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1.  State of the Globe: Time to Revisit Kikuchi Fujimoto Disease 
PMCID: PMC4265827  PMID: 25538450
2.  Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Leading Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Laboratory Confirmed Blood Stream Infections in a Multi-Specialty Sanatorium 
Dealing with severe blood stream infections (BSI) is one of the intractable conditions in hospitals. The empirical treatment given remains pertinent in determining patient outcome, which becomes evidence based when substantiated by knowledge of susceptibility patterns of prevalent pathogenic organisms in the set up. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence, species prevalence, and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of laboratory confirmed BSI (LCBSI) in patients admitted to our multi-specialty sanatorium.
Materials and Methods:
Eight hundred and forty-six blood samples from 829 patients suspected of having BSI were cultured as per standard microbiological procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done for bacterial isolates from positive blood cultures.
Sixty (7.2%) cases were established as LCBSI. A total of eight pathogenic bacterial genera were identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was noted. Staphylococcus spp. were most prevalent (33%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (20%), Escherichia coli (13%), Acinetobacter spp. (13%), Enterococcus spp. (12%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3%), Proteus spp. (2%), and Citrobacter spp. (2%).
The study shows the prevalence of common bacterial pathogens causing BSI and their susceptibility patterns. Such studies provide benefit of instantaneous choice of antibiotic therapy aiming at improved patient management and reduced drug resistance.
PMCID: PMC4265828  PMID: 25538451
Antimicrobial susceptibility; Drug resistance; Laboratory confirmed blood stream infections
3.  Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease: Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics and Outcome 
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is an uncommon disorder with worldwide distribution, characterized by fever and benign enlargement of the lymph nodes, primarily affecting young adults. Awareness about this disorder may help prevent misdiagnosis and inappropriate investigations and treatment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of histopathologically confirmed cases of Kikuchi's disease from a tertiary care center in southern India.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective analysis of all adult patients with histopathologically confirmed Kikuchi's disease from January 2007 to December 2011 in a 2700-bed teaching hospital in South India was done. The clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcome were analyzed.
There were 22 histopathologically confirmed cases of Kikuchi's disease over the 5-year period of this study. The mean age of the subjects’ was 29.7 years (SD 8.11) and majority were women (Male: female- 1:3.4). Apart from enlarged cervical lymph nodes, prolonged fever was the most common presenting complaint (77.3%). The major laboratory features included anemia (54.5%), increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (31.8%), elevated alanine aminotransferase (27.2%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (31.8%).
Even though rare, Kikuchi's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young individuals, especially women, presenting with lymphadenopathy and prolonged fever. Establishing the diagnosis histopathologically is essential to avoid inappropriate investigations and therapy.
PMCID: PMC4265829  PMID: 25538452
Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis; Kikuchi; Lymphadenopathy; Prolonged fever
4.  Resazurin Tube Method: Rapid, Simple, and Inexpensive Method for Detection of Drug Resistance in the Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem worldwide. The emergence of drug resistance and multidrug resistance (MDR) has become the main threat to TB treatment and control programs. Rapid detection is critical for the effective treatment of patients. In recent times, a new method using the colorimetric indicator resazurin has been proposed for drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, the resazurin reduction assay was adapted to screw cap tubes. Using the Resazurin Tube Method (RTM), a total of 100 clinical isolates were tested against Rifampicin (RIF) and Isoniazide (INH). By visual reading, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained after eight days. The results obtained were compared with the gold standard proportion method.
Excellent results were obtained for RTM with a sensitivity of 100% for both RIF and INH, with a specificity of 98.7 and 95.3%, respectively. Kappa is the measure of agreement between the RTM and proportion method (PM) for RIF and INH, which was found to be 0.972 and 0.935 for RIF and INH, respectively.
The RTM appears to be a reliable method for the rapid and simultaneous detection of MDR-TB and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis. It is simple, inexpensive, and with no biohazard risk involved.
PMCID: PMC4265830  PMID: 25538453
Drug susceptibility; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; RTM
5.  Virulence Markers of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Isolated from Infected and Colonized Patients 
The aim of study was to find out the potential pathogenic role of virulence factors elaborated by strains of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from clinical samples and VRE colonizing the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalized patients.
Materials and Methods:
Enterococci were isolated from various clinical samples and also from fecal specimens of colonized patients at the time of admission, after 48 h and after 5 days of admission. Various virulence determinants were detected by phenotypic tests. Vancomycin susceptibility in enterococci was detected by disc diffusion and agar screen method. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by agar dilution method.
Out of all the clinical and fecal samples processed, 12.0% isolates were either vancomycin resistant or vancomycin intermediate. Hemagglutinating activity against rabbit red blood cells was seen with 27.8% and 25.0% of clinical and fecal strains, respectively. Slime layer formation was seen with fecal VRE strains (37.5%) when compared to clinical VRE (27.8%). Among the clinical VRE strains the most prolific biofilm producers were Enterococcus. fecalis (92.9%) when compared to Enterococcus. faecium (52.9%). Biofilm formation/(presence of adhesions) was also seen in (29.2%) of the fecal VREs. In wound infection production of gelatinase, deoxyribonuclease (DNase), and caseinase (70.0% each) were the major virulence factors. The predominant virulence factors seen in the blood stream infection were adhesin, and hemolysin (44.4% each) and in catheter induced infection were DNase and adhesins (75.0% each). Adhesin (29.2%), slime layer (37.6%), DNAse (33.3%), gelatinase (25.0%), lipase (20.8%) and caseinase (16.6%) and hemolysin (8.3%) were produced the fecal isolates.
An association between adhesin (as detected by biofilm formation) and urinary tract infection, adhesion and hemolysin with BSI, as also between DNase gelatinase & caseinase with wound infection was noted.
PMCID: PMC4265831  PMID: 25538454
Blood stream infection; Catheter induced infection; Urinary tract infection; Vancomycin intermediate enterococci; Vancomycin resistant enterococci
6.  The Emergence of Ebola as a Global Health Security Threat: From ‘Lessons Learned’ to Coordinated Multilateral Containment Efforts 
First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola as a public health threat. Here we present a review of EBOV infection in an effort to further educate medical and political communities on what the Ebolavirus disease entails, and what efforts are recommended to treat, isolate, and eventually eliminate it.
PMCID: PMC4265832  PMID: 25538455
Containment; Ebolavirus; Epidemic; Outbreak; Global response; Government response system; Global Health Security Agenda; Virus transmission
7.  Toxoplasmosis of Spinal Cord in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patient Presenting as Paraparesis: A Rare Entity 
Although brain has been the most common site for toxoplasma infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, involvement of spinal cord by toxoplasma has been rarely found. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis can present as acute onset weakness in both lower limbs associated with sensory and bladder dysfunction. A presumptive diagnosis can be made in patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 based on a positive serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, no recent prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis, intramedullary ring enhancing lesion in spinal cord supported by similar lesions in brain parenchyma. Institutions of antitoxoplasma treatment in such patients result in prompt clinical response and therefore avoiding the need of unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests. Here, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in immunocompromised patient presenting as myelopathy who showed significant clinical improvement after starting antitoxoplasma treatment. Hence toxoplasmic myelitis should be considered in toxoplasma seropositive immunocompromised patients presenting as myelopathy and imaging studies showing ring enhancing intramedullary lesion.
PMCID: PMC4265833  PMID: 25538456
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Immunocompromised; Paraparesis; Spinal toxoplasmosis
8.  Antimicrobial Resistance in Pseudomonas sp. Causing Infections in Trauma Patients: A 6 Year Experience from a South Asian Country 
Drug resistance to Pseudomonas sp. has spread to such a level irrespective of the type of patients, that its pattern of distribution and antibiotic resistance needs to be studied in detail, especially in trauma patients and hence the study. A 6 year study was carried out among trauma patients to see the trend and type of resistance prevalent in the apex hospital for trauma care in India among nonduplicate isolates where multidrug-resistance (MDR), cross-resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas sp. were analyzed. Of the total 2,269 isolates obtained, the species, which was maximally isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2,224, 98%). The highest level of resistance was seen in tetracycline (2,166, 95.5%, P < 0.001) and chloramphenicol (2,160, 95.2%, P < 0.001) and least in meropenem (1,739, 76.7%, P < 0.003). Of the total, 1,692 (74.6%) isolates were MDR in which P. aeruginosa (75%) were maximum. MDR Pseudomonas is slowing increasing since the beginning of the study period. Of 1,797 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated during the study period, 1,763 (98%) showed resistance to ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, suggesting that cross-resistance may have developed for imipenem due to prior use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas sp. is fast becoming a problem in trauma patients, especially in those who requires prolong hospital stay, which calls for proper antimicrobial stewardship.
PMCID: PMC4265834  PMID: 25538457
Antibiotic resistance; Cross-resistance; Infections; Multi-drug resistance; Pseudomonas spp; Trauma
9.  Changing Bacteriological Profile and Mortality Trends in Community Acquired Pneumonia 
There are very few and conflicting Indian data regarding the bacteriological etiology of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Adding to this agony, there is no credible data from the eastern part of India. This is a cross-sectional study and descriptive in nature over a period of 1-year. Of the 464 cases of the study population, we could isolate aerobic bacteria in 149 patients (32.1%). Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as the most common organism causing CAP (68/149). Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) as a group exceeded marginally over S. pneumoniae (69/149). Among GNB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism (31/69), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (29/69). Staphylococcus aureus was identified in (12/149) cases. Co-amoxyclav is still the most sensitive drug for S. pneumoniae. P. aeruginosa was most sensitive to imipenam followed by piperacillin-tazobactam.
PMCID: PMC4265835  PMID: 25538458
Community acquired pneumonia; Gram-negative bacilli; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Streptococcus pneumoniae
10.  Soft Tissue and Wound Infections Due to Enterococcus spp. Among Hospitalized Trauma Patients in a Developing Country 
Soft tissue and wound infections due to Enterococcus spp. are increasing worldwide with current need to understand the epidemiology of the Enterococcal infections of wounds. Hence, we have looked into the distribution of Enterococcus spp. responsible for causing wound and soft tissue infections among trauma patients, its antibiotic resistance pattern and how it affects the length of hospital stay and mortality. A laboratory cum clinical-based study was performed over a period of 3 years at a level I trauma center in New Delhi, India. Patients with Enterococcal wound and soft tissue infections were identified using the hospital data base, their incidence of soft tissue/wound infections calculated, drug resistance pattern and their possible risk factors as well as outcomes analyzed. A total of 86 non-repetitive Enterococcus spp. was isolated of which E. faecium were maximally isolated 48 (56%). High level of resistance was seen to gentamicin HLAR in all the species of Enterococcus causing infections whereas a low level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin was observed among the isolates. Longer hospital stay, repeated surgical procedure, prior antibiotic therapy and ICU stay were observed to associate with increased morbidity (P < 0.05) and hence, more chances of infections with VRE among the trauma patients. The overall rate of wound and soft tissue infections with Enterococcus sp. was 8.6 per 1,000 admissions during the study period. Enterococcal wound infection is much prevalent in trauma care facilities especially in the ICUs. Here, a microbiologist can act as a sentinel, help in empirical therapeutic decisions and also in preventing such infections.
PMCID: PMC4265836  PMID: 25538459
Enterococcus sp; Infections; Soft tissue; Trauma; Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus; Wounds
13.  The HIV Associated Type 2 Diabetes 
PMCID: PMC4265839  PMID: 25538462
15.  Magnitude and Pattern of Hepatitis B Infection in Clinically Suspected Infectious Hepatitis at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Urban India 
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a parenterally transmitted viral illness of significant public health importance. The prevalence of HBV related viral hepatitis still remains debatable.
The objective of the following study is to determine the magnitude and pattern of HBV infection in clinically suspected infectious hepatitis at a tertiary care hospital in urban India.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology at Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, over a period of 1 year from January 2008 to December 2008. All the serum samples taken from subjects (600 study and 200 control) were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. Serum samples testing positive for HBsAg were tested for hepatitis B e antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture anti hepatitis D virus (HDV), IgM anti hepatitis B surface and IgM anti hepatitis B core.
24 (4%) serum samples tested positive for HBsAg in the study group while 5 (2.5%) tested positive in the control. Maximum seropositivity of HBsAg was in 20-30 years of age group in the study group (7.6%) followed by 11-20 years (4.5%), 0-10 years (2.8%) and >40 years (2.5%). The difference in seropositivity in study and control group was statistically insignificant in all the age groups (P > 0.05). Out of 24 cases positive for HBsAg, 4 cases (16.6%) were co infected with HDV in study group while there were none in control group.
HBV is a common cause of parenterally transmitted viral hepatitis and hence, it is recommended that measures for public awareness regarding safe infection practices and safe sex practices should be undertaken to limit its spread.
PMCID: PMC4147418  PMID: 25191050
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis D virus; Seroprevalence
16.  Clinical Applicability of Various Dengue Diagnostic Tests in Resource-Limited Endemic Settings 
Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infections caused by one of the four dengue serotypes, 1-4.
To study the applicability of different diagnostic methods in diagnosis of dengue viral infection.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 2101 blood samples were collected for confirmation of dengue viral infection. All the samples were tested by dengue-specific IgM ELISA, of which 111 were also tested for NS1 antigen detection and 27 acute samples (≤5 days) were further subjected for viral RNA detection by RT-PCR and isolation in C6/36 cell line. To detect the sensitivity of NS1 antigen for different dengue virus serotypes, four dengue serotype 1 and 12 dengue 3 were subjected for the NS1 antigen assay.
Most common age group affected was 16-45 years, with male to female ratio of 2.8:1. During first 3 days of illness virus isolation and RT-PCR were the most sensitive (83%) followed by NS1 antigen detection (75%) and IgM detection (37.5%). The positivity of IgM detection was found to be significantly higher as compared to NS1 detection during 4 to 5 days and also after 5 days of illness (P < 0.05). Dengue serotypes 1 and 3 were found to be co-circulated, dengue 1 being the predominant serotype.
Virus isolation and RT-PCR were the most sensitive tests during the early period of illness whereas beyond third day, IgM antibody detection was found to be the most sensitive method of dengue diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4147419  PMID: 25191051
Dengue; Diagnosis; IgM antibody; NS1 Ag; RT-PCR
17.  Anti Tuberculosis Drug Resistance in West of Iran 
Background and Objective:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has developed resistance to antituberculosis drugs and becoming a major and alarming public health problem in worldwide. This study was aimed to determine antituberculosis drug resistance rate and to identify multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in West of Iran.
Materials and Methods:
Of 130 samples were included between December 2011 and July 2012 in the study from that 112 cases were M. tuberculosis. The proportional method was carried out according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute on Lowenstein-Jensen against isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, para aminosalicylic acid, ethionamide, cycloserine (CYC). The microdilution method was carried out using 7H9 broth with 96 well-plates.
From 112 isolates, resistance was observed to isoniazid 18 (16.07%), rifampicin 16 (14.28%), streptomycin 25 (22.32%), ethambutol 15 (13.39%), pyrazinamide 27 (24.10%), para aminosalicylic acid 19 (16.96%), CYC 4 (3.57%), and ethionamide 14 (12.5%) cases. 16 isolates were MDR.
The high prevalence of MDR-TB in our study is assumed to be due to recent transmission of drug-resistant strains. Overall, the rate of drug resistance in our study was high, which is in line with findings of some high-burden countries. Hence that early case detection, rapid drug susceptibility testing, and effective anti-TB treatment is necessary.
PMCID: PMC4147420  PMID: 25191052
Drug-resistant; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; MDR
18.  Living Related Donor Renal Transplant in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patient: Case Reports from Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India 
Renal transplantation (TX) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasingly performed in developed countries in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Management of HIV infected patients during and post-transplant is very complex and challenging due to drug interaction, infection risk and associated co-infections. We described our experience with living related donor renal TX in three HIV infected patients.
PMCID: PMC4147421  PMID: 25191053
Human immunodeficiency virus; Renal transplant; Solid organ transplant in human immunodeficiency virus
19.  Spontaneous Gastric Ulcer Perforation and Acute Spleen Infarction Caused by Invasive Gastric and Splenic Mucormycosis 
Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.
PMCID: PMC4147422  PMID: 25191054
Gastric ulcer; Infarction of spleen; Mucormycosis; Perforation; Zygomycosis
20.  Infantile Maxillary Sinus Osteomyelitis Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis 
Periorbital soft tissue swelling may result due to primary orbital pathology or from adjacent facio-maxillary or sino-nasal inflammatory causes. Osteomyelitis of maxilla in the pediatric age group is a rare entity in this era of antibiotics. We present an 11-month-old female infant who was brought with peri-orbital selling and purulent nasal discharge. Computed Tomography showed erosions of the walls of maxillary sinus suggestive of osteomyelitis. Culture of sinus scraping showed Staphylococcus aureus growth and the child improved with intravenous cloxacillin therapy. This case is presented due to the rarity of its presentation in this age group and for awareness to consider this entity in children having fever and peri-orbital swelling.
PMCID: PMC4147423  PMID: 25191055
Computed tomography; Infant; Maxilla; Osteomyelitis
21.  Immune Thrombocytopenia in Tuberculosis: Causal or Coincidental? 
Immune thrombocytopenia is a relatively rare hematological manifestation in tuberculosis. We report two cases of immune thrombocytopemia, one in sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis and the other in miliary tuberculosis. Antituberculous drugs and immunosuppressive therapy corrected the thrombocytopenia in both patients. Our case reports stress that tuberculosis should be considered during the evaluation of immune thrombocytopenia, and also highlights the safety of immunosuppressive therapy during active tuberculosis along with antituberculous drugs.
PMCID: PMC4147424  PMID: 25191056
Immune thrombocytopenia; Miliary tuberculosis; Pulmonary tuberculosis
22.  Disseminated Bacillus Calmette Guerin Disease in a Twin Infant with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease 
Fatal-disseminated Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) disease is well known in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency after BCG vaccination. We report a 7 month male infant delivered as a product of in vitro fertilization and twin gestation that presented with fever, cough and multiple nodular skin lesions. A biopsy of skin lesions revealed the presence of acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterium bovis infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and molecular studies. Immunological profile confirmed the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency. Only few reports of similar case exist in the literature.
PMCID: PMC4147425  PMID: 25191057
Disseminated BCG; SCID; TWINS

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