2008;10(4):10.1111/j.1745-7262.2008.00410.x.
Aim
To simultaneously determine the localization of histones and protamines within human sperm nuclei.
Methods
Immunofluorescence of the core histones and protamines and fluorescence in situ hybridization of the telomere region of chromosome 16 was assessed in decondensed human sperm nuclei.
Results
Immunofluorescent localization of histones, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) along with fluorescence in situ hybridization localization of chromosome 16 telomeric sequences revealed a discrete distribution in sperm nuclei. Histones localized to the posterior ring region (i.e. the sperm nuclear annulus), whereas PRM1 and PRM2 appeared to be dispersed throughout the entire nucleus.
Conclusion
The co-localization of the human core sperm histones with the telomeric regions of chromosome 16 is consistent with the reorganization of specific non-protamine regions into a less compacted state.
doi:10.1111/j.1745-7262.2008.00410.x
PMCID: PMC3856397  PMID: 18478156
human sperm nucleus; histone; protamine; telomere
3.  miR-21, miR-221 and miR-222 expression and prostate cancer recurrence among obese and non-obese cases 
Asian journal of andrology  2013;15(2):226-230.
Recent evidence shows that certain miRNAs play a role in both obesity and prostate cancer recurrence, but the association between the expression of these miRNAs and obesity in prostate cancer recurrence is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of the interaction between obesity and miR-21, miR-221 or miR-222 expression on prostate cancer recurrence among 28 recurrent and 37 non-recurrent prostate cancer cases. miRNA expression was determined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age at diagnosis, clinical stage and Gleason score were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for recurrence free survival. A significantly (P=0.014) higher proportion of recurrent cases (78.6%) than non-recurrent cases (48.6%) had a low expression of miR-21 and the difference was more prominent in obese than non-obese patients. Multivariate analysis showed that the expression of miR-21 was an independent risk factor for recurrence in obese (HR=6.15, 95%CI=1.04–36.48, P=0.045), but not in non-obese (HR=1.28, 95%CI=0.30–5.49, P=0.74) cases. A significant association with recurrence was not observed for the expression of miR-221 and miR-222. In summary, our findings show that miR-21 is associated with prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and suggest that the differential expression of miR-21 is more prominent in obese than in non-obese cases. Future larger studies are warranted to confirm these initial findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved.
doi:10.1038/aja.2012.160
PMCID: PMC3705740  PMID: 23353719
Prostate carcinoma; recurrence; miRNA; obesity; miR-21; miR-221; miR-222
4.  The Prostate Cancer Bone Marrow Niche: More than Just “Fertile Soil” 
Asian journal of andrology  2012;14(3):423-427.
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow has been studied extensively over the past few decades, yet the bone marrow microenvironment that supports the growth of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) has only been recently considered to be a specialized “niche” as well. New evidence supports the fact that disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) of PCa actually target the HSC niche, displace the occupant HSCs, and take up residence in the pre-existing niche space. This review describes some of the evidence and mechanisms by which DTCs act as molecular parasites of the HSC niche. Furthermore, the interactions between DTCs, HSCs, and the niche may provide new targets for niche-directed therapy, as well as insight into the perplexing clinical manifestations of metastatic PCa disease.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.164
PMCID: PMC3602965  PMID: 22367179
Dormancy; Hematopoietic Stem Cell; Osteoblasts; Prostate Cancer; Metastasis; Niche
5.  Cabazitaxel: a new drug for metastatic prostate cancer 
Asian journal of andrology  2010;13(2):185-186.
doi:10.1038/aja.2010.161
PMCID: PMC3592929  PMID: 21151153
6.  miR-21, miR-221 and miR-222 expression and prostate cancer recurrence among obese and non-obese cases 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2013;15(2):226-230.
Recent evidence shows that certain microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in both obesity and prostate cancer recurrence, but the association between the expression of these miRNAs and obesity in prostate cancer recurrence is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of the interaction between obesity and miR-21, miR-221 or miR-222 expression on prostate cancer recurrence among 28 recurrent and 37 non-recurrent prostate cancer cases. miRNA expression was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age at diagnosis, clinical stage and Gleason score were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for recurrence free survival. A significantly (P=0.014) higher proportion of recurrent cases (78.6%) than non-recurrent cases (48.6%) had a low expression of miR-21 and the difference was more prominent in obese than non-obese patients. Multivariate analysis showed that the expression of miR-21 was an independent risk factor for recurrence in obese (HR=6.15, 95% CI=1.04–36.48, P=0.045), but not in non-obese (HR=1.28, 95% CI=0.30–5.49, P=0.74) cases. A significant association with recurrence was not observed for the expression of miR-221 and miR-222. In summary, our findings show that miR-21 is associated with prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and suggest that the differential expression of miR-21 is more prominent in obese than in non-obese cases. Future larger studies are warranted to confirm these initial findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved.
doi:10.1038/aja.2012.160
PMCID: PMC3705740  PMID: 23353719
miR-21; miR-221; miR-222; miRNA; obesity; prostate carcinoma; recurrence
7.  Inherited susceptibility for aggressive prostate cancer 
Asian journal of andrology  2012;14(3):415-418.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.146
PMCID: PMC3568760  PMID: 22543676
aggressiveness; germline; Genome Wide Association Studies; GWAS; inherited; linkage; mutation; single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs; susceptibility
8.  Pentoxifylline treatment and penile calcifications in men with Peyronie’s disease 
Asian journal of andrology  2010;13(2):322-325.
This retrospective cohort study from a single clinical practice enrolled patients with evidence of calcified Peyronie’s disease (PD) plaques detected on penile ultrasound at the time of initial presentation. The primary objective was to describe the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) treatment on subtunical calcifications in men with PD. A PD-specific questionnaire was administered and sonographic evaluations were performed at baseline and follow-up visits. Descriptive statistics and χ2 analysis were used to characterize the effect of PTX on calcified tunical plaques. In all, 71 men (mean age: 51.9 years) with PD and sonographic evidence of calcification were identified. Of them, 62 of these men were treated with PTX for a mean duration of 1 year, and nine with vitamin E or no treatment. Improvement or stabilization in calcium burden at follow-up was noted in 57 (91.9%) of men treated with PTX versus four (44.4%) of those not treated with PTX (P< 0.001). PTX users were much less likely to have a subjective worsening of their clinical condition (25.0% versus 78.3%, P=0.002). Treatment with PTX appeared to stabilize or reduce calcium content in PD plaques. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to further explore this effect.
doi:10.1038/aja.2010.117
PMCID: PMC3565600  PMID: 21102473
penile calcifications; pentoxifylline; Peyronie’s disease; treatment
9.  What controls PTEN and what it controls (in prostate cancer) 
Asian journal of andrology  2011;14(1):130-131.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.122
PMCID: PMC3539299  PMID: 21946231
11.  Vascular endothelial growth factor A, secreted in response to transforming growth factor-β1 under hypoxic conditions, induces autocrine effects on migration of prostate cancer cells 
Asian journal of andrology  2012;14(5):745-751.
Hypoxia and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) increase vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression in a number of malignancies. This effect of hypoxia and TGF-β1 might be responsible for tumor progression and metastasis of advanced prostate cancer. In the present study, TGF-β1 was shown to induce VEGFA165 secretion from both normal cell lines (HPV7 and RWPE1) and prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC3). Conversely, hypoxia-stimulated VEGFA165 secretion was observed only in prostate cancer cell lines. Hypoxia induced TGF-β1 expression in PC3 prostate cancer cells, and the TGF-β type I receptor (ALK5) kinase inhibitor partially blocked hypoxia-mediated VEGFA165 secretion. This effect of hypoxia provides a novel mechanism to increase VEGFA expression in prostate cancer cells. Although autocrine signaling of VEGFA has been implicated in prostate cancer progression and metastasis, the associated mechanism is poorly characterized. VEGFA activity is mediated via VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 (Flt-1) and 2 (Flk-1/KDR). Whereas VEGFR-1 mRNA was detected in normal prostate epithelial cells, VEGFR-2 mRNA and VEGFR protein were expressed only in PC3 cells. VEGFA165 treatment induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in PC3 cells but not in HPV7 cells, suggesting that the autocrine function of VEGFA may be uniquely associated with prostate cancer. Activation of VEGFR-2 by VEGFA165 was shown to enhance migration of PC3 cells. A similar effect was also observed with endogenous VEGFA induced by TGF-β1 and hypoxia. These findings illustrate that an autocrine loop of VEGFA via VEGFR-2 is critical for the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β1 and hypoxia on metastatic prostate cancers.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.197
PMCID: PMC3476842  PMID: 22705563
cell migration; hypoxia; prostate cancer; transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1); vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)
12.  Cyr61 is a potential prognostic marker for prostate cancer 
Asian journal of andrology  2012;14(3):405-408.
Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the transduction of growth factor and hormone signaling that is frequently altered in expression in several types of cancers. In prostate cancer (PCa), Cyr61 is highly expressed in organ-confined disease. Further, Cyr61 expression levels are associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence, and can be quantitatively measured in the serum. Considered together, these results indicate that Cyr61 is a potential and clinically useful tissue, as well as serum-based biomarker for differentiating lethal and non-lethal PCa.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.149
PMCID: PMC3472413  PMID: 22343491
Cyr61; lethal prostate cancer; non-lethal prostate cancer; overdiagnosis; overtreatment; prostate cancer
13.  Current Paradigms and Evolving Concepts in Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer 
Asian journal of andrology  2011;13(5):683-689.
Until recently, docetaxel-based therapy represented the only therapy shown to prolong survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The past year and a half has been marked by unprecedented progress in treatments for this disease. Three positive phase III clinical trials have emerged, each evaluating agents with wholly distinct mechanisms of action (sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel and abiraterone). Herein, the three pivotal trials are described alongside both past and current large phase III studies conducted in this space. The overall survival for patients with mCRPC treated in current clinical trials is considerably longer than noted in the past. We note that newer trials with older agents have also shown improved survival and discuss potential non-therapeutic biases that influence this critical measure of outcome. The necessity for utilizing randomized trials when evaluating new therapeutics is emphasized given the changing prognosis in this disease state.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.35
PMCID: PMC3449061  PMID: 21602834
14.  Molecular profiling of indolent human prostate cancer: tackling technical challenges to achieve high-fidelity genome-wide data 
Asian journal of andrology  2012;14(3):385-392.
The contemporary problem of prostate cancer overtreatment can be partially attributed to the diagnosis of potentially indolent prostate cancers that pose low risk to aged men, and lack of sufficiently accurate risk stratification methods to reliably seek out men with indolent diseases. Since progressive acquisition and accumulation of genomic alterations, both genetic and epigenetic, is a defining feature of all human cancers at different stages of disease progression, it is hypothesized that RNA and DNA alterations characteristic of indolent prostate tumors may be different from those previously characterized in the setting of clinically significant prostate cancer. Approaches capable of detecting such alterations on a genome-wide level are the most promising. Such analysis may uncover molecular events defining early initiating stages along the natural history of prostate cancer progression, and ultimately lead to rational development of risk stratification methods for identification of men who can safely forego treatment. However, defining and characterizing indolent prostate cancer in a clinically relevant context remains a challenge, particularly when genome-wide approaches are employed to profile formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens. Here, we provide the conceptual basis underlying the importance of understanding indolent prostate cancer from molecular profiling studies, identify the key hurdles in sample acquisition and variables that affect molecular data derived from FFPE tissues, and highlight recent progresses in efforts to address these technical challenges.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.147
PMCID: PMC3433951  PMID: 22306912
active surveillance; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded; indolent prostate cancer; microarray; molecular profiling; prostate cancer; prostate cancer progression; risk stratification
15.  Vascular endothelial growth factor A, secreted in response to transforming growth factor-β1 under hypoxic conditions, induces autocrine effects on migration of prostate cancer cells 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2012;14(5):745-751.
Hypoxia and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) increase vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression in a number of malignancies. This effect of hypoxia and TGF-β1 might be responsible for tumor progression and metastasis of advanced prostate cancer. In the present study, TGF-β1 was shown to induce VEGFA165 secretion from both normal cell lines (HPV7 and RWPE1) and prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC3). Conversely, hypoxia-stimulated VEGFA165 secretion was observed only in prostate cancer cell lines. Hypoxia induced TGF-β1 expression in PC3 prostate cancer cells, and the TGF-β type I receptor (ALK5) kinase inhibitor partially blocked hypoxia-mediated VEGFA165 secretion. This effect of hypoxia provides a novel mechanism to increase VEGFA expression in prostate cancer cells. Although autocrine signaling of VEGFA has been implicated in prostate cancer progression and metastasis, the associated mechanism is poorly characterized. VEGFA activity is mediated via VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 (Flt-1) and 2 (Flk-1/KDR). Whereas VEGFR-1 mRNA was detected in normal prostate epithelial cells, VEGFR-2 mRNA and VEGFR protein were expressed only in PC3 cells. VEGFA165 treatment induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in PC3 cells but not in HPV7 cells, suggesting that the autocrine function of VEGFA may be uniquely associated with prostate cancer. Activation of VEGFR-2 by VEGFA165 was shown to enhance migration of PC3 cells. A similar effect was also observed with endogenous VEGFA induced by TGF-β1 and hypoxia. These findings illustrate that an autocrine loop of VEGFA via VEGFR-2 is critical for the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β1 and hypoxia on metastatic prostate cancers.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.197
PMCID: PMC3476842  PMID: 22705563
cell migration; hypoxia; prostate cancer; transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1); vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)
16.  Folate and vitamin B12 in idiopathic male infertility 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2011;13(6):856-861.
Although methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, a folate enzyme gene, has been associated with idiopathic male infertility, few studies have examined other folate-related metabolites and genes. We investigated whether idiopathic male infertility is associated with variants in folate, vitamin B12 (B12) and total homocysteine (tHcy)-related genes and measured these metabolites in blood. We conducted a case–control study that included 153 men with idiopathic infertility and 184 fertile male controls recruited at the Fertility Center and Antenatal Care Center, University Hospital, Malmö and Lund, Sweden. Serum folate, red cell folate (RCF), serum B12, plasma tHcy and semen quality were measured. Subjects were genotyped for 20 common variants in 12 genes related to folate/B12/homocysteine metabolism. Metabolite concentrations and genotype distributions were compared between cases and controls using linear and logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. The phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) M175V and TCblR rs173665 polymorphisms were significantly associated with infertility (P = 0.01 and P = 0.009, respectively), but not with semen quality. Among non-users of supplements, infertile men had lower serum folate concentrations than fertile men (12.89 vs. 14.73 nmol l−1; P = 0.02), but there were no significant differences in RCF, B12 or tHcy. Folate, B12 and tHcy concentrations were not correlated with any semen parameters. This study provides little support for low folate or B12 status in the pathogenesis of idiopathic male infertility. Although additional data are needed to confirm these initial findings, our results suggest that PEMT and TCblR, genes involved in choline and B12 metabolism, merit further investigation in idiopathic male infertility.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.96
PMCID: PMC3372894  PMID: 21857689
folate; idiopathic male infertility; semen quality; vitamin B12
17.  A New Speedy/RINGO Protein May Help Regulate Male Meiosis 
Asian journal of andrology  2011;13(3):363.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.30
PMCID: PMC3111482  PMID: 21540866
18.  Molecular profiling of indolent human prostate cancer: tackling technical challenges to achieve high-fidelity genome-wide data 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2012;14(3):385-392.
The contemporary problem of prostate cancer overtreatment can be partially attributed to the diagnosis of potentially indolent prostate cancers that pose low risk to aged men, and lack of sufficiently accurate risk stratification methods to reliably seek out men with indolent diseases. Since progressive acquisition and accumulation of genomic alterations, both genetic and epigenetic, is a defining feature of all human cancers at different stages of disease progression, it is hypothesized that RNA and DNA alterations characteristic of indolent prostate tumors may be different from those previously characterized in the setting of clinically significant prostate cancer. Approaches capable of detecting such alterations on a genome-wide level are the most promising. Such analysis may uncover molecular events defining early initiating stages along the natural history of prostate cancer progression, and ultimately lead to rational development of risk stratification methods for identification of men who can safely forego treatment. However, defining and characterizing indolent prostate cancer in a clinically relevant context remains a challenge, particularly when genome-wide approaches are employed to profile formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens. Here, we provide the conceptual basis underlying the importance of understanding indolent prostate cancer from molecular profiling studies, identify the key hurdles in sample acquisition and variables that affect molecular data derived from FFPE tissues, and highlight recent progresses in efforts to address these technical challenges.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.147
PMCID: PMC3433951  PMID: 22306912
active surveillance; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded; indolent prostate cancer; microarray; molecular profiling; prostate cancer; prostate cancer progression; risk stratification
19.  Cyr61 is a potential prognostic marker for prostate cancer 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2012;14(3):405-408.
Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the transduction of growth factor and hormone signaling that is frequently altered in expression in several types of cancers. In prostate cancer (PCa), Cyr61 is highly expressed in organ-confined disease. Further, Cyr61 expression levels are associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence, and can be quantitatively measured in the serum. Considered together, these results indicate that Cyr61 is a potential and clinically useful tissue, as well as serum-based biomarker for differentiating lethal and non-lethal PCa.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.149
PMCID: PMC3472413  PMID: 22343491
Cyr61; lethal prostate cancer; non-lethal prostate cancer; overdiagnosis; overtreatment; prostate cancer
20.  Inherited susceptibility for aggressive prostate cancer 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2012;14(3):415-418.
Whether or not there is inherited basis for prostate cancer aggressiveness is not clear, but advances in DNA analysis should provide an answer to this question in the very near future.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.146
PMCID: PMC3568760  PMID: 22543676
aggressiveness; germline; Genome Wide Association Studies; GWAS; inherited; linkage; mutation; single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs; susceptibility
21.  The prostate cancer bone marrow niche: more than just ‘fertile soil' 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2012;14(3):423-427.
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow has been studied extensively over the past few decades, yet the bone marrow microenvironment that supports the growth of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) has only been recently considered to be a specialized ‘niche' as well. New evidence supports the fact that disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) of PCa actually target the HSC niche, displace the occupant HSCs and take up residence in the pre-existing niche space. This review describes some of the evidence and mechanisms by which DTCs act as molecular parasites of the HSC niche. Furthermore, the interactions between DTCs, HSCs and the niche may provide new targets for niche-directed therapy, as well as insight into the perplexing clinical manifestations of metastatic PCa disease.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.164
PMCID: PMC3602965  PMID: 22367179
dormancy; hematopoietic stem cell; metastasis; niche; osteoblasts; prostate cancer
22.  Androgen deprivation therapy-associated vasomotor symptoms 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2012;14(2):193-197.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used as standard therapy in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. While efficacious, ADT is associated with multiple side effects, including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, diabetes, loss of muscle tone and altered body composition, osteoporosis, lipid changes, memory loss, gynecomastia and hot flashes. The breadth of literature for the treatment of hot flashes is much smaller in men than that in women. While hormonal therapy of hot flashes has been shown to be effective, multiple non-hormonal medications and treatment methods have also been developed. This article reviews current options for the treatment of hot flashes in patients taking ADT.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.101
PMCID: PMC3338189  PMID: 22286861
androgen deprivation therapy; hot flashes; vasomotor symptoms
23.  Androgen deprivation therapy-associated vasomotor symptoms 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2012;14(2):193-197.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used as standard therapy in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. While efficacious, ADT is associated with multiple side effects, including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, diabetes, loss of muscle tone and altered body composition, osteoporosis, lipid changes, memory loss, gynecomastia and hot flashes. The breadth of literature for the treatment of hot flashes is much smaller in men than that in women. While hormonal therapy of hot flashes has been shown to be effective, multiple non-hormonal medications and treatment methods have also been developed. This article reviews current options for the treatment of hot flashes in patients taking ADT.
doi:10.1038/aja.2011.101
PMCID: PMC3338189  PMID: 22286861
androgen deprivation therapy; hot flashes; vasomotor symptoms
25.  Non-Genetic Contributions of the Sperm Nucleus to Embryonic Development 
Asian journal of andrology  2010;13(1):31-35.
Recent data from several laboratories have provided evidence that the newly fertilized oocyte inherits epigenetic signals from the sperm chromatin that are required for proper embryonic development. For the purposes of this review, the term epigenetic is used to describe all types of molecular information that are transmitted from the sperm cell to the embryo. There are at least six different forms of epigenetic information that have already been established as being required for proper embryogenesis in mammals or for which there is evidence that it may do so. These are (1) DNA methylation, (2) sperm specific histones, (3) other chromatin associated proteins, (4) the perinuclear theca proteins, (5) sperm born RNAs, and, the focus of this review, (6) the DNA loop Domain organization by the sperm nuclear matrix. These epigenetic signals should be considered when designing protocols for the manipulation and cryopreservation of spermatozoa for ART, as necessary components for effective fertilization and subsequent embryo development.
doi:10.1038/aja.2010.75
PMCID: PMC3015006  PMID: 20953203
Sperm nuclear matrix; sperm DNA; embryogenesis

Results 1-25 (43)