Extranodal disease refers to lymphomatous infiltration of anatomic sites other than lymph nodes. With the advent of FDG PET/CT for staging, rare sites of extranodal disease have been documented. We report a case of Non- Hodgkin's lymphoma with four rare extranodal sites, namely adrenal, peripheral nerves, pancreas and prostate, in the same patient, detected on FDG PET/CT imaging.
Extranodal; pancreas; peripheral nerves; prostate
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is an uncommon extra nodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma accounting for less than 1% of all NHLs known to have an aggressive course, with no well-defined treatment protocols. A 42-year-old lady, operated five months earlier for a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix presented with pain and induration of the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall; 3 months after completing chemotherapy and radiotherapy. FNAC done, yielded scanty material and was inconclusive. The biopsy showed features of a subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma. While on chemotherapy she developed a vault recurrence and extensive intra-abdominal spread of the squamous cell carcinoma and succumbed. SPTCL is a rare entity and has been reported in renal and cardiac allograft recipients and in one case of ovarian carcinoma. Its occurrence in the setting of carcinoma cervix is unusual, hence is being reported.
Carcinoma cervix; panniculitis; T-cell lymphoma
The younger generation is consuming areca nut and areca nut products, which is coming in the market with different multicolored attractive pouches and easily available in each and every corner of the road. For the children from the lower socioeconomic strata, areca nut use is rampant. Alarmingly, it has been seen that the highest period of risk for engaging in areca nut alone is between the ages of 5 and 12. Oral submucous fibrosis associated with areca nut in children is a great concern for the Society and the Government. Factors associated with this report for consuming areca nut are levels of awareness, household environment, peer pressure, low cost, easy availability etc.
Areca nut; children; oral submucous fibrosis
Extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT) can precede, occur with or follow AML. Rarely, they can present as isolated relapses. We present a 9-year-old child with t (8, 21) positive AML who was treated with induction regimen and achieved remission. While on high-dose cytarabine consolidation, he had isolated relapse in a single cervical lymph node with uninvolved marrow. He was treated with salvage chemotherapy alone. There are no clear guidelines for treatment of isolated extramedullary relapse. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy followed by stem cell transplant is the usual option. Our patient is unique for the unusual site of relapse and prolonged remission with cladribine-based chemotherapy, mitoxantrone-based consolidation, and oral maintenance therapy.
2-CDA; AML; chemotherapy; extramedullary relapse
We report the case of a 49-year-old man with a diagnosis of gastric diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, treated with two lines of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, and presented about 3 months after completing therapy with recurrent episodes of epigastric pain, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Computed tomography scan, positron emission tomography scan, and upper GI endoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening and lymphadenopathy. Biopsy and histopathology ultimately revealed Strongyloides stercoralis infection that was mimicking disease recurrence. Opportunistic parasitic infections represent one of the major challenges in the management of cancer patients.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; opportunistic infections; Strongyloides stercoralis
The advancement in diagnostic techniques has resulted in increased incidence of occult second primary in cancer patients. Here, we report a case of symptomatic oesophageal carcinoma and synchronous asymptomatic colon carcinoma diagnosed through Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography imaging.
Multiple primary malignant neoplasms; oesophageal carcinoma; synchronous colon carcinoma
Reporting a case, 53 years old male with stage IV Nonsamall cell lung cancer in view of cytologically proven malignant pleural effusion. Usually the management of stage IV lung cancer is with palliative intent where the patient receives palliative chemotherapy along with palliative radiotherapy and surgery if required. Most of the data on curative management of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer includes patient with adrenal metastasis and some reports with brain metastasis. There is scarce literature on the surgical management of stage IV lung cancer with pleural effusion.
Chemotherapy; cure; lung cancer; stage IV
A sixty year old male presented with a swelling in the upper lip. On cytopathology, the patient was diagnosed as a case of granulocytic sarcoma. His bone marrow examination was unremarkable. Patient was then treated by radiotherapy alone 30 Gray in 15 fractions and achieved complete response. Eighteen months after follow up the patient is absolutely normal. To our knowledge this is the first ever reported case of granulocytic sarcoma of lip.
Granulocytic sarcoma; myeloid leukemia; radiotherapy
We present fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) findings in a case of breast carcinoma. The PET/CT findings in this case were suspicious of second primary neoplasm in the stomach. However, on endoscopic biopsy, the lesion was found to be stomach metastasis of breast carcinoma with estrogen receptor positivity. Stomach is a rare site of breast carcinoma metastasis. Our case suggests that it is difficult to distinguish a stomach metastasis of breast cancer from a primary gastric cancer on the basis of clinical and imaging features. However, this differential diagnosis must be kept in mind and it is important to make such distinction because of its implications on patient management.
Breast carcinoma; estrogen receptor positive; fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography; stomach metastasis; second primary neoplasm
Ganglioneuroma is a rare benign neurogenic tumor which represents the final maturation stage of neuroblast tumors. Here, we are discussing an interesting case of incidentally detected posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma which should be kept in mind when dealing with any child with respiratory distress.
Asymptomatic mediastinal mass; childm incidentaloma; ganglioneuroma; posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma
Orbital metastasis as initial presentation of adenocarcinoma of lung is an extremely rare phenomenon. Here, we report a 46-year-old non-smoker Asian woman, who presented with right eye proptosis due to right orbital and infratemporal fossa metastasis, as the first presentation of adenocarcinoma of right lung.
Adenocarcinoma lung; chemotherapy; orbital metastasis; radiotherapy
We describe an unusual case of fatal hematogenous relapse of borderline mucinous ovarian tumour of intestinal type after three years of primary optimal cytoreduction with dissemination to liver, bones and lymphangitic pattern of spread in lungs with resistance to standard chemotherapy.
Chemoresitant; hematogenous relapse; mucinous borderline ovarian tumor
Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a distinctive subcategory of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. It has a propensity for local recurrence and late metastasis. Histologically, it can be misinterpreted as transitional cell carcinoma, or other papillary lesions of the cervix including squamous papilloma, verrucous carcinoma or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 with papillary configuration.
Materials and Methods:
Nine cases of PSCC of the uterine cervix were diagnosed on a cervical biopsy specimen on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained sections. Their clinic-morphological features were analyzed. The cases were further evaluated immunohistochemically by cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), p53 and Ki-67.
The patients ranged in age from 35 years to 75 years; with abnormal uterine bleeding being the most common clinical presentation. All the cases showed papillary architecture with fibrovascular cores lined by multilayered atypical epithelium. Three cell types were observed: Clear, intermediate and basaloid. Stromal invasion was seen in five cases, whereas in the remaining four cases, the biopsy specimen was too superficial to definitely assess invasion. Immunohistochemically, eight cases were CK7+/CK20– and one case was CK7–/CK20–. All nine cases showed nuclear accumulation of mutant p53. Moderate and high proliferative activity was observed in two and seven cases, respectively. Five of patients for whom follow-up information was available underwent radical hysterectomy and two of them were disease free 18 months following treatment.
PSCC of the uterine cervix are a clinicomorphologically distinct group of cervical lesions that display a morphologic spectrum. They are potentially aggressive malignant tumors that should be distinguished from transitional cell carcinoma and other papillary lesions of the uterine cervix.
Cervix; cytokeratin 7/cytokeratin 20; Ki–67; p53; papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma
Ovarian tumor is a cause of infertility in the fertile-aged women. Also, it can also turns into malignancy and causes deadly outcome. Screening for malignancy is an important management.
The available screening methods that are widely used at present include CA-125 determination and the risk of malignancy index (RMX), which is a combined CA-125 with ultrasonography, determination.
Materials and Methods:
Here, the author tries to assess cost-effectiveness of both alternative in screening by basic medical economics technique.
Classical descriptive analysis was used for cost effectiveness calculation.
In this work, from the cost-effectiveness analysis, the CA-125 test is more cost-effectiveness than RMX.
This reflects that the usage of additional ultrasonography test for increasing the diagnostic activity in screening for ovarian cyst in the fertile aged females in Thailand is still not appropriate.
CA-125; fertility; ovarian cyst; risk of malignancy index
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a leading cause of mortality in acute leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
To determine the yield of galactomannan (GM) assay for the diagnosis of probable IA, its temporal relationship with the computed tomography (CT) scans and correlation with mortality in AL and HSCT.
Patients and Methods:
Consecutive neutropenic episodes (n=150) among inpatients aged ≥15 years with AL or recipients of HSCT were prospectively evaluated over 1½ years. All patients underwent weekly serum GM assay and optical density index >0.5 for ≥2 samples was defined as positive. IA was diagnosed according to EORTC 2008 guidelines.
Of the 150 episodes enrolled, 43 (28.7%) were diagnosed with IA: possible 25 (16.7%), probable 17 (11.3%) and proven 1 (0.7%). The yield of GM assay in diagnosing probable IA was 17/42 (40.5%). In 88.2% of probable IA episodes, GM was positive before high-resolution CT at a median of 10 days (range 1-16). In the episodes with ≥2 samples tested, fatality was higher in those ≥2 values positive for GM, compared to the rest (31% vs. 13.2%, odd ratio 2.96, 95% CI 1.09-8.00; P=0.04).
In AL and HSCT, GM assay could identify patients with probable IA earlier than CT chest and also predicted a higher risk of death.
Acute leukemia; computed tomography; galactomannan assay; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; invasive Aspergillosis
There is minimal literature on the use of intralesional chemotherapy in the pediatric age group. We undertook this present study to evaluate the two modalities (intratumoral and intravenous) of giving chemotherapy in terms of toxicity of chemotherapy, hematological parameters, efficacy of chemotherapy in reduction in volume of the tumor as well as resectability of tumor with special emphasis on immunological parameters.
Materials and Methods:
Advanced cases of Wilms’ tumor and Neuroblastoma were included in the study. Intratumoral chemotherapy was given through 25 G spinal needle under aseptic precautions and ultrasound guidance in the same dose as in systemic chemotherapy. Intravenous group was given chemotherapy in the usual way. Reassessment was carried out after every course of chemotherapy.
Group A included 16 cases of Wilms’ tumor and 6 cases of neuroblastoma. In group B, there were 14 cases of Wilms’ tumor and 8 of neuroblastoma. Vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, and thrombophlebitis were more common in the intravenous group (P<0.05). The fall in Immunoglobulin A, Immunogloblulin G, Immunoglobulin M, and T-cell rosetting was more common in the intravenous group (P<0.05). Seventy percent of patients had completely resectable tumor at the end of 6 doses of intratumoral chemotherapy as compared to 50% resectability in the intravenous group (P<0.05).
Intratumoral chemotherapy, besides causing less of the adverse effects and increasing the resecability rate, also causes less suppression of the immune system. This may be offered as an alternative safe and effective modality of treatment for advanced solid tumors.
Chemotherapy; intratumoral chemotherapy; intravenous chemotherapy; pediatric solid tumors
The aim of this study was to study clinical profile with bacterial spectrum and susceptibility patterns of pathogens in culture positive febrile neutropenic (FN) patients of hematological malignancies.
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 23 hematological malignancy patients admitted with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia with culture positive results, at our institute between June 2011 and December 2011.
A total of 23 patients were studied 12 males and 11 females, with a median age of 35 years. Most common diagnosis was acute leukemia (78%) with the majority of patients developing febrile neutropenia during the induction phase of treatment. Most common presenting symptoms were fever, cough, dyspnea, and diarrhea. Primary site of infection was not found in 47% of patients while the rest had lung, gastro-intestinal and skin/soft-tissue infection. Overall 23 organisms were isolated during the study period, from blood (56%), sputum (46%), stool (23%), and nasal swab from one patient. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 78% of organisms while gram positive organisms accounted for 22% of the total isolates. The most common organisms were: Escherichia coli (43%), Staphylococcus aureus (22%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.4%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (17.4%). Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of these bacteria were studied. Gram negative bacterial infections were associated with higher mortality (89%).
Induction phase of treatment in acute leukemia is the major cause of FN in hematological malignancies at our institute and gram negative organisms are the predominant organisms with E. coli as major isolate while S. aureus represents the most common gram positive organism. Amikacin and cefoperazone/sulbactum appears to be initial antibiotic appropriate to cover most gram negative pathogens while vancomycin to be added for suspected gram positive infections. FN represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hematological malignancy patients, high index of suspicion and early empirical antibiotics with supportive care are main interventions to reduce high mortality for these patients. Antibiotics should be modified according to culture sensitive report as soon as possible.
Antibiotics; febrile neutropenia; hematological malignancies