The aim of the present study was to compare the short-term and 6-month clinical outcome, and survival in patients older than 60 years with ST-elevation myocardial infarction randomized to either primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) or thrombolysis.
Materials and Methods:
82 patients with STEMI older than 60 years were randomized to either primary PCI or thrombolysis from September 2006 to August 2008. Angiograms were reviewed by two interventionalists not involved in the study. Patients randomized to primary PCI received Aspirin and 600 mg Clopidogrel. Heparin was administered in conjunction with PCI. Patients randomized to thrombolysis received Aspirin followed by streptokinase infusion for one hour. Rescue PCI was considered if there was ongoing pain and ST-segment resolution was <50% at 90 min. after initiation of thrombolysis or chest pain recurred with ST-segment elevation within 24 hours. All patients were followed up for 6 months. End points were reinfarction and cardiac death using competing-risks regression estimation.
The mean time from hospital admission to start of streptokinase infusion was 31 ± 15 min and door to balloon time was 70 ± 25 min. There was no significant difference between the groups in the number of deaths and reinfarctions at 6 months. As expected, the fibrinolysis group had a higher rate of revascularization and heart failure.
The higher rates of heart failure and need for revascularization in the fibrinolysis group reinforces benefits of PPCI in patients older than 60 years. PPCI in those who are 60 years and above with AMI is safe and cost effective.
Acute myocardial infarction; fibrinolysis; primary percutaneous coronary intervention
The mitral valve is a complex structure that is altered by disease states. The classical image of the mitral valve is a bicuspid valve with two leaflets and two papillary muscles. The reason for the present study is to study the morphology and morphometry of the mitral valve.
Materials and Methods:
This study was carried out on 116 human cadaveric hearts. Hearts were opened along the left border through the atrioventricular valve. The diameter and circumference of the annulus was measured and the number of valve leaflets was observed.
The mean annular diameter was 2.22 cm. The mean circumference of mitral valve annulus was 9.12 cm. The standard description of the mitral valve is bicuspid. In the present study, we found the number of cusps to be variable, from monocuspid to hexacuspid and classified them accordingly.
The mitral valve is not always a bicuspid valve. The number of cusps varies greatly. An increase in the number of the cusp and their improper approximation most likely causes various valvular disorders.
Atrioventricular valve; leaflets/cusps; variation
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia after open heart surgery that can lead to early morbidity and mortality following operation. Mitral stenosis (MS) is a structural abnormality of the mitral valve apparatus that can be resulted from previous rheumatic fever or non-rheumatic fever such as congenital mitral stenosis, malignant carcinoid disease etc. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that type of mitral stenosis can affect the incidence, duration and frequency of AF post mitral valve replacement.
Materials and Methods:
We selected fifty patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and 50 patients with non-rheumatic mitral stenosis who were candidates for mitral valve replacement (MVR) surgery. Pre-operative tests such as CRP, ESR, CBC, UA, ANA, APL (IgM, IgG), ANCA, RF were performed on participants’ samples and the type of mitral stenosis, rheumatic or non-rheumatic, was determined clinically. Early post-operative complications such as infection, bleeding, vomiting, renal and respiratory dysfunction etc., were recorded. All patients underwent holter monitoring after being out of ICU to the time of discharge.
The mean age of patients was 48.56 ± 17.64 years. 57 cases (57%) were male, and 43 cases (43%) were female. Post-operative AF occurred in 14 cases (14%); 3 cases (6%) in non-rheumatic mitral stenosis group, and 11 cases (22%) in the rheumatic mitral stenosis group. There was a significant relationship between the incidence of AF and type of mitral stenosis (P = 0.02). Renal dysfunction after MVR was higher in rheumatic MS group than in non-rheumatic MS group (P = 0.026). There was no relationship between the type of mitral stenosis (rheumatic or non-rheumatic) and early mortality after mitral valve replacement (P = 0.8).
We concluded that the type of mitral stenosis affect post-operative outcomes, especially the incidence of atrial fibrillation and some complications after mitral valve replacement.
Atrial fibrillation; mitral stenosis; mitral valve replacement; valvular heart disease
Critical coronary stenoses accounts for a small proportion of acute coronary syndromes and sudden death. The majority are caused by coronary thromboses that arise from a nonangiographically obstructive atheroma. Recent developments in noninvasive imaging of so-called vulnerable plaques created opportunities to direct treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with these high-risk lesions. This review covers therapy employed in the past, present, and potentially in the future as the natural history of plaque assessment unfolds.
Atherosclerosis; intervention; pathogenesis; treatment; vulnerable plaque
A 51-year-old man was found to have left ventricular masses by transthoracic echocardiography, one attached to the posterior wall of the left ventricle and another attached to the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. He had several events of systemic embolization over the last few weeks. Surgical excision was recommended to avoid further embolization. The patient underwent successful resection of the left ventricular masses under cardiopulmonary bypass through the left atrial and transverse aortotomy approach. Histopathologic exam was diagnostic for organized thrombi.
Echocardiography; left ventricular mass; thrombus
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an unusual cause of acute coronary syndrome or sudden cardiac death. SCAD has most frequently been described as presenting as an acute coronary syndrome in females during the peripartum period. It may also be associated with autoimmune and collagen vascular diseases, Marfan's syndrome, chest trauma, and intense physical exercise. The most common presentation of SCAD is the acute onset of severe chest pain associated with autonomic symptoms. This condition has a high mortality rate if not identified and treated promptly. Here, we present a case of SCAD presenting with stroke, followed by a brief review.
Artery; coronary; dissection
One of the rarest congenital heart diseases that results from a defect between the main pulmonary artery and the proximal aorta is named aortopulmonary window (APW). Such abnormality could be isolated, but in fifty percent of patients may be associated with other cardiac abnormalities, including arch abnormalities, specifically coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch, tetralogy of fallot, and atrial septal defect (ASD). Surgical closure or catheter-delivered devices is recommended in all patients with APW and should be performed after diagnosis as soon as possible to prevent irreversible pulmonary vascular disease. In the current era, early mortality following repair of simple APW is low and depends on the presence of associated lesions, especially interrupted aortic arch. We report an 8-month-old boy with APW who was referred to our center by respiratory symptoms and heart murmurs.
Aortopulmonary window; congenital heart defects; Aortopulmonary septal defect
Gastrointestinal complications after open-heart surgery are rare but may increase mortality rate significantly. We are presenting a rare complication of liver laceration after coronary bypass operation. The patient is a 57-year-old man who underwent urgent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting operation (CABG). Liver laceration and free intra-peritoneal hemorrhage was discovered to be the result of chest tubes insertion, and resulted in drop of hemoglobin and hemodynamic instability. The hemorrhage was surgically controlled, and the patient made full recovery and was sent home. This case report emphasizes that when bleeding of unknown origin occurs after cardiac surgery, intra-abdominal bleeding should be considered.
CABG; myocardial revasularization; GI complications; liver laceration; chest tube complications
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a rare and usually physical or emotional stress-induced clinical disorder characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction and apical segment ballooning. Much is still unknown regarding risk factors and clinical relationships. Recently, an association between TC and malignancies has been proposed. We present a case of lung adenocarcinoma whose initial hospital admission was due to TC. We contribute this case report to the growing set of literature on the association between TC and malignancies.
Cardiac dysfunction; lung adenocarcinoma; takotsubo cardiomyopathy
We present a case of a young male with severe pulmonary stenosis, hypoplastic right ventricle, and atrial septal defect. Acute embolic myocardial infarction, followed by cardiac arrest, occurred during hospitalization after Glenn operation. The therapeutic challenges are discussed. Insufficient anticoagulation therapy during the postoperative period was a possible contributing factor leading to embolic myocardial infarction.
Congenital; embolism; myocardial infarction; paradoxical
Twiddler's syndrome, a rare but potentially lethal complication of cardiac pacemaker treatment, is generally diagnosed within the first year of implantation. It is characterized by device malfunction due to dislodgement of cardiac leads resulting from some form of manipulation by the patient. In this report we present a patient who was diagnosed Twiddler's syndrome within the initial 48 h of implantation of permanent pacemaker. In our case, passive fixation of ventricular lead perpetuated this situation and subsequent active fixation prevented any recurrence. Active fixations fixations of device leads are very much essential to prevent this catastrophic complication.
Pacemaker; Twiddler’ syndrome; Pacing leads
The middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare condition characterized by diffuse narrowing of the descending thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, or both. It can be congenital or acquired due to several conditions. We report an 8-year-old girl who developed middle aortic syndrome due to Takayasu arteritis.
Takayasu arteritis; middle aortic syndrome; descending aorta; abdominal aorta
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to be an effective therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor blockers reduce thrombotic complications in patients undergoing PCI. Most available data relate to Reopro, which has been registered for this indication. GP IIb/IIIa reduce unfavorable outcome in U/A and non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Only few studies focused on high dose Aggrastat for STEMI patients in the emergency department (ED) before PCI. The aim is to increase the patency during the time awaiting coronary angioplasty in patients with acute MI.
To study the effect of upfront high bolus dose (HDR) of tirofiban on the extent of residual ST segment deviation 1 hour after primary PCI and the incidence of TIMI 3 flow of the infarct-related artery (IRA).
Materials and Methods:
A randomized, open label, single center study in the ED. A total of 90 patients with acute ST-elevation MI, diagnosed clinically by ECG criteria (ST segment elevation of >2 mm in two adjacent ECG leads), and with an expectation that a patient will undergo primary PCI. Patients were aged 21-85 years and all received heparin 5000 u, aspirin 160 mg, and Plavix 600 mg. Patients were divided in two groups (group I: triofiban high bolus vs group II: Reopro) with 45 patients in each group. In group I, high bolus triofiban 25 mcg/kg over 3 min was started in the ED with maintenance infusion of 0.15 mcg/ kg/min continued for 12 hours and transferred to cath lab for PCI. Patients in group II were transferred to cath lab, where a standard dose of Reopro was given with a bolus of 0.25 mcg/kg and maintenance infusion of 0.125 mcg/kg/min over 12 hours.
ST segment resolution and TIMI flow were evaluated in both groups before and after PCI. Thirty-five patients (78%) enrolled in group I and 29 patients (64%) in group II had resolution of ST segment (P-value 0.24). Twenty-one patients (47% group I) vs 23 patients (51% group II) with P-value 0.83 achieved TIMI 0 flow. Twenty-four patients (53% group I) compared with 22 patients (49% group II) with P-value 0.83 had TIMI 1 to 3 flow before PCI. TIMI 3 flow was achieved in 40 patients (89% group I) compared with 38 patients (84% group II) with P-value 0.76.
In this study there was a trend toward better ST segment resolution and patency of IRA (i.e., improved TIMI flow) in patients given high bolus dose Aggrastat in the ED. Larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.
Abciximab; myocardial infarction; primary percutaneous coronary intervention; tirofiban
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study attempts to identify the factors responsible for atherosclerosis in CRF patients using carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis.
Materials and Methods:
CAIMT was measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography in 100 CRF patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Data were analyzed by software SPSS (17th version) for Windows.
CRF patients had a significantly higher CAIMT (1026.83 ± 17.19 micron, mean ± SE, P < 0.001) than age- and sex-matched healthy controls (722.46 ± 7.61 micron). There was inverse correlation between CAIMT and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (P < 0.001) independent of traditional risk factors. There was also significant positive correlation between CAIMT and traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) also showed positive correlation with CAIMT (P = 0.007) and inverse correlation with GFR (P = 0.005).
There is high prevalence of atherosclerosis in CRF patients. CAIMT can be used to detect and predict future incidence of IHD in CRF patients.
Atherosclerosis; carotid artery intima media thickness; chronic renal failure; ischemic heart disease; traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis
Enlarged left atrium predicts outcomes in patients with heart failure, atrial fibrillation and stroke. Left atrial volume especially when corrected for body size, is a more accurate representation of true LA size.
Aims and Objectives:
To study left atrial volume index in elderly patients with left ventricle anterior infarction and correlate LAVi with left ventricle ejection fraction and transmitral Doppler flow.
Materials and Methods:
Control group consisted of 25 healthy elderly subjects Study group consisted of age and sex matched patients with LV anterior infarction with history of characteristic ischaemic chest pain. Patients with valve lesions, large shunts and rythum disturbances were excluded. On transthoracic echocardiography biplane method of disks was used to calculate LA volume. LAVi was calculated by dividing LA volume by body surface area of subjects.
Observation and Results:
LAVi was significantly raised in elderly patients who suffered from AMI (P<0.005). We also found significant negative correlation of LAVi with LVEF, E wave peak velocity and deacceleration time.
Patients with advanced left venticular systolic and diastolic dysfunction had a significantly larger LAVi than healthy subjects. LAVi is useful for risk stratification and for guiding therapy in such patients.
Left atrium; left atrium volume index; left ventricle ejection fraction
Little is known about thrombolytic therapy patterns in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile and mortality of STEMI patients who arrived in hospital within 12 hours from pain onset and received thrombolytic therapy.
Patients and Methods:
This was a prospective, multinational, multi-centre, observational survey of consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to 65 hospitals in six Middle Eastern countries during the period between October 2008 and June 2009, as part of Gulf RACE-II (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Analyses were performed using univariate statistics.
Out of 2,465 STEMI patients, 66% (n = 1,586) were thrombolysed with namely: streptokinase (43%), reteplase (44%), tenecteplase (10%), and alteplase (3%). 22.7% received no reperfusion. Median age of the study cohort was 50 (45-59) years with majority being males (91%). The overall median symptom onset-to-presentation and door-to-needle times were 165 (95- 272) minutes and 38 (24-60) minutes, respectively. Generally, patients presenting with higher GRACE risk scores were treated with newer thrombolytic agents (reteplase and tenecteplase) (P < 0.001). The use of newer thrombolytic agents was associated with a significantly lower mortality at both 1-month (0.8% vs. 1.7% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.014) and 1-year (0% vs. 1.7% vs. 3.4%; P = 0.044) compared to streptokinase use.
Majority of STEMI patients from the Middle East were thrombolysed with streptokinase and reteplase in equal numbers. Nearly one-fifth of patients did not receive any reperfusion therapy. There was inappropriately long symptom-onset to hospital presentation as well as door-to-needle times. Use of newer thrombolytic agents in high risk patients was appropriate. Newer thrombolytic agents were associated with significantly lower mortality at 1-month and 1-year compared to the older agent, streptokinase.
Acute coronary syndrome; GRACE score; Middle East; mortality; reteplase; STEMI; streptokinase; tenecteplase; thrombolytic therapy
Cardiac complications are the primary cause of death in patients with b thalassemia major. QTc interval is an indicator of variability of ventricular repolarization and is supposed to be prominent in high risk patients. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between QTc interval in β thalassemia major in comparison with the control group.
Patients and Methods:
Sixty β thalassemia major and intermadia patients were enrolled in this analytical cross-sectional study. Thalassemia major and intermadia patients with no clinical symptoms of cardiac disease underwent echocardiographic and stress tests. QTc interval, blood pressure, heart rate, and average serum ferritin levels were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using version 15 SPSS.
Although there was no clinical or echocardiographic sign of cardiac disease and QTc intervals measured before the test were not significantly different between patients and control group (421.7 ± 29.6 vs. 412.4 ± 28.2, P = 0.06), we found that, during stress test, QTc intervals (452.7 ± 30.8 vs. 410.2 ± 26.2, P < 0.001) and heart rate (105 ± 15.1 vs. 89.7 ± 12.3, P < 0.001) were notably greater in β thalassemia major patients compared to the control group, respectively.
We found augmented QTc intervals in this group of thalassemia major patients who have neither clinical nor electrocardiographic and gross echocardiographic signs of cardiac disease. QTc interval can be helpful in the cardiac assessment of thalassemia major patients.
Exercise test; QT interval; β thalassaemia major
Giant left atrium is a rare condition, with a reported incidence of 0.3%, and following mainly rheumatic mitral valve disease. Although rheumatic heart disease represents the main cause of giant left atrium, other etiologies have been reported. Giant left atrium has significant hemodynamic effects and requires specific management. In this review, we present two cases, discuss the different definitions, etiologies, clinical presentation and management modalities.
Atrial fibrillation; atrial plication; compression; giant left atrium; maze procedure; rheumatic heart disease
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome, particularly seen in women during pregnancy or in the puerperium. It has a high acute phase mortality. The etiology is uncertain. Hormonal changes during pregnancy, hemodynamic stress and changes in the autoimmune status have been considered as possible etiological factors. A timely diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment is important for a successful outcome. There is no consensus of opinion for optimal treatment. Conservative management, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and percutaneous coronary intervention, all have been described in the literature as possible therapeutic options. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection should be considered as a differential in any young woman presenting with chest pain associated with pregnancy. We report two cases of pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection, both successfully managed, along with a comprehensive review of the previously published literature.
Acute coronary syndrome; pregnancy-associated coronary artery dissection; pregnancy-related myocardial infarction; spontaneous coronary artery dissection