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1.  Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea severity index and left ventricular function and volume 
Annals of Saudi medicine  2012;32(4):384-390.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, including systemic arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart rhythm and conduction disorders, heart failure and stroke. In our study, we aimed to assess left ventricular mass and myocardial performance index (MPI) in OSA patients.
DESIGN AND SETTING
A cross-sectional study conducted between May 2007 and August 2009 in a tertiary hospital in Istanbul, Turkey.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Forty subjects without any cardiac or pulmonary disease referred for evaluation of OSA had overnight polysomnography and echocardiography. According to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), subjects were classified into three groups; mild OSA (AHI: 5–14/h; n=7), moderate OSA (AHI: 15–29/h; n=13), and severe OSA (AHI: ≥30/h; n=20). The thickness of the interventricular septum (IVS) and left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW) were measured by M-mode along with left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVM index (LVMI). The left ventricular MPI was calculated as (isovolumic contraction time + isovolumic relaxation time)/aortic ejection time by Doppler echocardiography.
RESULTS
No differences were observed in age or body mass index among the groups, but blood pressures were higher in severe OSA compared with moderate and mild OSA. In severe OSA, the thickness of the IVS (11.6 [1.7 mm]), LVPW (10.7 [1.7 mm]), LVM (260.9 [50.5 g]), and LVMI (121.9 [21.1 g/m2]) were higher than in moderate OSA (9.4 [1.3 mm]; 9.9 [1.6]; 196.4 [35.2]; 94.7 [13.2 g/m2], respectively) and mild OSA (9.8 [2.4 mm], 8.9 [2.0 mm], 187.6 [66.2 g], 95.8 [28.6 g/m2], respectively). In severe OSA, MPI (0.8 [0.2]) was significantly higher than in mild OSA (0.5 [P<.01]) but not significantly higher than moderate OSA (0.8 [0.1]).
CONCLUSIONS
OSA patients have demonstrable cardiac abnormalities that worsen with the severity of apnea. The MPI may have utility in subsequent OSA studies, possibly as a surrogate outcome measure.
PMCID: PMC3821963  PMID: 22705609
2.  Food Advertisements: To Ban or Not to Ban? 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):567-568.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87089
PMCID: PMC3221124  PMID: 22048498
3.  Antenatal screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):569-572.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study investigates the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
A retrospective study at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh from September 2009 to August 2010.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Laboratory data of 2176 pregnant women screened for Toxoplasma gondii in the antenatal care unit were assessed during the study period. The mean (SD) age of the women and the duration of pregnancy were 25 (7.3) years and 18 (7.7) weeks, respectively. Data were extracted for the presence or absence of anti-T gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies.
RESULTS:
Of 2176 sera tested, 1351 (62%) did not show any evidence of exposure to T gondii. The remaining 825 (38%) samples tested positive for anti-T gondii IgG antibodies, and none was found to have anti-T gondii IgM antibodies in the serum. These data reveal that a significantly high number of women in the antenatal care unit at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh had been exposed to T gondii.
CONCLUSION:
A high prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women warrants multicenter community-based investigations for assessment of T gondii infection and identification of risk factors for transmission of toxoplasmosis in general, and particularly during pregnancy.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87090
PMCID: PMC3221125  PMID: 22048499
4.  Assessment of hepatitis B immunization status after antineoplastic therapy in children with cancer 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):573-576.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Hepatitis B is a disease that is preventable with vaccination. Antibody levels after vaccination may be affected by suppression of the immune system due to cancer therapy. Children with cancer have a high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We aimed to assess the pretreatment immunization status against HBV infection and the rate of continuity of immunization after therapy in children with cancer.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
Retrospective case review of patients treated from 2004 to 2008.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
We reviewed the medical records of patients treated in the departments of pediatric hematology and oncology and collected data on immunization history and hepatitis B serology. Anti-HBs antibody titers were compared before and after treatment.
RESULTS:
This study included 159 (99 males, 60 females) children who had a serologic examination. Antineoplastic therapy had been given for acute leukemia (n=66), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=27), Hodgkin lymphoma (n=20), and solid tumors (n=46). Fifty-one patients had not been immunized against HBV prior to the therapy; HBV serology was negative in 49 of these patients and HBsAg was positive in 2 patients. Anti-HBs antibody positivity was present in 99 of 108 patients with an immunization history, whereas no vaccination response was present in 9 patients. The titer of anti-HBs antibody was decreased below the protection level in 33 (33%) patients with positive anti-HBs antibody, whereas the protection level was found to be maintained in 66 (67%) patients. The most significant decrease (63.6%) was observed in leukemia patients. Posttreatment HBsAg and HBV DNA positivity was detected in two of the patients with negative pretreatment serology, whereas no HBV infection developed in the group with positive anti-HBs antibody.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study demonstrated the importance of routine childhood vaccination in reducing the risk of HBV infection in patients with cancer.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87091
PMCID: PMC3221126  PMID: 22048500
5.  Success rate and neonatal morbidities associated with early extubation in extremely low birth weight infants 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):577-580.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Mechanical ventilation improves survival of preterm infants with respiratory failure. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate and short-term neonatal morbidities of early extubation in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in a tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
DESIGN AND SETTING:
Retrospective cohort study of ELBW infants admitted to a tertiary. neonatal intensive care referral unit from January 1st to December 31st, 2005.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
The primary outcome was the success rate of early extubation in ELBW infants who were intubated at delivery, extubated in the first 48 hours of life, and did not require reintubation within 72 hours following extubation.
RESULTS:
Thirty of the 95 eligible infants were extubated early; of these 30 infants, 24 (80%) had a successful extubation. Infants extubated early had a higher mean birth weight (855 vs 745 g; P<.0001) and gestational age (27.3 vs 25.6 weeks; P<.0001). ELBW infants who were extubated early had lower rates of death (relative risk [RR], 0.05; 95% CI, (0.0, 0.79); P=.003), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (RR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.70; P=.008), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60, 0.98; P=.03) compared with those who remained ventilated beyond the first 48 hours of life.
CONCLUSION:
The rate of successful early extubation in our unit exceeded the sole previously reported rate. Successful early extubation was associated with lower rates of death, IVH, and PDA in ELBW infants.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87092
PMCID: PMC3221127  PMID: 22048501
6.  Short-term outcome of very low-birth-weight infants in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):581-585.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Published data on short-term outcomes of very low birth weight infants from Saudi Arabia are limited. In the present study, our objective was to describe and analyze the outcomes of very low birth weight infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit and to compare the results with data published by the National Institute of Child Health and Development.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
This study was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a single tertiary care center over a three years period.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Biodemographic data and data regarding multiple outcome measures were analyzed for infants with birth weight of 1500 g or less. Data were obtained from our neonatal intensive care unit database.
RESULTS:
Our results included a total of 186 infants with birth weights of 1500 g or less. Of these infants, 154 (82.8%) survived to discharge. Seventy-six (40.9%) were male, and mean (SD) gestational age (GA) was 29 (2.9) weeks with a range of 21 weeks, 6 days to 36 weeks, 2 days. Mean (SD) birth weight was 1062 (302) g with a range of 420 to 1495 g. Fifty-seven (30.6%) infants were characterized as small for gestational age. Antenatal steroids were given to 74.2% of mothers. Eighty-five percent of infants were born by cesarean section. The rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 17.7%, patent ductus arteriosus 31.2%, intraventricular hemorrhage 12.9%, periventricular leukomalacia 3.8%, necrotizing enterocolitis 7.5%, retinopathy of prematurity 28.3%, and late-onset sepsis was 21.9%.
CONCLUSION:
In this population of very low birth weight infants, survival rates and complications of prematurity were comparable to international data.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87093
PMCID: PMC3221128  PMID: 22048502
7.  β2-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms in normal and asthmatic individuals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):586-590.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Several polymorphisms of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) gene have been identified, including the amino acid substitution from arginine (Arg) to glycine (Gly) at codon 16 and from glutamine (Gln) to glutamic acid (Glu) at codon 27. These substitutions affect receptor function and show significantly more agonist-promoted receptor down-regulation than cells expressing the Arg 16/Gln 27 variants. Although the ethnic dependency of this polymorphism has been described in other populations, no studies investigating its relationship to asthma have been conducted in the Saudi population . Therefore, our main objective was to determine the prevalence of these two mutations among patients with asthma in the Eastern Province and in matched healthy controls.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
A case-control study conducted at a university hospital among Saudi patients
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Blood samples were collected from 73 asthmatic patients and from 85 controls, and the β2-AR gene polymorphisms at codon 16 and codon 27 were assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism.
RESULTS:
Although a significant difference was observed in genotype frequencies at codon 16 (Arg/Gly) between the asthmatic and normal control subjects (P<.05), no statistically significant difference was observed in allele frequencies between the two groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in genotype and allele frequencies at codon 27 (Gln/Glu) between the normal (control) and asthmatic groups (β2=0.75, P>.68). Using the THESIAS statistical program, no significant association of any haplotype with asthma was found.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our findings indicate a poor association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms with asthma. However, further study is required to ascertain the interactions of different haplotypes and the response of patients with different haplotypes to various treatments.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87094
PMCID: PMC3221129  PMID: 22048503
8.  Home caregivers’ satisfaction with the services provided by Riyadh Military Hospital's home support program 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):591-597.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The satisfaction of the family is essential to the success of home care support services. This study aimed to assess home caregivers’ satisfaction with support services and to identify potential factors affecting their satisfaction.
DESIGN AND SETTINGS:
The study was conducted in the Family and Community Medicine Department at Riyadh Military Hospital using cross-sectional design over a period of six months.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Two hundred forty participants were recruited by systematic random sampling from the division registry. Data were collected through telephone calls using a designed structured interview form. All research ethics principles were followed.
RESULTS:
The response rate was 76.25%. Most caregivers were patients’ sons or daughters. The duration of patients’ disabling illnesses varied from less than 1 year to up to 40 years. The majority of caregivers agreed that a home care services team provided the proper healthcare-related support to the patients and improved caregivers’ self-confidence in caring for their patients. Overall, on a scale of 100%, the median level of satisfaction was 90%, and 73.2% of caregivers had a satisfaction score of 75% or higher. Increased age, female gender, and more frequent home visits were positive independent factors associated with caregivers’ satisfaction scores.
CONCLUSION:
Although most caregivers are satisfied with the services provided by a home care support program, there are still areas of deficiency, particularly in physiotherapy, vocational therapy, and social services. The implications are that caregivers need to be educated and trained in caring for their patients and need to gain self-confidence in their skills. The program's administration should improve physiotherapy, vocational therapy, social services, and procedures for hospital referral.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87095
PMCID: PMC3221130  PMID: 22048504
9.  The effect of uterine blood supply cutoff during myomectomy 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):598-601.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Myomectomy is considered a highly morbid procedure due to the risk of high intraoperative blood loss. Meticulous surgical techniques can reduce operative morbidity. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the intraoperative blood loss between two surgical techniques: 1) the uterine vascular cutoff technique and 2) the classical technique.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
Retrospective chart review conducted between 1 July 2008 until 30 June 2010 in a tertiary care referral center to compare surgical outcomes of two groups.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
The sample included 136 patients: 30 patients had their surgeries performed with the uterine vascular cutoff technique, and the remainder (106 patients) had myomectomies performed with the classical technique. The uterine vascular cutoff technique was performed by the same surgeon for all 30 patients, whereas myomectomy with the classical technique was performed by several gynecologists.
RESULTS:
There was no significant difference between the two groups in parity and operation time; however, patients in the first group had a statistically significant higher mean age (39.1 [7.6] vs 35.8 [6.9] years; P=.025) and, on average, bigger fibroid size by gestational week (20.1 [7.3] vs 17 [5.2] weeks; P=.0094), with standard deviation shown in parentheses. There was a statistically significant lesser drop in hemoglobin concentration among patients in the first group (1.23 [1.2] vs 2.25 [1.4] g/dL; P=.0003), and the postoperative hemoglobin was significantly higher in the first group (10.5 [1.6] vs 9.7 [1.7] g/dL; P=.036). The hospital stay was shorter for patients in the first group (5.8 [1.7] vs 7.1 [2.9] days; P=.031).
CONCLUSION:
The vascular cutoff technique leads to less intraoperative blood loss without increasing the operative time, patients tolerate this technique very well, and the technique is associated with shorter hospital stay, all of which could contribute to less postoperative morbidity.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87096
PMCID: PMC3221131  PMID: 22048505
10.  Influence of vitamin D levels on bone mineral density and osteoporosis 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):602-608.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The effects of vitamin D on bone mass remain to be understood. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on bone mineral density (BMD) among Saudi nationals.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
Cross-sectional study carried out at university hospital from 1 February 2008 to 31 May 2008.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
Healthy Saudi men and women in the peak bone mass (PBM) age group and those aged ≥50 years were recruited from the outpatient department of King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between February 1, 2008, and May 31, 2008. Patient age and sex were documented, and body mass index was calculated. Hematological, biochemical, and serum 25OHD tests were performed. BMD was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the upper femur and lumbar spine. Patients were divided into three groups, based on their 25OHD level.
RESULTS:
Data from 400 patients were analyzed. Among individuals with a normal 25OHD level, 50% of women and 7% of men in the PBM age group and 26.4% of women and 49.2% of men aged ≥50 years had low bone mass. In patients with 25OHD insufficiency, 84.2% of women and 88.9% of men in the PBM age group and 83.3% of women and 80% of men aged ≥50 years had low bone mass. Results for patients with 25OHD deficiency revealed that none of the men and women in the PBM age group or ≥50 years old had normal BMD. Significant positive correlations between 25OHD level and BMD and significant negative correlations with parathyroid hormone were shown in most of the groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study showed that the vitamin D level significantly influences BMD reading among Saudi individuals. Evaluation and treatment of hypovitaminosis D should be considered during management of low bone mass.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87097
PMCID: PMC3221132  PMID: 22048506
11.  Can the duration of vomiting predict postoperative outcomes in hypertrophic pyloric stenosis? 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):609-612.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is a common cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) in infants. Prolonged GOO is believed to result in acid and electrolyte disturbances, gastric atony, and delayed postoperative recovery. We studied the impact of prolonged vomiting as an indicator of GOO symptoms on the post-operative outcomes in HPS.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
A retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent pyloromyotomy at a tertiary care center between February 1997 and February 2009.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
The duration of pre-operative vomiting was correlated with presenting electrolytes and acid-base balances, postoperative time to full feed, postoperative morbidity and duration of hospitalization.
RESULTS:
Forty-seven patients were identified. At presentation, the median (range) for duration of symptoms was 14 (3-60) days, and surgeries were performed at 2 (0-6) days after admission. Apart from one case of postoperative wound infection, all patients had an unremarkable recovery. The unusually prolonged duration of vomiting in our cohort did not correlate with the mean (SD) preoperative chloride level of 93.9 (8.8) mEq/L, mean (SD) pH level of 7.5 (0.9), mean postoperative time to full feeding of 31 (15.1) hours, or mean duration of hospitalization of 5.1 (2.2) days.
CONCLUSION:
Duration of vomiting in HPS at presentation does not seem to have a significant impact on the postoperative outcomes.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87098
PMCID: PMC3221133  PMID: 22048507
12.  Knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dyes among females visiting a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):613-619.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Use of hair dye is extremely common worldwide. However, our literature search failed to find studies concerning the knowledge and attitudes of the public with regard to hair dyes. We sought to explore the knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dye among females.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
A cross-sectional survey conducted on females who attended various outpatient clinics at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a tertiary referral hospital open to the general public.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A self-administered questionnaire about the use of hair dyes was distributed randomly among females attending the outpatient clinics at a university hospital in 2008.
RESULTS:
The response rate was 87.2%, with completion of 567 of the 650 distributed questionnaires. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 32.0 (10.2) years. Among respondents, 82.6% (464/562) had at some point dyed their hair. Furthermore, 69.3% (334/482) had dyed their hair in the past 12 months. The mean (SD) age of the participants when they first dyed their hair was 22.2 (7.1) years (range, 7-50). Of the participants, 76.8% (354/461) used permanent dyes, and about the same percentage of participants believed such dyes were the safest hair dye type. However, 52.4% (278/531) of the participants believed that hair dyes are harmful, and 36% (191/531) believed that hair dyes could cause cancer. Younger females tend to dye their hair less frequently (P<.001), whereas those with less education tend to dye their hair more frequently (P=.013).
CONCLUSION:
Use of hair dye is very common among females. Because the practice starts at a very young age, we conclude that hair dyes are overused and misused. The public should be informed about the risks associated with excessive hair dye use.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87099
PMCID: PMC3221134  PMID: 22048508
13.  Prevalence of depressive disorders in the elderly 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):620-624.
Community-based mental health studies have revealed that the point prevalence of depressive disorders in the elderly population of the world varies between 10% and 20%, depending on cultural situations. A retrospective study based on analysis of various study reports was conducted, to determine the median prevalence rates of depressive disorders in the elderly population of India and various other countries in the world. All the studies that constituted the sample were conducted between 1955 and 2005. Included are only community-based, cross-sectional surveys and some prospective studies that had not excluded depression at baseline. These studies were conducted on a homogenous community of the elderly population in the world, who were selected by a simple random sampling technique. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria on published and indexed articles, 74 original research studies that surveyed a total of 487 275 elderly individuals, in the age group of 60 years and above, residing in various parts of the world, were included for the final analysis. The median prevalence rate and its corresponding interquartile range were calculated. The chi-square test and chi-square for linear trend were applied. A P value of <.05 was considered as statistically significant. The median prevalence rate of depressive disorders in the world for the elderly population was determined to be 10.3% (interquartile range [IQR], 4.7%-16.0%). The median prevalence rate of depression among the elderly Indian population was determined to be 21.9% (IQR, 11.6%–31.1%). Although there was a significant decrease in the trend of world prevalence of geriatric depression, it was significantly higher among Indians, in recent years, than the rest of the world.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87100
PMCID: PMC3221135  PMID: 22048509
14.  Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy: Techniques, Interpretation, Indications and Reporting 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):625-634.
Myocardial perfusion single photon emission-computed tomography (MPS) has been one of the most important and common non-invasive diagnostic cardiac test. Gated MPS provides simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion and function with only one study. With appropriate attention to the MPS techniques, appropriate clinical utilization and effective reporting, gated MPS will remain a useful diagnostic test for many years to come. The aim of this article is to review the basic techniques of MPS, a simplified systematic approach for study interpretation, current clinical indications and reporting. After reading this article the reader should develop an understanding of the techniques, interpretation, current clinical indications and reporting of MPS studies.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87101
PMCID: PMC3221136  PMID: 22048510
15.  Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready? 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):635-640.
Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87102
PMCID: PMC3221137  PMID: 22048511
16.  Right hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysm with hemobilia following minilaparotomy cholecystectomy: A rare complication 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):641-643.
Hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysm with hemobilia occurs less frequently as a complication of minilaparotomy cholecystectomy than laparoscopic cholecystectomy; however, given its severe nature, it needs to be managed promptly. This report presents a case of right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm with hemobilia in a 36-year-old woman who underwent minilaparotomy cholecystectomy 5 weeks earlier. Angiography with embolization was carried out as definitive treatment.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87103
PMCID: PMC3221138  PMID: 22048512
17.  Three cases of macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):644-647.
The macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (MFPTC) is a well-established entity with characteristic large follicles containing pale colloid and lined by cells with nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In this study, we present three cases of MFPTC, along with a brief review of the literature. For all three of our cases, the histology of the resected specimen showed predominantly macrofollicular structures lined by cells with nuclear characteristics of PTC. Immunohistochemically, the three cases show positivity for galactin-3, cytokeratin-19, and HBME-1. These cases will help us in understanding the distinction from other benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid, which is of utmost importance. The key to diagnosis is a high-power examination of any macrofollicular lesion of the thyroid.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87104
PMCID: PMC3221139  PMID: 22048513
18.  Percutaneous coronary intervention in two patients with a solitary coronary artery from the right coronary sinus of Valsalva 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):648-650.
Two patients with a common coronary artery arising from the right sinus of Valsalva, who underwent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention following an acute coronary syndrome, are presented. The anatomic description based on previously published classification schemes is described. The clinical implications of this rare coronary anomaly and interventional considerations are addressed.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87105
PMCID: PMC3221140  PMID: 22048514
19.  Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in a 15-year-old girl of Tunisian origin 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):651-654.
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disease. It has numerous and complex etiologies. Inherited or acquired prothrombotic states play a key role in the development of this disease, such as factor V G1691A mutation (FV Leiden). A 15-year-old girl presented to the Department of Neurology with a complaint of severe headache with visual blurring. The diagnosis of CVT was not initially suspected because of the patient's condition on presentation. An MRI showed thrombosis in the superior sagittal sinus, confirming venous stroke. Anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies were assessed. In addition, inherited prothrombotic defects, such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiencies, and genetic mutations for FV Leiden, prothrombin gene G20210A (FII G20210A), and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T) were studied. All results were unremarkable except for the unique homozygous FV Leiden mutation, which likely contributed to this prothrombotic situation. This study highlights the fact that FV Leiden may play a significant role in the onset of CVT in young patients.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87106
PMCID: PMC3221141  PMID: 22048515
20.  Single-port laparoscopic splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):655-656.
Laparoscopic splenectomy has been performed with an average of 4 trocars since the early 1990s, and it has become the gold standard for elective splenectomy. Recently, single-port laparoscopic (SPL) surgery has emerged as an alternative to multiport laparoscopy, but SPL splenectomy in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has not been reported to date in Saudi Arabia or the region. A case report of SPL splenectomy in a patient with ITP is briefly described along with the surgical technique needed for such a procedure. The patient was an otherwise healthy 24-year-old female woman with medically refractory ITP and a platelet count of 2200. A standard splenectomy was performed using a SPL technique. The patient did well intraoperatively and postoperatively, was happy with her incision, and was discharged home with no complications 3 days after the procedure. In conclusion, SPL splenectomy is feasible in select patients and may provide a less painful, cosmetically better alternative.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87107
PMCID: PMC3221142  PMID: 22048516
21.  Reply to Comment on Ahmad et al. Ann Saudi Med 2011;31:24-8 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):657.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.84908
PMCID: PMC3221143  PMID: 22048517
22.  Recurrent abdominal pain and bloody ascites 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(6):657-658.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.87108
PMCID: PMC3221144  PMID: 22048518

Results 1-25 (366)