Pain catastrophizing has been described for more than half a century which adversely affects the pain coping behavior and overall prognosis in susceptible individuals when challenged by painful conditions. It is a distinct phenomenon which is characterized by feelings of helplessness, active rumination and excessive magnification of cognitions and feelings toward the painful situation. Susceptible subjects may have certain demographic or psychological predisposition. Various models of pain catastrophizing have been proposed which include attention-bias, schema-activation, communal-coping and appraisal models. Nevertheless, consensus is still lacking as to the true nature and mechanisms for pain catastrophizing. Recent advances in population genomics and noninvasive neuroimaging have helped elucidate the known determinants and neurophysiological correlates behind this potentially disabling behavior.
Disability; pain catastrophizing; rehabilitation; review
Caffeine is a pyschostimulant present in various beverages and known to alter alertness and performance by acting on the central nervous system. Its effects on central nervous system have been studied using EEG, evoked potentials, fMRI, and neuropsychological tests. The Stroop task is a widely used tool in psychophysiology to understand the attention processes and is based on the principle that processing of two different kinds of information (like the word or colour) is parallel and at different speeds with a common response channel.
To study the effect of caffeine on classical color word Stroop task.
Materials and Methods:
This study was conducted on 30 male undergraduate students by performing a test before and 40 minutes after consuming 3 mg/Kg caffeine and evaluating the effect of caffeine on Stroop interference and facilitation.
The results revealed that practice has no effect on the performance in a Stroop task. However, there was reduction in Stroop interference and increase in facilitation after consumption of caffeine as was evident by changes in the reaction times in response to neutral, incongruent, and congruent stimuli.
We hypothesize that caffeine led to faster processing of relevant information.
Attention; caffeine; facilitation; interference; stroop
Perception of illness plays an important role in recovery process. It affects our coping behaviors, adherence to treatment and preventive measures taken for healthy recovery.
The aim of the study is to examine perception of illness in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Materials and Methods:
This was a cross sectional study design done on sample of 31 patients with mild to moderate TBI. Depression anxiety stress scales-21 (DASS-21), Brief illness perception questionnaire (IPQ) and Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) was used.
Descriptive and correlational statistics was used.
The results indicated that overall higher percentage falls within low and medium range of IPQ. However higher percentage falls within higher range, on coherence and emotional response subscales of IPQ. Consequence, timeline, personal control, treatment control, concern, emotional control, and total of the subscales of IPQ were positively correlated with RPQ3 and RPQ13 at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. A significant correlation was found between demographic variables and subscales of IPQ at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance.
The study shows one to one relationship between symptoms experienced by patients, how they perceive their illness and socio demographic variables.
Demographics; illness; perception; traumatic brain injury
Mental health problems like depression, cognitive impairment, anxiety, sleep disorders, and so on, arising out of senility, neurosis, and living conditions are common in the geriatric population.
To study the psychiatric morbidity among the rural elderly.
Settings and Design:
A community-based, cross-sectional study.
Materials and Methods:
A study was conducted on 800 rural elderly subjects, aged 60 years and more, living in ten randomly selected villages, served by the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC), Valadi, in Tamilnadu state, India. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and the depression by the Geriatric Depression Scale — Shorter version.
The data was analyzed with SPSS 16 version statistical software using proportions, and the chi-square.
A majority of the subjects were widows / widowers, illiterates, living with family, and showing economic dependency. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 43.25%, with a mean MMSE score of 23.32±4.4, and the depression was 47.0% and 6.16±3.4. Cognitive impairment, depression, and a disturbed sleep pattern were associated with female sex, age, illiteracy, poverty, loneliness, and the low socioeconomic status of the family.
The study showed a definite association between the sociodemographic factors and psychiatric morbidity. Encouraging the Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) working for the elderly, running of separate geriatric clinics, and effective implementation of schemes like old age pension are some of the measures to be taken.
Cognitive impairment; depression; geriatric; mini mental status examination
This study aims to understand the sociodemographic and clinical profile of inhalant abusers seeking treatment from a tertiary care psychiatric hospital in South India.
Materials and Methods:
The clinical charts of patients who utilized the psychiatric services of a tertiary care center in India for over 10 years were examined for the study.
The sample had an urban predominance, was mostly unemployed, and was all male. Most of them had an adolescent age of onset of inhalant use (mean — 16.23 years). All patients reported the use of volatile solvents as inhalants. One other substance dependence was identified in more than half of the sample. The psychiatric comorbidity included psychosis and depression. A comparison was made between patients who presented with inhalant dependence only (I) and inhalant-dependent individuals who also used other psychoactive substances apart from nicotine (IP). The inhalant-only group (I) had an earlier mean age at onset of substance use as compared to the IP group. All patients in the I group reported withdrawal symptoms compared to 77% of patients in the (IP) group (P=0.048). The IP group reported a significantly higher occurrence of aggression (54.5 vs. 19%, P=0.02), externalizing symptoms (77.3 vs. 42.9%, P=0.03), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (50 vs. 14.3%, P=0.02).
Inhalant dependence is a serious health problem in adolescent subjects and is associated with high comorbidity of other substance dependence, psychiatric disorder, and externalizing spectrum disorder. There is a need for community-based prospective studies in this area from India.
Comorbidity; externalizing symptoms; inhalant abuse; substance dependence; volatile solvents
Background and Objectives:
Renal failure patients show significant impairment on measures of attention and memory, and consistently perform significantly better on neuropsychological measures of memory and attention, approximately 24 hours after hemodialysis treatment. The objectives are to determine the cognitive dysfunction in patients with renal failure requiring hemodialysis.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 60 subjects comprising of 30 renal failure patients and 30 controls were recruited. The sample was matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The tools used were the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination and the Brief Cognitive Rating Scale.
The patients showed high cognitive dysfunction in the pre-dialysis group, in all the five dimensions (concentration, recent memory, past memory, orientation and functioning, and self-care), and the least in the 24-hour post dialysis group. This difference was found to be statistically significant (P=0.001).
Patients with renal failure exhibited pronounced cognitive impairment and these functions significantly improved after the introduction of hemodialysis.
Cognitive dysfunction; hemodialysis; uremia; renal failure
Consumption of alcohol has been attributed to different reasons by consumers. Attitude and knowledge about the substance and addiction can be influenced by the cultural background of the individual. The tribal population, where alcohol intake is culturally accepted, can have different beliefs and attributes causing one to take alcohol. This study attempts to examine the reasons for alcohol intake and the belief about addiction and their effect on the severity of addiction in people with a different ethnic background.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted at a Psychiatric institute with a cross-sectional design. The study population included patients hailing from the Jharkhand state, twenty each, belonging to tribal and non-tribal communities. Patients fulfilling the ICD 10 diagnostic criteria of mental and behavioral disorders due to the alcohol dependence syndrome, with active dependence, were taken, excluding those having any comorbidity or complications. The subjects were assessed with specially designed Sociodemographic-Clinical Performa, modified version of Reasons for Substance Use scale, Addiction Belief scale, and the Alcohol Dependence scale.
Statistical Analysis and Results:
A significantly high number of tribals cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Addiction was severe in those consuming alcohol to cope with distressing emotions. Belief in the free-will model was noted to be stronger across the cultures, without any correlation with the reason for intake. This cross-sectional study design, which was based on patients, cannot be easily generalized to the community.
Societal acceptance and pressure as well as high emotional problems appears to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalce of substance depedence in tribals. Primary prevention should be planned to fit the needs of the ethnics.
Alcohol dependence; belief of addiction; free-will; reasons for alcohol use; tribes
To review evidence of chronic antipsychotic medication and the association with metabolic syndrome in mentally ill patients. This evidence was used to analyse a cohort of patients with severe mental illness and to deduce a correlation between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and their dose regimens.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty-four male patients undergoing Psychiatric rehabilitation underwent a review of current medication and assessment of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Assessment criteria was based upon National Cholesterol Education Programme expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) (NCEP ATP III) criteria, incorporating waist circumference, raised triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein, raised blood pressure and fasting blood glucose. PubMed, Nature and Science Direct databases have been used to compile the medical and scientific background on metabolic syndrome and antipsychotic medication and the effect on patients particularly on high dose.
Out of 24 patients, 10 patients (41.7%) were receiving high dose antipsychotics (HDA) and four were on maximum dosage limits of 100%. 8.3% (2/24) patients were receiving only one first generation antipsychotics (FGA), 37.5% (9/24) patients were receiving only one second generation antipsychotic (SGA), 45.8% patients (11/24) were receiving two or more SGA only, and only one patient was receiving two or more FGA. One patient was receiving a combination of FGA and SGA. PRN (“as needed”) therapy was not included in this study as their usage was limited. Clozapine was mostly prescribed in these patients (10/24, 41.6%). Four out of the 24 patients refused blood tests therefore were excluded from the following results. In the patients evaluated, 55% (11/20) had confirmed metabolic syndrome. In these patients with metabolic syndrome, 45.4% (5/11) were on HDA and 27.3% (3/11) were on maximum British National Formulary (BNF) limits of 100% of dosage. Four out of the nine remaining patients not diagnosed with metabolic syndrome were on HDA.
Evidence supports the association between antipsychotic medication and metabolic syndrome. The data extrapolated from this cohort of mentally ill patients demonstrates that there is an increase in risk factors for metabolic syndrome and weight gain in the majority of patients on antipsychotic medication. The data however does not support any further predisposition to metabolic syndrome in these patients taking HDA. It also cannot be assumed antipsychotic medication is independently associated with the prevalence of these abnormalities.
Antipsychotics; metabolic syndrome; high-dose antipsychotics
Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress.
Settings and Design:
Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45), a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60.
t-test, Mann-Whitney test.
The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001) in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006) in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the groups. No serious adverse events were reported.
The findings of this study suggest that a high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract safely and effectively improves an individual's resistance towards stress and thereby improves self-assessed quality of life.
Adaptogen; high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract; stress; Withania somnifera
The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT) for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the fourth patient was diagnosed with Panic Disorder. Patients were assessed on the Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Hamilton's Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding nature of anxiety, training in different versions of mindfulness meditation, cognitive restructuring, and strategies to handle worry, such as, worry postponement, worry exposure, and problem solving. A total of 23 sessions over four to six weeks were conducted for each patient. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the available research, and implications and limitations are highlighted along with suggestions for future research.
Anxiety; cognitive behavior therapy; dysfunctional cognitions; mindfulness
Mr. T, a 28-year-old unmarried male, a diagnosed case of Glucose-6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency since childhood, presented with 13 years of psychotic illness and disturbed biological functions. He showed poor response to antipsychotics and mood stabilizers and had three prior admissions to Psychiatry. There was a family history of psychotic illness. The General Physical Examination and Systemic Examination were unremarkable. Mental Status Examination revealed increased psychomotor activity, pressure of speech, euphoric affect, prolixity, delusion of persecution, delusion of grandiosity, delusion of control, thought withdrawal and thought insertion, and second and third person auditory hallucinations, with impaired judgment and insight. A diagnosis of schizophrenia paranoid type, with a differential diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder manic subtype, was made. This case is being reported for its rarity and atypicality of clinical presentation, as well as a course of psychotic illness in the G6PD Deficiency state,with its implications on management.
Glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; management; psychotic illness
Dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET), a benign, rare tumor of the brain, commonly presents with generalized or partial epilepsy, post-epilepsy sequelae of psychotic, depressive or anxiety symptoms or disorders, or is usually asymptomatic. We report the first case in scientific literature of temporal lobe DNET presenting with only major depressive disorder, without epilepsy. A 24-year-old single male, presented with pervasive sadness, easy fatigability, loss of interest in his daily activities, decreasing appetite associated with poor of quality sleep, poor attention and concentration, pessimism about the future, and headaches. He was diagnosed with severe depression, without psychotic symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a lobulated hyperintense temporal lobe mass of 2.7 × 2.2 mm in the hippocampus region suggestive of a DNET. Electroencephalography, thyroid function tests, blood sugar, and electrocardiogram were normal. The depression responded well to tablet Escitalopram 10 mg once daily initially, with no adverse effects reported.
Depression; dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumor; electroencephalogram; escitalopram; temporal lobe
Pica refers to eating of non-nutritious substances, which is usually seen in childhood or pregnancy. Here we report a case of an illiterate tribal woman who developed pica as the sole manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder, with onset during pregnancy. The patient had compulsions of eating uncooked rice or wheat, which resulted in toothache and abdominal discomfort. She had this habit in three pregnancies, consecutively. In the first two pregnancies it resolved spontaneously after puerperium, but persisted in the last one. Probably physical stress of limb edema during the third pregnancy was reason for the persistence. She responded to fluoxetine 40 mg / day after three months of treatment, without behavioral therapy. We conclude that pica may either be only a manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder during pregnancy or it is an obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder.
Amylophagia; obsession; physical stress; pica; pregnancy
Obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar affective disorder in the pediatric population show a bidirectional overlap. Few studies that have addressed this issue show that the prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder in bipolar affective disorder patients ranges from 0 to 54%, and 1.85 to 36% of the obsessive compulsive disorder patients have a comorbid bipolar affective disorder. We report a case of a patient with an onset of obsessive compulsive disorder at two-and-a-half years of age, who developed mania after exposure to escitalopram. We suggest that in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder cases, antidepressants be used with caution, especially in cases with a positive family history of bipolar affective disorder.
Bipolar affective disorder; childhood; obsessive compulsive disorder
Tramadol is an atypical, centrally acting, synthetic analgesic, acting through opioid and non-opioid systems. We present a series of seven cases, all men, who sought treatment at our centre for tramadol-dependence. The majority were using other opioids at some point in their lives. Their tramadol use had begun with a prescription of tramadol for opioid detoxification, for headache and body pains, and as an alternative to injectable opioids. The doses of tramadol used varied from 50 to 1500 mg per day. All subjects reported an experience of euphoria with tramadol use. Four patients were put on naltrexone, but had poor compliance. This case series underscores the need for caution, while using tramadol in substance-dependent patients.
Abuse; dependence; series; tramadol
Troublesome side-effects and lack of efficacy of the pharmacotherapy are the two major limitations in the depression treatment. Inspite of the established modalities like switching, combination and augmentation, using pharmacological and non-pharmacological agents, nearly one-third patients do not achieve complete remission. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is one such somatic treatment which has been extensively studied for treatment for acute depression. Drop-out rates due to adverse effects have been found to be extremely low. However, literature regarding the role of rTMS in maintenance treatment in recurrent depression is scarce, and there is no existing literature from India. In this case-report we highlight the role of rTMS in the maintenance treatment of TRD in a patient who has been followed up for about three years (four episodes). Emphasis is placed on improvement in symptoms and functioning without use of any pharmacological treatment. Further, the need for systematic study and standardization of various aspects of rTMS therapy for maintenance treatment is emphasised.
Antidepressants; functioning; maintenance; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; side-effects; treatment resistant depression
Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny.
Anorexia nervosa; bulimia; eating disorders
To review the data with respect to prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in bipolar disorder patients. Electronic searches were done in PUBMED, Google Scholar and Science direct. From 2004 to June 2011, 34 articles were found which reported on the prevalence of MetS. The sample size of these studies varied from 15 to 822 patients, and the rates of MetS vary widely from 16.7% to 67% across different studies. None of the sociodemographic variable has emerged as a consistent risk factor for MetS. Among the clinical variables longer duration of illness, bipolar disorder- I, with greater number of lifetime depressive and manic episodes, and with more severe and difficult-to-treat index affective episode, with depression at onset and during acute episodes, lower in severity of mania during the index episode, later age of onset at first manic episode, later age at first treatment for the first treatment for both phases, less healthy diet as rated by patients themselves, absence of physical activity and family history of diabetes mellitus have been reported as clinical risk factors of MetS. Data suggests that metabolic syndrome is fairly prevalent in bipolar disorder patients.
Bipolar disorders; diabetes mellitus; metabolic syndrome; obesity; prevalence
Cancer is a disease wherein abnormal cells divide without control and are able to attack other tissues. Most of the patients and their families face some degree of depression, anxiety, and fear when cancer becomes a part of their lives. They feel helpless and eager to find ways on how to get rid of it. The study focuses on anxiety among breast cancer patients. It aims at investigating cancer, its symptoms, and effects the disease has on the anxiety level of patients.
Anxiety; breast cancer; effect of anxiety; symptoms of anxiety