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1.  Comparative pharmacognosy of Pashanbhed 
Pashanbhed is a commercially available diuretic and lithotropic drug, used to treat renal problems. It is a controversial name as it is assigned to various plants such as Bergenia ligulata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus aromaticus and Rotula aquatica.
To perform the comparative preliminary phytochemical screening, diuretic activity, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) finger printing profile of three plants (B. ligulata, C. aromaticus, and K. pinnata), most commonly used as Pashanbhed.
Materials and Methods:
Diuretic potential of methanolic extract (ME) of three plants were evaluated at two dose levels (500 and 1,000 mg/kg p.o.), using normal Wistar rats (Lipschitz method). Furosemide (20 mg/kg p.o.) was used as a standard drug. The effect on urine output and electrolyte changes were measured for 24 h and compared. All MEs were screened preliminarily for their constituents and their TLC finger printing profiles were prepared. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The MEs of all three plants have shown diuresis in normal rats. However, in intercomparison of the ME C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o.) produced more significant diuresis (P < 0.05) and electrolyte excretion compared to other test groups, the effect was at par with furosemide. The ME of these plants showed presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, etc.
The ME of C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o.) has showed highest diuretic action (4.2) among the tested extracts. This suggests the use of C. aromaticus leaves as “Pashanbhed”; the most effective diuretic drug.
PMCID: PMC4061584  PMID: 24948861
Bergenia ligulata; coleus aromaticus; diuretic; kalanchoe pinnata; pashanbhed
2.  A randomized controlled clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation 
Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease.
In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum on dental plaque, gingival inflammation and comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine and normal saline (placebo).
Materials and Methods:
A triple blind randomized control trial was conducted among volunteered medical students. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: (1) Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 36); (2) Chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 36); (3) normal saline (negative control) (n = 36). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of both mouthwash. ANOVA (Analysis of variance) and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 17. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to control group.
The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. It has no side effect as compared to chlorhexidine.
PMCID: PMC4061585  PMID: 24948862
Chlorhexidine; gingival index; Ocimum sanctum; plaque index
3.  Efficacy of a standardized herbal preparation (Roidosanal®) in the treatment of hemorrhoids: A randomized, controlled, open-label multicentre study 
Catechins and epicatechins are monomers of naturally occurring proanthocyanidins, which have been reported with free radical scavenging, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, and vasodilatory properties. Plant parts rich in proanthocyanidins have been used for years in treatment of various ano-rectal diseases. This study compares the efficacy of two herbal preparations, Daflon® 500 mg and Roidosanal®, in ameliorating the signs and symptoms associated with hemorrhoids.
To evaluate the safety and to compare the efficacy of a herbal preparation, Roidosanal® versus Daflon® 500 mg, on signs and symptoms of hemorrhoidal disease.
Materials and Methods:
In this pilot, active controlled, open-labeled multicentre study, 73 patients with proctoscopy proven hemorrhoids (Grade I to III) were randomly assigned to receive either Roidosanal® (Gr R; n = 37) or Daflon® 500 mg (Gr D; n = 36), for 15 days, at three centers in India. Assessment of hemorrhoidal symptoms was carried out in all patients at different time points. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed for both primary and secondary endpoints.
Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Both products were found to be equally effective in improving the ano-rectal conditions in Grade I and Grade II hemorrhoids; however, Roidosanal® demonstrated better efficacy in patients with Grade III hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids associated symptoms like bleeding, pain, etc., improved in both groups, although intergroup comparisons were comparable.
Both Roidosanal® and Daflon® 500 mg were equally effective in resolving signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids. Roidosanal® can be tried as a safe and effective treatment option for treatment of hemorrhoids. Further randomized, double-blind and large multicentre studies are recommended.
PMCID: PMC4061586  PMID: 24948863
Bleeding; catechins; flavonoids; hemorrhoids; proctoscopy
4.  Pigment reduction in nevus of Ota following leech therapy 
Nevus of Ota is a congenital blue-gray color nevus afflicting unilaterally, the area near the eyes. It poses a huge cosmetic concern besides being a potential threat for developing melanoma sometime in the course of the disease. The treatment options are neither many nor promising besides they are too expensive. We have treated a case of nevus of Ota with leech therapy where leech was applied upon the lesion for five times spanned in a period of 2 months. The results in terms of change in the color of lesion were evaluated with the help of serial photographs following every treatment session to mark the level of color changes in the lesion. A substantial reduction in color of the nevus was reported following the completion of the therapy. The results were demonstrated with the photographs. Although, recommended as the classical Ayurvedic management for skin diseases, leech therapy is not reported earlier in such conditions. It proposes a novel approach to deal with such congenital pigment lesions where other options are not promising.
PMCID: PMC4061587  PMID: 24948864
Ayurveda; hyperpigmentation; leech therapy
9.  Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit 
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni) fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by ‘Isolation-induced aggression’ model, sedation by ‘Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer’ and hypnotic activity by ‘Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time’. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007). Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 ± 10.74, 123.16 ± 8.33, and 196.67 ± 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 ± 12.98, 49 ± 5.78, and 92 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001). Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 ± 0.22, 1.23 ± 0.05, and 2.23 ± 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 ± 0.59, 56.03 ± 1.34, and 50.57 ± 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans.
PMCID: PMC4061592  PMID: 24948855
Herb; noni; sleep
10.  Does copper enhance the antihypertensive effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus in experimentally induced hypertensive rats? 
Ayurveda, one of the traditional systems of medicine of India, reports that the seeds of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Linn. (Tilaceae) can be used for the treatment of hypertension. The main aim is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudraksha) seeds. Powdered seeds were extracted by maceration, overnight, using water, in copper (E1) and glass vessel (E2) and analyzed for antihypertensive activity in cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, for a period of 15 days) induced hypertensive male Wistar rats at three dose levels. E1 was administered at the dose of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg and E2 at dose of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg. All the data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison test. E1 and E2 did not show any toxicity at the dose of 5 g/kg in rats. It was found that 15 mg/kg of E1 and 30 mg/kg of E2 decreases the blood pressure by 30.20 mmHg and 28.96 mmHg, respectively, in hypertensive rats. Thus, it can be said that 15 mg/kg of E1 produced similar decrease in blood pressure as was observed with 30 mg/kg of E2. Copper ions in E1 might be additively affecting the reduction in blood pressure with the usage of Elaeocarpus ganitrus extracts.
PMCID: PMC4061593  PMID: 24948856
Ayurveda; cadmium chloride; copper; hypertension; rudraksha
11.  A review on balya action mentioned in Ayurveda 
Medicinal and dietary substances have been used for various purposes including nutritional from time immemorial. Various activities such as immunomodulator, bulk promoting, nutritional, etc. that enhance strength, immunity, bulk of the body resulted by the use of medicinal or dietary substances are termed in total as Balya in Ayurveda. The term Balya originally stands for all those actions that enhance the “Bala”. The word “Bala” refers to the strength and ability of the body or part of the body to cope up with various physical stressors. This term “Bala” refers to various body components and functions as per the science of Ayurveda. Even in the presence of modern scientific knowledge regarding body strength, Ayurveda concepts add varied dimensions to provide detailed explanation of Balya term. The balya action is critically analyzed and discussed in this review.
PMCID: PMC4061594  PMID: 24948857
Ayurveda; Bala; Balya; kapha; mamsa
12.  Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method 
Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita.
To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method).
Materials and Methods:
Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance.
Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation.
The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.
PMCID: PMC4061595  PMID: 24948858
Ayurveda; Docosahexaenoic acid; ghrita; Omega-3 fatty acids; traditional method
13.  Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice 
Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice.
Materials and Methods:
The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test), convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).
Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2) significant muscle relaxant activity; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4) a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5) a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6) increased levels of NE and 5-HT.
This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain.
PMCID: PMC4061596  PMID: 24948859
Anti-anxiety; anticonvulsant; Ficus carica; muscle-relaxant; neurotransmitters; sedative-hypnotic
14.  Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats 
Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties.
Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg) treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ‘analysis of variance’ test followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with significant level of P < 0.05.
Results and Discussion:
Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group.
Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property.
PMCID: PMC4061597  PMID: 24948860
Anti-hyperlipidemic; anti-oxidant; Glucova Active Tablet; Type I and Type II diabetic model
15.  Salutary Path for Progress 
PMCID: PMC4012355  PMID: 24812468
16.  Anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, Aloe vera, and Cashew leaf on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly 
With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective.
PMCID: PMC4012356  PMID: 24812470
Aloe vera; candida; cashew leaves; denture cleanser; Triphala Churna
17.  Prakriti and its associations with metabolism, chronic diseases, and genotypes: Possibilities of new born screening and a lifetime of personalized prevention 
Ayurveda is one of the oldest health sciences of the world with concepts of tridosha and prakriti being core philosophies. These core concepts allow implementation of ways for not only personalized medicine and treatment but also personalized prevention. In the light of modern or current science, evidence has surfaced connecting the concepts of tridosha and prakriti with metabolic pathways, chronic diseases, and various genotypes. Such evidence has thrown up insights about the universality of Ayurvedic concepts as well as their apparent association with concepts in current science. This review was undertaken to consolidate the evidence of such associations which exist between prakriti and metabolic systems, chronic diseases, and genotypes with the objective that a case can be made for drawing out the clear linkages that might exist for prakritis being distinct phenotypes representing certain genotypes. A corollary to such discoveries can be the possibility of newborns being screened for their prakriti by genetic testing, which will enable the prevention of various chronic diseases for such children via the implementation of various dietary, lifestyle, and habitual changes, as required, from an early age. This implementation of preventive practices from an early age may result in such children leading healthy, disease-free, more productive lives. Thus, eventually, this can be an opportunity to practice personalized preventive health, which is not a possibility in other systems of medicine especially western systems of medicine. Personalized preventive health is one step further than personalized medicine and is a very novel idea with far-reaching implications.
PMCID: PMC4012357  PMID: 24812471
Ayurgenomics; newborn screening; personalized prevention; prakriti; Tridosha
18.  Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on diabetes induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification 
Delayed fetal skeletal ossification is one of the known complications of maternal diabetes.
The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) on diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification.
Materials and Methods:
Female Wistar rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg, intraperitonial) before mating. After confirmation of pregnancy, the pregnant rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, diabetic control group, and diabetic + CQ group. The diabetic + CQ group pregnant rats were treated with PECQ (500 mg/kg body weight) throughout their gestation period. Immediately after delivery, pups were collected from all three groups and processed for alizarin red S–alcian blue staining in order to examine the pattern of skeletal ossification.
Fewer ossification centers and decreased extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones were observed in the neonatal pups of diabetic control group as compared to those in the normal control group. PECQ pretreatment significantly restored the ossification centers and improved the extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones in the neonatal pups of diabetic + CQ group as compared to those in the diabetic control group.
The results suggested that PECQ treatment is effective against diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. However, further studies on the isolation and characterization of active constituents of PECQ, which can cross the placental barrier and are responsible for the bone anabolic activity are warranted.
PMCID: PMC4012358  PMID: 24812472
Alizarin red-alcian blue; Cissus quadrangularis; maternal diabetes; ossification centers; skeletal ossification; streptozotocin
19.  Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat 
The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka.
The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals.
Materials and Methods:
The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1st, 4th, 8th, 14th, 17th, and 21st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days.
The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant.
The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained.
The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners.
PMCID: PMC4012359  PMID: 24812473
Arthritis; Holoptelea integrifolia; Plumbago zeylanica; traditional formulation
20.  Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka 
Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka.
To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model.
Materials and Methods:
Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice.
Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered.
It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.
PMCID: PMC4012360  PMID: 24812474
Gastric acid; misoprostol; mucus content; Piper betle
21.  Insights from Ayurveda for translational stem cell research 
Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Ayurveda therapies are based on restoration of body balance and nourishment of dhatus or tissues. Rasayana concept of Ayurveda explains tissue regeneration and cell renewal. The drugs and therapies explained as rasayana provide research opportunities for biology of regeneration. Specific rasayana stimulate and nourish respective dhatus. Interpretation of this description offers clues for specific differentiation of stem cells with appropriate extract. The preliminary experiments on Medhya drugs suggest neuronal stem cells differentiation. Authors highlight the potential of Ayurveda and its possible contributions in regenerative medicine. Authors propose a protocol based on integrative approach derived from Ayurveda concepts and current understanding of regenerative medicine. The advanced understanding about adult and embryonic stem cells along with concepts of regeneration in Ayurveda has immense potential in the development of regenerative medicine.
PMCID: PMC4012361  PMID: 24812469
Ayurveda; rasayana; stem cells
22.  Immunophenotyping of normal individuals classified on the basis of human dosha prakriti 
Human variations related to immune response and disease susceptibility is well-documented in Ayurveda. Prakriti (body constitution) is the basic constitution of an individual established at the time of birth and distinguishes variations, into three broad phenotype categories such as vata, pitta and kapha. Variation in immune response is often attributed to and measured from the difference in cluster differentiation (CD) markers expressed in lymphocytes. Currently, there are no reports available on the expression of CD markers related to prakriti.
This is a pilot study performed to evaluate a panel of lymphocyte subset CD markers in dominant prakriti individuals.
Materials and Methods:
Immunophenotyping was carried out using whole blood from a total of healthy 222 subjects, who are grouped into kapha (n = 95), pitta (n = 57) and vata (n = 70) prakritis. CD markers such as CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD25, CD56, CD69, CD71 and HLA-DR were analyzed using flow cytometry method. Differences between groups were analyzed using one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparisons between groups were performed by Bonferroni or Mann-Whitney U test with corrections for type I error respectively. Significance was evaluated by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation.
We observed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the expression of CD markers such as CD14 (monocytes), CD25 (activated B cells) and CD56 (Natural killer cells) between different prakriti groups. CD25 and CD56 expression was significantly higher in kapha prakriti samples than other prakriti groups. Similarly, slightly higher levels of CD14 were observed in pitta prakriti samples.
Significant difference in the expression of CD14, CD25 and CD56 markers between three different prakriti is demonstrated. The increased level of CD25 and CD56 in kapha prakriti may indicate ability to elicit better immune response, which is in conformity with textual references in Ayurveda.
PMCID: PMC4012362  PMID: 24812475
Cluster differentiation 14; cluster differentiation 25; cluster differentiation 56; immunophenotyping; prakriti
23.  The short-term effect of gloving in combination with Traditional Thai Massage, heat, and stretching exercise to improve hand mobility in scleroderma patients 
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic, multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by autoimmune activation, microvascular endothelium damage, and excessive collagen proliferation. The most affected hand presents claw hand deformity and microvascular disease. Deformed hands can cause functional disability and decrease the quality of life. A daily home program can improve mobility of scleroderma patients.
We sought to determine the effect of a daily home exercise program on hand mobility among scleroderma patients.
Materials and Methods:
This was a randomized control trial. Twenty-eight participants were divided into two groups, both of which received the same daily home treatment: Group 1 with gloves (n = 14) and Group 2 without gloves (n = 14). The 2-week daily home program combined traditional Thai massage (TTM) with stretching exercises and heat. Hand mobility was assessed using hand mobility in scleroderma (HAMIS). The study was conducted in patients who were already on vasodilator drugs.
Both groups showed a significant improvement in hand mobility after 2 weeks of daily home exercise program (P < 0.05). Wearing the glove, however, resulted in better thumb mobility.
A daily home exercise program improved hand mobility among patients with scleroderma and wearing gloves may improve thumb mobility.
PMCID: PMC4012363  PMID: 24812476
Glove; systemic sclerosis; stretching exercises; traditional Thai massage; wearing gloves
24.  Rehabilitative potential of Ayurveda for neurological deficits caused by traumatic spinal cord injury 
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with worst outcomes and requires a prolonged rehabilitation. Ayurvedic indigenous methods of rehabilitation are often utilized to treat such conditions. A case of SCI was followed up for 3 months upon an Ayurvedic composite intervention and subsequently reported. The composite treatment plan involved Ayurvedic oral medications as well as a few selected external and internal pancha karma procedures. A substantial clinical and patient centered outcome improvement in existing neurological deficits and quality of life was observed after 3 months of the Ayurvedic treatment given to this case.
PMCID: PMC4012364  PMID: 24812477
Practice-based evidence; patient centered outcome; quadriplegia; rehabilitation; spinal cord injury
25.  Katupila (Securinega leucopyrus) as a potential option for diabetic wound management 
In acute and chronic wounds, Katupila (Securinega leucopyrus) (Willd.) Muell is a commonly used folklore remedy in Sri Lanka and Saurashtra region of India. We report a case of Madhumehajanya Dushta Vrana (chronic diabetic wound) that was treated with local application of S. leucopyrus in paste form once daily. Wound healed within a month with normal pigmentation and minimal scar. This case also demonstrated possible antimicrobial potential in the treatment of Dushta Vrana.
PMCID: PMC4012365  PMID: 24812478
Diabetic wound; Dushta Vrana; Katupila; Securinega leucopyrus

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