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1.  Recent advances in ocular drug delivery system 
PMCID: PMC4215476  PMID: 25364691
2.  Comparing the satisfaction and efficacy of Cyclofem and contraceptive pills among females in Northern Iran: A randomized controlled trial study 
Hormonal contraceptives are the most effective method for birth control, though they may have some default or complications. This research aimed to comparison of the efficacy and satisfaction of Cyclofem with oral contraceptives (OCs) among females. A descriptive-comparative method was conducted on 80 women who were selected through cluster sampling during November 2011-December 2012. The selected subjects start using OCs or Cyclofem for the 1st time in their life. They evaluated in 2 times frames, at the beginning of the study and then 3 and 6 months after the contraceptive precautions. The data were collected by questionnaire. The data were analysed using parametric and nonparametric test in SPSS 16 software. The reasons for discontinuation of the methods were varied, in which 50% of the sample group were Cyclofem users who discontinued because of menstrual changes and the desire to use other methods, and 50% were the OC users whose reason was medical problems, and absent-mindedness was the last reason for 35.7% of the cases. The efficacy of the both (OCs and Cyclofem) was high and only one unwanted pregnancy occurred at the end of the 6th month among OC users. There was no significant difference in term of satisfaction of two groups at the end of 3-6 months (PV = 0.433). The results indicated that Cyclofem can be well used by those women who desire for an easy and effective method which is not disturbing the sexual activity and does not also need to be used daily, but the users should be consulted before using the method.
PMCID: PMC4215477  PMID: 25364692
Combined oral contraceptive pills; Cyclofem; efficacy; satisfaction
3.  Ciprofloxacin monoolein water gels as implants for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis: In vitro characterization 
This work investigated the possibility of using the biodegradable gentamicin-monoolein-water gels as models, in order to obtain a similar sustained release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride. Four gels containing antibiotics were prepared and were examined with regard to their physicochemical properties and in vitro drug release characteristics. Ciprofloxacin, unlike gentamicin, which was dissolved in the matrix, was in dispersed form. However, despite its insolubility, microscopic observation, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction showed that the developed gel was in the cubic liquid crystalline structure and have maintained their ability to progressively release ciprofloxacin. ciprofloxacin-monoolein-water (5:80:15% w/w), which released in vitro approximately 85% of ciprofloxacin after 16 days could possibly be considered as an alternative to a gentamicin-monoolein-water gel for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.
PMCID: PMC4215478  PMID: 25364693
Ciprofloxacin; in vitro characterization; liquid crystalline; monoolein; sustained release
4.  Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells 
Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages.
PMCID: PMC4215479  PMID: 25364694
Cinnamaldehyde; Cinnamomum cassia; J774A.1 cells; lipopolysaccharide
5.  Natural polyphenols down-regulate universal stress protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An in-silico approach 
Universal stress protein (USP) is a novel target to overcome the tuberculosis resistance. Our present study enlightens the possibilities of some natural polyphenols as an antioxidant for USP. The study has shown some molecular simulations of some selected natural antioxidants with USP. We have considered USP (Rv1636) strain for homology modeling and the selected template was taken for the docking study. Curcumin, catechin, reservetrol has shown ARG 136 (1.8Å) hydrogen bonding and two ionic bonding with carboxyl group of curcumin with LEU 130 (3.3Å) and ASN 144 (3.4Å) respectively. INH was taken for the standard molecule to perform molecular simulation. It showed poor binding interaction with the target, that is, −5.18 kcal, and two hydrogen bonding with SER 140 (1.887Å), ARG 147 (2.064Å) respectively. The study indicates possible new generation curcumin analogue for future therapy to down-regulate USP.
PMCID: PMC4215480  PMID: 25364695
Isoniazid; polyphenols; Rv1636; universal stress protein
6.  In vitro evaluation of anticancer potentials of lupeol isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. on MCF-7 cell line 
Lupeol is a triterpenoid, present in most of the medicinally effective plants and possess a wide range of biological activity against human diseases. The present study aims at evaluating the anticancer potentials of lupeol, isolated from the leaves of Elephantopus scaber L. and thereby explores its action on key cancer marker, Bcl-2. The effect of lupeol on the cell viability of MCF-7 was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays at different concentrations. The efficacy of the compound to induce cell death was analyzed using AO/EtBr staining. Phase contrast microscopic analysis provided the changes in cell morphology of the compound treated normal breast cells (MCF-10A) and MCF-7 cells. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins in the normal, cancer and lupeol treated cancer cell was analyzed by western blotting. Lupeol induced an effective change in the cell viability of MCF-7 cells with IC50 concentration as 80 μM. Induction of cell death, change in cell morphology and population of the cancer cells was observed in the lupeol treated cells, but the normal cells were not affected. The compound effectively downregulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expressions, which directly contribute for the induction of MCF-7 cell apoptosis. Conclusion: Thus, lupeol acts as an anticancer agent against MCF-7 cells and is a potent phytodrug to be explored further for its cytotoxic mechanism.
PMCID: PMC4215481  PMID: 25364696
Anti-apoptotic protein; apoptosis; cell death; lupeol
7.  Quercetin declines plasma exposure of metoprolol tartrate in the rat model 
The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of Metoprolol tartrate. A single dose in vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried out in rat models. In this study, rats were treated with quercetin (10 mg/kg) and metoprolol tartrate (20 mg/kg) orally and blood samples were collected 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 12 h post treatment. Plasma concentration of metoprolol tartrate was estimated using reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography method. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12) of metoprolol has significantly (P < 0.001) decreased by 9.8 times in the metoprolol and quercetin combination group (9434.65 ± 3525.02) when compared with AUC0-12 metoprolol of metoprolol-alone treated group (962.17 ± 242.81). AUC0-∞ of metoprolol has significantly (P < 0.001) decreased by 14.9 times in the combination group (16670.79 ± 12129.06) in comparison to AUC0-∞ of metoprolol of metoprolol-alone treated group (1113.68 ± 441.83). the results obtained herein indicate that quercetin remarkably declines the plasma exposure of metoprolol when concomitantly administered by oral route.
PMCID: PMC4215482  PMID: 25364697
Bioavailability; metoprolol tartrate; organic cation transporter-2; p-glycoprotein; pharmacokinetics; quercetin
8.  Pasteurization as a tool to control the bio-burden in solid herbal dosage forms: A pilot study of formulating Ashoka tablets with an industrial perspective 
Irradiation and use of preservatives are routine procedures to control bio-burden in solid herbal dosage forms. Use of steam or pasteurization is even though reported in the literature, not many studies are available with respect to its application in reducing the bio-burden in herbal drug formulations. Hence, we undertook a series of studies to explore the suitability of pasteurization as a method to reduce bio-burden during formulation and development of herbal dosage forms, which will pave the way for preparing preservative-free formulations. Optimized Ashoka (Saraca indica) tablets were formulated and developed. The optimized formula was then subjected to pasteurization during formulation, with an aim to keep the microbial count well within the limits of pharmacopoeial standards. Then, three variants of the optimized Ashoka formulation - with preservative, without preservative and formulation without preservative and subjected to pasteurization, were compared by routine in-process parameters and stability studies. The results obtained indicate that Ashoka tablets manufactured by inclusion of the pasteurization technique not only showed the bio-burden to be within the limits of pharmacopoeial standards, but also exhibited the compliance with other parameters, such as stability and quality. The outcome of this pilot study shows that pasteurization can be employed as a distinctive method for reducing bio-burden during the formulation and development of herbal dosage forms, such as tablets.
PMCID: PMC4215483  PMID: 25364698
Decontamination of herbs; microbial quality control; pasteurization; preservative-free; Saraca indica; stability studies
9.  Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial, and pharmacological evaluation of some 2, 5-disubstituted sulfonyl amino 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives 
The presence of heterocyclic structures in diverse types of compounds, this is strongly indicative of the profound effect like structure exerts on physiologic activity, and recognition of this is abundantly reflected in efforts to find useful synthetic drugs. The search for better pharmacological active drug and the importance of disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole as active pharmacophores, prompted us to design, synthesize, characterize, and evaluate a series of differently substituted sulfonyl amino 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole for their potential antimicrobial, analgesic and antiinflammatory activity, respectively. New sulfonyl amino 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized by intramolecular cyclization of thiosemicarbazide in alkaline medium. Reactions were carried out by the reaction between aromatic carbonyl halide and thiosemicarbazide.
PMCID: PMC4215484  PMID: 25364699
1,3,3,4-oxadiazole; 4-thiadiazole; semicarbazide; sulphonyl amino 1; thiosemicarbazide
10.  Nanotechnology: The vision of 2025 
PMCID: PMC4131398  PMID: 25126529
11.  Role of pharmacists in retailing of drugs 
PMCID: PMC4131399  PMID: 25126530
12.  Method development and validation of liquid chromatography-tandem/mass spectrometry for aldosterone in human plasma: Application to drug interaction study of atorvastatin and olmesartan combination 
In the present investigation, a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of aldosterone (ALD) a hormone responsible for blood pressure in human plasma. The developed method was validated and extended for application on human subjects to study drug interaction of atorvastatin (ATSV) and olmesartan (OLM) on levels of ALD. The ALD in plasma was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with 5 mL dichloromethane/ethyl ether (60/40% v/v). The chromatographic separation of ALD was carried on Xterra, RP-Column C18 (150 mm× 4.6 mm × 3.5 μm) at 30°C followed by four-step gradient program composed of methanol and water. Step 1 started with 35% methanol for first 1 min and changed linearly to 90% in next 1.5 min in Step 2. Step 3 lasted for next 2 min with 90% methanol. The method finally concluded with Step 4 to achieve initial concentration of methanol that is, 35% thus contributing the total method run time of 17.5 min. The flow rate was 0.25 mL/min throughout the process. The developed method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, stability, linearity, sensitivity, and recovery. The method was linear and found to be acceptable over the range of 50-800 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied for the drug interaction study of ATSV + OLM in combination against OLM treatment on blood pressure by quantifying changes in levels of ALD in hypertensive patients. The study revealed levels of ALD were significantly higher in ATSV + OLM treatment condition when compared to OLM as single treated condition. This reflects the reason of low effectiveness of ATSV + OLM in combination instead of synergistic activity.
PMCID: PMC4131400  PMID: 25126531
Aldosterone; atorvastatin; drug interaction; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; olmesartan
13.  Multi criteria decision making to select the best method for the preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles of rasagiline mesylate using analytic hierarchy process 
The objective of this study was to select best method for the development of rasagiline mesylate (RM) loaded nanoscale solid lipid particles using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Improper method selection may lead to waste of time, loss of material and financial resources. One of the possibilities to overcome these difficulties, AHP was employed to find the suitable method. In the AHP, a decision of hierarchy was constructed with a goal, criteria, sub-criteria, and alternatives. After constructing the AHP, the expert choice software was used to compute the overall priority of criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. The best alternative selected was based on the highest priority. Nanoscale solid lipid particles of RM was formulated by the selected microemulsion method (M4) and it shows the particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential were within acceptable limits. Drug content and entrapment efficiency of the RM-solid lipid nanoparticles were 97.26% and 86.57%, respectively. This study concludes that the AHP was viable and effective tool for selecting a most suitable method for the fabrication of RM loaded nanoscale solid lipid particles.
PMCID: PMC4131401  PMID: 25126532
Criteria; desirability; dynamic sensitivity analysis; hierarchy
14.  Comparative antidiarrheal and antiulcer effect of the aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of Tinospora cordifolia in rats 
Tinospora cordifolia is indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The use of plant as remedy for diarrhea and ulcer is well-documented in Ayurvedic system of medicine. However, pharmacological evidence does not exist to substantiate its therapeutic efficacy for the same. The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and antiulcer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia in rats. The antidiarrheal activity of T. cordifolia extracts was evaluated by castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea using parameters such as onset of diarrhea, number of wet stools, total number of stool and weight of total number of stools. The antiulcer activity of extracts was investigated using ethanol and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer. Furthermore, tissue antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation level were also investigated. Tinospora cordifolia extracts were more efficacious in reducing number of total stools in both the models of diarrhea and showed a dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect. The antiulcer activity of the extracts was confirmed by a reduction in ulcer index along with the decrease in gastric volume, total acidity, and an increase in pH of gastric content in both the models. The obtained results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folkloric use of the T. cordifolia as antidiarrhoeal and antiulcer agent.
PMCID: PMC4131402  PMID: 25126533
Antidiarrheal; antiulcer; pylorus ligation; Tinospora cordifolia
15.  Evaluation of analgesic activity of perindopril in albino mice 
The aim was to evaluate the analgesic activity of perindopril in chemical, thermal and mechanical pain on Swiss albino mice. A total of 54 albino mice (Swiss strain) weighing 25-30 g were allocated to each experimental model and in each model there were three groups. The control group received normal saline (25 ml/kg) per orally, standard group received pentazocine (10 mg/kg) intra-peritoneal and test groups received perindopril (1 mg/kg) per orally. Perindopril and normal saline was administered 2 h before, whereas the pentazocine was administered 15 min prior to Eddy's hot plate, writhing and tail clip methods. The decrease in number of writhes, the delay in reaction time in tail clip and Eddy's hot plate method denoted the analgesic activity. Perindopril decreased the number of writhes, delayed the reaction time in tail clip and Eddy's hot plate method considerably when compared with control (normal saline), but less when compared with standard (pentazocine). Perindopril exhibits analgesic activity in thermal, chemical, and mechanical pain models in albino mice.
PMCID: PMC4131403  PMID: 25126534
Angiotensin II; angiotensin (1-7); endogenous opioid and prostaglandin E2
16.  Pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract with hydrochlorothiazide against ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced myocardial infarction 
Globally, the rate of development of myocardial diseases and hypertension is very common, which is responsible for incremental morbidity and mortality statistics. Treatment of ischemic hypertensive patients with diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) can precipitate myocardial infarction due to hypokalemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of green tea extract (GTE) with HCTZ against ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial toxicity. Wistar albino rats of either sex were taken and pretreated with high (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and low (100 mg/kg, p.o.) dose of GTE for 30 days. Standard, high and low dose of interactive groups received HCTZ (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for last 7 days. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by modified Lagendorff apparatus, and the effect of different treatments was evaluated by percentage recovery in terms of heart rate and developed tension, serum biomarkers, and heart tissue antioxidant levels. Prophylactic treatment groups, such as high and low dose of GTE and their interactive groups with HCTZ, exhibited significant percentage recovery in terms of heart rate and developed tension. Apart from that, significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase, decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive species in heart tissue, as well as significant decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase-MB and N-acetylcysteine levels have also been documented. The present findings clearly suggest that GTE dose-dependently reduces myocardial toxicity due to ischemia, and combination with HCTZ can reduce the associated side-effects and exhibits myocardial protection.
PMCID: PMC4131404  PMID: 25126535
Antioxidant; biomarker; green tea extract; hydrochlorothiazide; ischemic-reperfusion injury
17.  Role of different biodegradable polymers on the permeability of ciprofloxacin 
Since permeability across biological membranes is a key factor in the absorption and distribution of drugs, drug permeation characteristics of three oral suspensions of ciprofloxacin were designed and compared. The three suspensions of ciprofloxacin were prepared by taking biodegradable polymers such as carbopol 934, carbopol 940, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). The permeability study was performed by using a Franz diffusion cell through both synthetic cellulose acetate membrane and excised goat gastrointestinal membranes in acidic as well as alkaline pH. To know the permeability of drug from control/formulations through different membranes in acidic/alkaline pH, cumulative percentage drug permeation, apparent permeability (Papp), flux, and enhancement ratio (ER) were calculated. Considering Papp and flux values of all formulations, it is evident that formulation containing HPMC was the most beneficial for improving permeation and diffusivity of ciprofloxacin even after 16 h. Hence, this preparation may be considered as the most suitable formulation to obtain prolonged release action of the drug. The ER values of all formulations, through excised goat intestinal mucosal membrane in alkaline pH, were higher than those formulations through goat stomach mucosal membrane in acidic pH. Enhancement ratio values of those formulations indicate that the permeability of the drug was more enhanced by the polymers in the intestinal part, leading to more bioavailability and prolonged action in that portion of the gastrointestinal tract. It may also be concluded from our results that HPMC containing formulation was the best suspension, which may show effective controlled release action. Even carbopol containing formulations might also produce controlled release action.
PMCID: PMC4131405  PMID: 25126536
C934; C940; ciprofloxacin; hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; permeability
18.  A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for determination of curcumin in aqueous humor of rabbit 
This article describes a simple and rapid method for determination of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) in aqueous humor of rabbit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis was performed using a C-18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ luna) by isocratic elution with a mobile phase containing 25 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (pH 3.5): Acetonitrile (40:60) and detection at 424 nm using a photodiode array (PDA) detector for curcumin. The regression data for curcumin showed a good linear relationship with r2> 0.998 over the concentration range of 0.1-10 μg ml−1. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for the intraday and interday coefficient of variations for the assay were less than 5.0 and 8.5, respectively. The recovery of the method was between 79.8-83.6%. The quantification limit of the method for curcumin was 0.01 μg ml−1. This method has good accuracy, precision, and quantitation limit. It is also concluded that the method is useful for measuring very low curcumin concentrations in aqueous humor.
PMCID: PMC4131406  PMID: 25126537
Aqueous humor; curcumin; high-performance liquid chromatography; rabbit
20.  New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam 
Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future.
PMCID: PMC4065466  PMID: 24959414
Fumariaceae; homaira; homoiridolide; kshetra; phenolic ester glycoside; pitpapra
21.  Novel extraction and application of okra gum as a film coating agent using theophylline as a model drug 
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction and application of okra gum as an aqueous film coating agent. Powdered okra pods dispersed in demineralized water was heated at 80 ± 2oC for 30 minutes in the presence of sodium chloride. The filtrate was successively centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 30, 60, or 120 minutes and freeze dried. The samples were used as film former at different concentrations in aqueous film coating operations. Near infrared (nIR) absorption spectra, photomicrographs, and some physicochemical properties of the coated tablets were evaluated. The okra gum samples had different nIR spectra and possessed good processing and application quality due to relatively low viscosity. A six-fold concentration of this gum from the novel extraction yielded glossy theophylline tablets within a short time. A t (18) = 2.895, P < 0.005, t critical = 1.734 were obtained for the independent analysis of the hardness of core and coated theophylline tablets. A 3.0% concentration of the okra samples at a flow rate of 3 ml/min for 100 minutes showed that F = 3.798, DF = 29, P < 0.035, F critical = 3.354 in tablet hardness among samples and F = 15.632, DF = 29, P < 0.0001, F critical = 2.152 were obtained on film thickness among tablet samples during the coating and drying operation. Novel extraction process enhanced the film coating potential of okra gum by delivering more solids on the substrate at a shorter time with improved operation efficiency.
PMCID: PMC4065467  PMID: 24959415
Application; film former; laboratory coater; okra gum; extraction method; viscosity
22.  Neuro, cardio, and reno protective activities of rosuvastatin in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats undergoing treatment with metformin and glimepiride 
Diabetes is associated with complications like neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and retinopathy due to increased oxidative stress and serum lipids. In the present study, rosuvastatin, a HMG-CoA inhibitor, was investigated for its protective effect in neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy based on the lipid-lowering property along with its pleiotropic effects such as improved blood flow to the organ and antioxidant defense. Type 2 diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single i.p. administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). These diabetic rats were treated with daily doses of rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg) alone, metformin (120 mg/kg) and glimepiride (1 mg/kg) and rosuvastatin in combination with metformin (120 mg/kg) and glimepiride (1 mg/kg) for a period of 6 weeks. The biochemical parameters involved in neuropathy, renopathy, and cardiopathy were estimated. Treatment resulted in significant (P < 0.05) decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increase in levels of glutathione peroxidise and catalase in brain and kidney homogenates. Significant (P < 0.05) increase in high-density lipoproteins and decrease in creatinine kinase, triglycerides, total serum cholesterol represents the cardioprotective action, whereas significant (P < 0.05) increase in the latency in the hotplate model shows the neuroprotective activity, and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine levels and increase in serum total protein levels suggested the renoprotective actions. The unique properties of rosuvastatin such as antioxidant defense and lipid-lowering nature might have resulted in cardio, neuro, and renoprotective activity in type 2 diabetic rats treated with metformin and glimepiride.
PMCID: PMC4065468  PMID: 24959416
Cardiomyopathy; diabetes; nephropathy; neuropathy; serum proteins
23.  Development of novel risperidone implants using blends of polycaprolactones and in vitro in vivo correlation studies 
The objective of this study was to develop a novel implant containing risperidone intended for long-term treatment in Schizophrenia utilizing in vitro in vivo correlation (IVIVC) studies. Different implants (F1-F8) containing an antipsychotic drug, risperidone, were prepared using a hot melt extrusion technique by taking polycaprolactones of different molecular weights (Mwt. 15000, 45000, 80000) either alone or as their blends, and PLGA (75:25). The implants contained 40% of the drug. After fabrication, the implants were characterized for various in vitro properties such as drug release and physical strength. Prior to conducting drug release studies, optimum drug release method was developed based on IVIVC studies. An optimized formulation based on drug release and physical strength at the end of fabrication was selected from the various implants fabricated. The bioactivity, reversibility, and IVIVC of optimized formulation were determined using pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Short-term stability studies were conducted with optimized formulation. Drug release depended on polymer molecular weight. Implant fabricated using 50:50 polycaprolactone 45,000 and polycaprolactone 80,000 was considered optimized implant. Optimized formulation selected released the drug for 3-months in vitro and was physically rigid. The optimized implant was able to release the drug in vivo for a period of 3 months, the implants are reversible throughout the delivery interval and, a 100% IVIVC was achieved with optimized implant, suggesting the development of 3-month drug-releasing implant for risperidone. The optimized implant was stable for 6 months at room temperature (25°C) and 45°C. A novel implant for risperidone was successfully prepared and evaluated.
PMCID: PMC4065469  PMID: 24959417
Implant; in vitro in vivo correlation; removability; risperidone; schizophrenia; stability
24.  Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives 
In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl)-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k) was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl)-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6) with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents.
PMCID: PMC4065470  PMID: 24959418
Antimicrobial screening; fused heterocycles; triazolothiadiazines
25.  Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia 
The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR) and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH), sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches. Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia.
PMCID: PMC4065471  PMID: 24959419
Buccal; carvedilol; folding endurance; tachycardia

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