This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TA) on the intra-operative bleeding during the functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in children.
A total of 100 children recruited to undergo FESS were randomized into two groups. Group I: Was given just after induction, intra-venous 25 mg/kg TA diluted in 10 ml of normal saline. Group II: Was given 10 ml of normal saline. Non-invasive blood pressure, heart rate, and quality of the surgical field were estimated every 15 min. Volume of bleeding and duration of the surgical procedure were recorded.
Surgical field quality after 15 min revealed that seven patients in group I had minimal bleeding versus no one in group II, P=0.006. Meanwhile, 35 patients in group I had mild bleeding versus 26 patients in group II, P=0.064. Higher number of patients in group II than in group I had moderate bleeding, P=0006. Also, at 30 min, revealed that 10 patients in group I had minimal bleeding versus one patient in group II, P=0.004. Meanwhile, 37 patients in group I had mild bleeding versus 28 patients in group II, P=0.059. Higher number of patients in group II than in group I had moderate bleeding, P<0001. Duration of the surgeries and volume of bleeding were significantly less in tranexamic group than the placebo group, P<0.0001.
Single intra-venous bolus dose of tranexamic in children during the FESS improves quality of surgical field, reduces intra-operative bleeding, and duration of surgery.
Children; functional endoscopic sinus surgery; tranexamic acid
The pleth variability index (PVI), which is calculated from respiratory variations in the perfusion index (PI), has been shown to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients; however, vasomotor tone changes induced by hypercapnia can affect PI and hence may slim down the accuracy of PVI. This study was designed to find out the impact of mild hypercapnia on PVI.
A total of 30 patients were randomized after induction of general anesthesia with target controlled infusion propofol and remifentanil to either hypercapnia, (etCO2 =45 mmHg), (group 1, 15 patients) or normocapnia (etCO2 =35 mmHg) (group 2, 15 patients). After a stabilization period of 10 min, patients were crossed over to the other intentional level of etCO2. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), PI, PVI were collected at the end of each stabilization period.
Patient characteristics and baseline values of HR, MAP, PI and PVI were comparable between the groups. Carryover effect was statistically excluded. Hypercapnia significantly increased PI and decreased PVI with significant negative correlation.
Hypercapnia retracts back PVI values compared with normocapnia. Precise judgment of fluid responsiveness as indicated by PVI necessitates its comparison against similar etCO2 levels.
Hypercarpnia; perfusion index; pleth variability index
To analyze different factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing Two Stage Esophagectomy (TSE) for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma (EC) while relating these factors to the length of stay on Intensive Care Unit (ILOS), mortality, and morbidity.
Retrospective study of case-notes of 45 patients who underwent a TSE for resection of EC at a general district hospital in the United Kingdom (UK). These procedures were performed by the same surgical team and followed same approach, known as the Ivor-Lewis procedure.
The duration of One Lung Ventilation (OLV) during TSE was found to be critical for patient's outcome. Statistical analysis suggested a potentially strong effect of the duration of OLV (range: 90-320 minutes) on the ILOS (P=0.001). The ratio OLV: Total duration of surgery (TOT) was significantly different in early post-operative (PO) deaths (within 3 months) and late deaths after the third month (P=0.032). The POSSUM value (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for Enumeration of Mortality) correlated well with ILOS (P=0.05). Regression analysis showed a strong relationship between the two variables (P=0.03). An excellent to good quality of PO analgesia allowed for shorter ILOS (P=0.023).
Duration of the OLV appears as an important factor in the outcome of patients. POSSUM value could help in planning the post-operative critical care need of patients undergoing TSE. A well managed post-operative pain allowed to reduce the ILOS.
Intensive care unit; Intra-operative fluid therapy; length of stay; major surgery; one lung ventilation; post-operative analgesia; thoracic epidural analgesia; two-stage esophagectomy
The Truview EVO2 blade facilitates the view of vocal cords by indirect laryngoscopy and does not require the proper alignment of the oral, pharyngeal and tracheal axes as with the Macintosh blade.
In a crossover fashion, we prospectively compared the view obtained at laryngoscopy with Truview EVO2 and the Macintosh blade in 110 adult patients of either sex between the age of 18 and 60 years, who were scheduled to undergo general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. The patients were intubated with the second laryngoscope. The preoperative airway variables, laryngoscopic view, difficulty of intubation scale (IDS) score, duration of intubation, and degree of difficulty percentage of glottic opening (POGO score) of use with each laryngoscope were compared.
The IDS score was low and comparable between the two laryngoscopes. The laryngeal view was easy; Modified Cormack Lehane (MCL) grade 2a or less in 98.14% of the cases with the Truview laryngoscope compared to 78.7% of the cases with the Macintosh laryngoscope. Nineteen patients of MCL grade 3, one patient of grade 2b, and seven patients of grade 2a view with the Macintosh laryngoscope had MCL grade 1 view with the Truview laryngoscope. The duration of intubation was comparable between Truview and Macintosh laryngoscopes (12.1±3.8 s vs. 10.9±2.1 s).
Truview laryngoscope performed comparably to Macintosh laryngoscope in patients with normal airway; however, the Truview laryngoscope may be a better option in difficult airway situations when the Macintosh blade fails to show the glottic opening.
Difficult airway; intubation difficulty scale score; laryngoscopic view; Macintosh laryngoscope; Truview EVO2
Hyperbaric ropivacaine produce more reliable sensory and motor block, with faster onset, better quality of muscles relaxation than isobaric ropivacaine. So, this study was designed to compare the efficacy of hyperbaric ropivacaine with isobaric ropivacaine in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery.
A randomized controlled double blind study in two groups of patients. group A (n=35) received 3 ml of isobaric ropivacaine 6 mg/ml (18 mg). Group B (n=35) received 3 ml of hyperbaric ropivacaine 6 mg/ml (18 mg). The onset and duration of sensory block at dermatome level T10, maximum upper and lower spread of sensory block, intensity, and duration of motor block were recorded.
Block characteristics were compared using the two-tailed Mann – Whitney U-test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test.
The median time of onset of sensory block at the T10 dermatome was 4.4±1.3 min in group B and 6.0±1.03 min in group A. The median time to maximum block height was 16.7±3.7 min in group A and 12.03±1.96 min in group B. The median duration of complete motor recovery (B0) was significantly shorter in the heavy ropivacaine group (166.5±11.7 min) compared with the isobaric ropivacaine group (192.9±9.6 min).
Intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine provides more rapid, adequate, and good quality of sensory and motor block with rapid post-operative recovery as compare to isobaric ropivacaine.
Hyperbaric ropivacaine; intrathecal injection; isobaric ropivacaine; lower abdominal surgery
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a frequent complication of middle ear surgery. Ondansetron has been shown to be effective for early PONV and dexamethasone has been shown to be effective for late PONV. Therefore, a combination of dexamethasone and ondansetron is commonly used for middle ear surgery. This study was conducted to compare the combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone with ramosetron for early and late PONV up to 48 h after middle ear surgery.
One hundred and twenty adults scheduled for middle ear surgery were allocated to receive either dexamethasone 8 mg and ondansetron 4 mg (n=60) or ramosetron 0.3 mg (n=60). General anesthesia with inhalation agents was used for all the patients. The incidence and severity of PONV, administration of rescue antiemetic, and the side effects of the antiemetic were documented during the first 48 h after surgery.
The incidence of nausea was significantly lower in the dexamethasone and ondansetron group compared to the ramosetron group between 2 and 24 h. The complete response, which is patients with no nausea or vomiting, was significantly more in dexamethasone and ondansetron group compared to ramosetron group between 2 and 24 h and between 24 and 48 h (76% vs. 56%, P=0.02, 93% vs. 81%, P=0.05, respectively). Overall, complete response was more in dexamethasone and ondansetron group compared to ramosetron group (71% vs. 40%, P=0.01).
The combination of dexamethasone and ondansetron is superior to ramosetron for prevention of PONV after middle ear surgeries.
Dexamethasone; middle ear surgery; ondansetron; postoperative nausea and vomiting; ramosetron
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a unique diagnostic and therapeutic procedure performed in high risk patients in prone/semi-prone position. Propofol based deep sedation has emerged as the method of choice however, the ability to predict possible complications is yet un-explored.
The present study aimed to evaluate known high risk-factors for general anesthesia (American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, body mass index (BMI), and Mallampati class) for their ability to affect outcomes in ERCP patients.
Retrospective data of 653 patients who underwent ERCP during a period of 26 months at university hospital of Pennsylvania was reviewed. Patient-specific and procedure specific data was extracted. Desaturation was defined by fall of pulse oximeter saturation below 95% and its relation to patient specific high risk-factors was analyzed.
Only 45 patients had transient de-saturation below 95% without any residual sequlae. No statistically significant relation between desaturation episodes and patients higher ASA status or BMI or modified Mallampati (MMP) class was found. Despite 60% patients being ASA III/IV none required emergency intubation or procedural interruption. Optimal oxygenation and airway patency was maintained with high degree of success using simple airway maneuvers or conduit devices (nasal/oral trumpet) with oxygen supplementation in all patients.
Unlike general anesthesia, pre-operative patient ASA status, higher MMP or increasing BMI does not bear relation with likelihood of patients desaturating during ERCP. In presence of vigilant apnea monitoring and careful dose titration of maintenance anesthetics with airway conduits, general anesthesia, emergency intubations, and procedure interruptions can be avoided.
Airway in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography anesthesia; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography desaturation; risk predictors endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
To compare two different doses of propofol for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion in children undergoing out-patient surgeries.
Insertion of LMA just after anesthesia induction is facilitated using propofol. However, the optimal dose of this drug not determined yet as heavy doses may lead to severe complications, whereas lower doses may not be quite as effective.
In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 120 children undergoing out-patient surgeries were recruited to receive intravenous propofol at a dose of either 2.5 mg/kg (group 1) or 3.5 mg/kg (group 2) for induction. Intravenous midazolam (0.03 mg/kg) and fentanyl (1 μg/kg) were used as pre-medication in all patients and anesthesia induction was initiated using lidocaine (1 mg/kg) prior to propofol administration. Hemodynamic changes, probable complications, quality of the established airway and number of attempts for LMA insertion were compared between two groups.
There were no differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation and intraoperative complications between the groups (P>0.05). LMA insertion was successful at the first attempt in 55 (93.2%) and 54 (91.5%) cases in group 1 and group 2, respectively (P>0.05). The efficiency of the established airways was adequate in all the patients of both groups.
It seems that propofol doses of 2.5 and 3.5 mg/kg are equally effective for LMA insertion following intravenous midazolam, fentanyl, and lidocaine.
Children; laryngeal mask airway; propofol
Changes of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in sepsis and its utility in predicting intensive care unit outcomes remains a conflicting issue. To investigate the changes in plasma levels of BNP in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock and to study the association of BNP levels with the severity of the disease and prognosis of those patients.
Thirty patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were enrolled in our study. BNP measurements and echocardiography were carried out on admission and on 4th and 7th days. Blood concentrations of BNP were measured by commercially available assays (Abbott methods). In-hospital mortality and length of stay were recorded multivariate analyses adjusted for acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score II (APACHE II score) was used for mortality prediction.
Twenty patients admitted with the diagnosis of severe sepsis and 10 patients with septic shock. The in-hospital mortality was 23.3% (7 patients). Admission BNP was significantly higher in the non-survivors 1123±236.08 versus 592.7±347.1 (P<0.001). By doing multivariate logestic regression, the predicatable variables for mortality was APACHE II score, BNP, and then EF.
BNP concentrations were increased in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and poor outcome was associated with high BNP levels; thus, it may serve as a useful laboratory marker to predict survival in these patients.
Brain natriuretic peptide; mortality; severe sepsis; septic shock
Chronic stress is a common condition among health-care operators, anesthetists in particular. It is known to cause cognitive weakening and pathological outcomes, as the Burnout syndrome. Nevertheless, the impact of clinicians’ health on their performance has received limited attention thus far. Our pilot study, aims at evaluating the influence of burnout on the cognitive performance in a population of anesthesia practitioners.
In 18 practitioners we assessed attention by means of reaction times (RTs), pre- and post-shift, with a five-subtest computerized neuropsychological battery. RTs were controlled for the situational anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory X1. The burnout level was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The three MBI sub-scores (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and professional achievement) were combined to obtain two groups according to the burnout score (high and low).
Anesthetists showed a significantly worse performance in the fifth test post-shift (P=0.041) than pre-shift. The high-score burnout group reacted slower than the low-score burnout group in three of the five cognitive subtests, without reaching a statistical significance. Nevertheless, our effect size, which is independent from the sample size, is very large (d=1.165).
We found that in a population of health-care operators, burnout may affect the cognitive and potentially, the working performance. Qualitative and quantitative measurements should be integrated to ensure a better management of burnout and its consequences in workplaces.
Anesthesia; attention; burnout; psychological factors; medical error
Intrathecal clonidine prolongs spinal anesthesia but the optimum dose to be used in cesarean delivery is not yet known. We evaluated the effect of addition of intrathecal clonidine to hyperbaric bupivacaine on postoperative pain after lower segment caesarean section.
A total of 105 parturients carrying a singleton fetus at term, scheduled to undergo elective LSCS under spinal anesthesia were randomized in a double blind fashion to one of the three groups. Group BF (n=35) received 2 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine+25 μg fentanyl, Group BC50 (n=35) received 2 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine+50 μg clonidine, Group BC75 (n=35) received 2 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine+75 μg clonidine.
The duration of postoperative analgesia was 184.73±68.64 min in group BF, 360.71±86.51 min in group BC50 and 760.50±284.03 min in group BC75, P<0.001. The incidence of hypotension was comparable, P=0.932, whereas the incidence of nausea and pruritis was significantly lower in groups BC50 and BC75 as compared to group BF, P<0.001. No other side effects of intrathecal clonidine were detected. Neonatal outcome was similar in all the three groups.
Addition of 75 μg clonidine to hyperbaric bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for LSCS significantly prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia without any increase in maternal side effects. There was no difference in neonatal outcome.
Caesarean section; clonidine; intrathecal; postoperative pain
In both developing and developed countries, chronic pain remains a real issue and a true disease that affects up to 42% of the population in some areas. Opioids are widely used for the management of chronic pain with variations in prescribing practices, indications and observed efficacy.
to analyze trends in opioids prescribing and patient response in chronic non-cancer pain conditions.
Retrospective study of 1500 casenotes of patients suffering variable non-cancer chronic pain conditions. Detailed review of those cases who were managed using opioids. Statistical analysis using “SOFA” software set.
The prevalence of opioids prescribing in patients suffering this condition was thus around 35% (n=526). Women older than 50 years were more likely than men to have a chronic pain condition and to be given opioid therapy for 1 year or more. Opioid efficacy on neuropathic and mixed types of pain was found to be significant with relatively low rate of drop-out and limited side-effects that are not life threatening. Overall, patients stopped or changed their opioid medication due to inefficacy in only 12.7% of cases.
The simple fact of having pain is itself a source of self-reported disability regardless of the actual physiological or pathological mechanism. Policy makers should be aware of the huge impact of chronic pain disease and of its serious effects on social and economical well-being. In developing countries, chronic pain could represent a real challenge for all parties. Multimodal management, including opioids, appears crucial for the approach of this disease.
Age; chronic pain; gender; neuropathic; opioids
Emergence agitation (EA) in children is increased after sevoflurane anesthesia. Propofol and dexmedetomidine have been used for prophylactic treatment with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a single dose of propofol or dexmedetomidine prior to termination of sevoflurane-based anesthesia on the incidence and severity of EA in children.
One hundred and twenty children, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, 2-6 years old undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane based anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Children were randomly allocated to one of the three equal groups: (Group C) received 10 ml saline 0.9%, (Group P) received propofol 1 mg/kg or (group D) received dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg-1. The study drugs were administered 5 min before the end of surgery. In post anesthesia care unit (PACU), the incidence of EA was assessed with Aonos four point scale and the severity of EA was assessed with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0), after 5 min (T5), 15 min (T15) and 30 min (T30). Extubation time, emergence time, duration of PACU stay and pain were assessed.
The incidence and severity of EA were lower in group P and group D compared to group C at T0, T5 and T15. The incidence and severity of EA in group P were significantly higher than group D at the same times. The incidence and severity of EA decreased significantly over time in all groups. The modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale was significantly lower in group D compared to group C and group P.
Dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg1 was more effective than propofol 1 mg/kg in decreasing the incidence and severity of EA, when administered 5 min before the end of surgery in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia.
Children; dexmedetomidine; emergence agitation; propofol; sevoflurane
The objective of this clinical trial is to study the effectiveness of administering recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in reducing the amount of bleeding and the need for homologous blood and products transfusion in cardiac surgical coronary revascularization procedures done under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
In a randomized controlled prospective observational study, 30 patients were scheduled for elective cardiac revascularization under CPB. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. In Group I (Control group), no rFVIIa was administered following CPB. In Group II (Study group), a dose of 90 ug/Kg of rFVIIa was administered following weaning off CPB. The total amount of chest tube drain during the 1st 24 h following surgery was recorded as well as the qualitative and quantitative assessments of homologous blood and products transfusion. Serial analysis of hematological parameters including hemoglobin level and coagulation test in a definite data points was done. T0=baseline readings prior to CPB, T1=off CPB after protamine administration and before administration of the study drug, T2=on Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) admission, T3=12 h post-CICU admission, and T4=24 h post-CICU admission.
Considering the total chest tube drainage, mean values showed statistically significant results with a P value of 0.001. Homologous blood and products transfusion were statistically lower in the study group. Regarding the mean values for hematological assessment, results showed statistically lower International Normalized Ratio values at CICU admission and 12 h post-CICU admission with a P value of 0.018 and 0.004, respectively. Also, the Partial Thromboplastin Time mean values were statistically lower at same timings with estimated P values of 0.04 and 0.001, respectively.
It is concluded that the prophylactic use of rFVIIa in patients undergoing coronary revascularization surgery under the management of CPB had a remarkable significant results on both the amount of post-operative bleeding and the amount of blood and products transfusion.
CABG; coronary revascularization; recombinant activated factor VII
Various adjuncts have been used with lignocaine to decrease tourniquet pain and prolong post-operative analgesia during intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). Calcium-channel blockers potentiate the analgesic effect of local anesthetics. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of diltiazem as an adjunct to lignocaine in IVRA with respect to tourniquet tolerance, perioperative analgesia, and quality of anesthesia.
In this prospective, randomized, and double-blind study, 40 patients (American Society for Anesthesiologists grade I/II) undergoing elective hand surgery under IVRA were assigned into two groups of 20 each and administered IVRA either with lignocaine 3 mg/kg (group Lignocaine (L)) or lignocaine 3 mg/kg plus diltiazem 0.2 mg/kg (group Lignocaine-Diltiazem (LD)) with normal saline (total volume-40 ml). Hemodynamic parameters, onset of the complete sensory blockade, motor blockade, and intraoperative (tourniquet pain) and post-operative Visual Analogue Scale scores, total intraoperative and consumption of post-operative fentanyl intraoperative were recorded.
Sensory block was established in 2.5±0.688 min in group LD verses 5.60±0.851 min in group L. Motor blockade was established in 8.65±0.933 min in group LD and 13.46±0.604 min in group L. The mean VAS scores >3 were attained early at 30 min (3.1±0.912) in group L. Patients in group L requested early rescue analgesic at 30±8.633 min compared with 49.64±7.958 min in group LD.
Diltiazem as an adjunct to lignocaine provided enhanced intraoperative and post-operative analgesia without any significant side effects.
Diltiazem; intravenous regional anesthesia; lignocaine
Experimental studies both in vivo and in vitro show significantly increased survival rate in animals and in cortical neurons respectively exposed to acute hypoxia and pre-treated with opioids compared to non-treated counterparts. Thus, the main aim of the study was to examine survival rates in patients after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the hospital who were or were not treated with opioids before and/or during cardiac pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
The registry SCA database at the University Hospital of Northern Norway (UNN) for the period of January 2006-December 2009 was used to obtain data for the evaluation. Inclusion criteria were observed SCA at UNN for patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) 1-3. Exclusion criteria included ASA four to five patients and unobserved SCA. Study patients were divided into two groups: Those not treated with opioids and those treated with opioids not more then 3 h before and/or during CPR. Survival rate 1, 2, 3 and 28 days post CPR were compared for the two groups.
A total of 117 patients were registered in the SCA database at UNN for the period from January 2006 to December 2009. Sixty seven patients were excluded from the study: 17 patients had an unknown time of SCA dιbut, two patients had only syncope and 48 were ASA four to five patients. A total of 50 ASA one to three patients were included in the study, 33 and 17 patients respectively in the control and opioid-treated groups. The patients who were treated with opioids before or during CPR had a significantly higher 1, 2, 3 and 28 days survival rate as compared to those receiving only conventional CPR. The model was adjusted for duration of CPR (P=0.047) and treatment with adrenaline (P=0.779) in the groups. Adjusted Odds ratio was 0.075 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015-0.387). Relative risk of fatal outcome in the opioids group was 0.2944 (95% CI: 0.1549-0.5594).
Significantly higher 1, 2, 3 and 28 days survival rate and reduced duration of CPR were found in the patients additionally treated with opioids compared to ordinary resuscitation. Further prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed to investigate the effects of early administration of opioids during CPR on survival and brain function in patients with witnessed in-hospital SCA.
Cardiac arrest; opioids; survival rate
Melatonin, a new addition to the armamentarium of anesthesiologist, has some unique properties that are highly desirable in routine peri-operative care. Available clinical data show that preoperative melatonin is as effective as benzodiazepines in reducing preoperative anxiety with minimal action on psychomotor performance and sleep wake cycle. It may be considered as a safe and effective alternative of benzodiazepines as preoperative anxiolytic. It may have opioid sparing effect, may reduce intraocular pressure, and have role in prevention of postoperative delirium. The short-term administration of melatonin is free from significant adverse effects also.
Anxiolytic; melatonin; opioid sparing; postoperative delirium
Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with dual mechanism of action, combining mu-opioid receptor agonism with noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the same molecule. It has an improved side effect profile when compared to opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual mechanism of action makes Tapentadol a useful analgesic to treat acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; opioids; tapentadol hydrochloride
Management of status asthmaticus requires more than guidelines-guided therapy. Occasionally, uncommon therapeutic interventions and procedures may provide significant benefits. The role of bronchoscopy in fatal asthma is still not clearly defined. We illustrate two cases of severe status asthmaticus on mechanical ventilation who showed remarkable improvement after therapeutic bronchoscopy.
Mechanical ventilation; status asthmaticus; therapeutic bronchoscopy
We report a case of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) following exsanguinations of lower limb in orthopedic surgery. A 30-year-old man was posted for fixation of a tibial plateau fracture on the seventh day after injury. Subarchnoid block was performed. Esmarch bandage was used for exsanguination of the limb and tourniquet was inflated. Within three minutes after tourniquet inflation, the patient became unconscious hypotensive, and collapsed. Resuscitation was instituted and spontaneous circulation restored. Right ventricular strain pattern on transthoracic echocardiography, increased levels of D-dimer, and Doppler examination of the lowerlimb confirmed deep venous thrombosis of right femoral vessels and PE. In spite of thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase and heparin, the patient died on the ninth day after the event. Cases of PE secondary to the use of Esmarch bandage and tourniquet are reviewed here to identify the risk groups and management of PE.
Esmarch bandage; lower limb fractures; pulmonary embolism; tourniquet
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of inherited, autosomal recessive, and progressive neurodegenerative diseases, which result from an enzymatic defect or the deficiency of a transmembrane protein, leading to the accumulation of lipopigments (lipofuscin) in various tissues. NCL results in the impairment of function in several end-organs including the central nervous system with loss of cognitive and motor function, myoclonus, and intractable seizures. Additional involvement includes the cardiovascular system with arrhythmias and bradycardia as well as impairment of thermoregulation leading to perioperative hypothermia. Given the complexity of the end-organ involvement and the progressive nature of the disorder, the anesthetic care of such patients can be challenging. Till date, there are a limited number of reports regarding the anesthetic management of patients with NCL. We present an 18-year-old patient with NCL who required anesthetic care during replacement of a vagal nerve stimulator. Previous reports of anesthetic care for these patients are reviewed, the end-organ involvement of NCL discussed, and options for anesthetic care presented.
Batten disease; Jansky-Bielschowsky disease; neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses
Aesthetic and functional complications caused by general anesthesia have been rarely described after aesthetic surgery. We report a case of unilateral right hypoglossal nerve paralysis following the use of a cuffed endotracheal airway in a 24-year-old woman undergoing aesthetic breast surgery. Neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging of the head failed to provide additional insights into the cause of the nerve injury. Postoperatively, the patient was carefully monitored and made a full recovery within 2 weeks without any pharmacological treatment. The transient hypoglossal nerve paralysis seemed to be due to neuropraxia. In this patient, we postulate that the right hypoglossal nerve was compressed between the endotracheal tube cuff and the hyoid bone, which was inflated with 30 cm H2O. Patients undergoing aesthetic surgery must be appropriately and adequately informed that postoperative aesthetic and functional deficits can occur due to anesthesia as well as the surgery.
Aesthetic surgery; hypoglossal nerve palsy; intubation anesthesia; postoperative complications
We report a case of unexpected kinking of endotracheal (ET) tube in an infant who was being operated in supine position and positioned away from the anesthetist. The usual management mentioned in the literature was unsuccessful. So, a simple and unique solution that can be useful in unanticipated kinking of ET tube is described.
Anesthesia complication; kinking of endotracheal tube; pediatric endotracheal tube