Differentiating into transudate or exudate is the first step in the evaluation of effusions. Light's criteria is the standard but a significant number of transudates may not be differentiated based on these criteria. Acute phase proteins (APP) are present in plasma, which increase or decrease by about 25% during an acute inflammatory response. Ceruloplasmin (CP) is a positive APP. Hence, this study was done to know the diagnostic value of pleural fluid (pf) CP and pf to serum ceruloplasmin ratio (CPr) to differentiate the pleural effusion (PE) into exudate and transudate as compared to Light's criteria.
Materials and Methods:
Setting: Medical wards of St John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore.
Cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients with PE were divided into exudate and transudate by definitive diagnosis. pfCP, CPr and Light's criteria were compared with definitive diagnosis for the differentiation of pf into exudate and transudate.
The mean value of the pfCP and CPr was found to be significantly different between exudates and transudates. Sensitivity and specificity of pfCP at ≥ 13.34 mg/dl is 89.7% and 83.3%, CPr at ≥ 0.37 is 91.4% and 83.3%, Light's criteria 94.82% and 83.3%, respectively. Light's criteria, pfCP and CPr have similar PPV (98%) with Light's criteria having higher NPV (62.5%) than pfCP (45%) and CPr (50%), respectively. CPr has higher NPV than pfCP.
pfCP and CPr can differentiate pf into exudate and transudate with comparable PPV to Light's criteria.
Acute phase proteins; ceruloplasmin; exudates; pleural effusion; transudates
Background and Objectives:
India is among the largest countries to implement the revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). This program provides intermittent regimens to the patients, where the doses of isoniazid and ethambutol are more as compared to the daily regimen, which is a cause of concern, particularly with regard to the ocular toxicity of ethambutol. The present study was undertaken to explore the ocular toxicity in the patients registered under the program.
Materials and Methods:
This was a prospective single center cohort study of 64 patients of categories I and II, coming to the RNTCP-Directly Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS) center at a tertiary care referral hospital. The detailed history, best corrected visual acuity, fundus examination, and color vision test were carried out in all patients at the start of treatment and then at the first and second month of treatment.
Loss in visual acuity from the baseline was noted at the second month follow up in 12 (9.4%) eyes (P = 0.001), visual field defects were seen in eight (6.3%) eyes (P = 0.0412), and optic disc abnormalities were observed in six (4.7%) (P = 0.013) eyes. Color vision abnormalities were noted in 16 (12.6%) eyes (P = 0.003), four eyes showed impairment in red–green color perception, and the others showed impairment in blue–yellow color perception as well. Patients with ocular symptoms were advised to stop ethambutol and they showed improvement in visual acuity after follow up of one to two months. The overall outcome of treatment was not affected by discontinuation of ethambutol in these patients.
Ethambutol when taken according to program could cause ocular toxicity. The early recognition of ocular symptoms is important to prevent unnecessary delay in diagnosis and probable irreversible visual loss.
Ethambutol toxicity; ocular symptoms; revised national tuberculosis control program; visual defects
Differentiating asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is difficult. Steroid trial may be of help but has several pitfalls. The present study aims to assess the value of past clinical profile of asthma and its differential diagnosis from COPD in male smokers and thereby to formulate clinical parameters to diagnose bronchial asthma in such patients.
Patients and Methods:
Male smokers who reported at the Respiratory Medicine Department of the National Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS) Hospital, Jaipur, (India), with shortness of breath (SOB) and showing less than 12% postbronchodilator bronchial reversibility (BR) on spirometry were recruited. These patients were given oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg for two weeks. Post steroid (PS) spirometry was performed to ascertain BR. The past clinical history was recorded and analyzed to determine if it is of any use in differentiating asthma from COPD.
Out of 104 patients, four were lost to follow up, 52 were diagnosed as bronchial asthma, and the remaining 48 as COPD. It was revealed that past history of (H/O) seasonal variation, wheezing, eye allergy, nasal allergy, dust allergy, skin allergy, and family H/O asthma/allergy were positive in 50, 40, 34, 30, 18, 14, and 12 asthma patients as compared to 10, 8, 2, 4, 6, 0, and 0 in 48 COPD patients (P < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for diagnosing asthma was highest for the presence of any other two symptoms/variables, besides SOB, in the past (OR = 275, P < 0.0001).
Past clinical history is of immense value in differentiating asthma from COPD in male smokers presenting with SOB and fixed airway obstruction.
Asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; smoker
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive deterioration of respiratory function along with systemic effects which have a great impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Classification of severity of airflow limitation in COPD does not represent the clinical consequences of COPD. Hence, combined COPD assessment should be preferred. BODE index (Body mass index, Airflow obstruction, Dyspnea and Exercise capacity) has recently been proposed to provide useful prognostic information.
To find out correlations between the BODE index and HRQoL, and between GOLD classification of COPD severity and HRQoL in stable COPD patients, and to compare between these two correlations.
Materials and Methods:
A longitudinal observational study was carried out with 114 stable COPD patients recruited over 10 months at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata, India. Patients were classified according to GOLD classification of severity of airflow limitation after performing spirometry. BODE index was calculated for each patient. Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to assess the HRQoL.
BODE scores were categorized into four quartiles, quartile one to four with scores of 0-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-10, respectively. Higher BODE quartiles were associated with higher total SGRQ scores and SGRQ subscale scores (symptom, activity and impact). Very strong correlations were found between BODE quartiles and total SGRQ scores (P = 0.914; P < 0.01). In contrast, GOLD classes showed moderate correlation with total SGRQ scores (P = 0.590; P < 0.01).
BODE index was strongly correlated with the HRQoL in stable COPD patients and it was better than GOLD classes of COPD severity to reflect the health status in patients with stable COPD.
BODE index; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; health-related quality of life; Saint George's respiratory questionnaire
Lung tumors are among the common tumors and can be benign or malignant. Benign lung tumors are less common compared to the malignant types. Recognition of the clinical symptoms, types of tumors, paraclinical findings, and treatment approaches can bring better therapeutic results. The present study aims to evaluate the characteristics, diagnosis methods, and therapeutic approaches of different benign lung tumors.
Materials and Methods:
In this retrospective study, 32 patients with a diagnosis of benign lung tumor, who had been referred to the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 1981 and 2009, were studied. Some of the studied variables were symptoms, the pulmonary location involved, surgery technique, pathology findings, recurrence, and surgery complications. Data were analyzed by SPSS package version 16.
The average age of the patients was 51.69 ± 20.5 years. Prevalence of benign lung tumors was equal in both genders. The most common symptom was cough (31.2%); right lung involvement was more common (71.9%), and the most common sampling technique was transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) (62.5%); 53.1% of the patients were operated on by thoracotomy and the wedge resection technique. In 78.1% of the patients, no complications occurred after surgery. There was no recurrence. Most operations were performed in one month after the start of the symptoms (68.8%).
Benign lung tumors are commonly diagnosed by routine radiography because most of them are asymptomatic. The most common finding in radiography is the presence of mass in the lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy is a valuable technique to be used for diagnosis. We chose thoracotomy and wedge resection for the treatment of patients. We recommend this approach as a useful method.
Benign lung tumor; diagnosis; treatment
Spirometry measurements are interpreted by comparing with reference values for healthy individuals that have been derived from multiple regression equations from earlier studies. There are only two such studies from Eastern India, both by Chatterjee et al., one each for males and females. These are however single center and approximately two decades old studies.
(1) to formulate a new regression equation for predicting FEV1 and FVC for eastern India and (2) to compare the results to the previous two studies by Chatterjee et al.
Materials and Methods:
Healthy nonsmokers were recruited through health camps under the initiative of four large hospitals of Kolkata. Predicted equations were derived for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC in males and females separately using multiple linear regression, which were then compared with the older equations using Bland-Altman method.
The Bland-Altman analyses show that the mean bias for females for FVC was 0.39 L (95% limits of agreement 1.32 to −0.54 L) and for FEV1 was 0.334 L (95% limits of agreement of 1.08 to –0.41 L). For males the mean bias for FEV1 was –0.141 L, (95% limits of agreement 0.88 to –1.16 L) while that for FVC was –0.112 L (95% limits of agreement 0.80 to –1.08 L).
New updated regression equations are needed for predicting reference values for spirometry interpretation. The regression equations proposed in this study may be considered appropriate for use in current practice for eastern India until further studies are available.
Eastern India; reference equation; spirometry
Lung lesions may develop from tissue reactions to known or unknown stimuli and present with different morphological descriptions. The pathogenesis may be induced and maintained by different bioactive substances, of which, the upregulation matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a vital role. Inhibition of the MMPs, therefore, may be a prospective mode of therapy for such lesions.
Materials and Methods:
A number of patients with lung lesions of different morphologies and presentations were treated empirically with long-term oral doxycycline (100 mg BID) upon exclusion of malignancy and infection in an open, single-arm, prospective, observational pilot study. The effect of the treatment was recorded on serial x-rays/computed tomography (CT) scans and the impact of treatment was measured with a visual analog scale (VAS) or a Likert-like scale. Furthermore, six independent pulmonologists’ opinion (expressed on a ‘0’ to ‘100’ scale) were pooled with regard to the significance and the expectedness of such a change.
Twenty-six patients (mean age 49.33 years and male: female ratio = 10:3) with different types of pulmonary parenchymal/pleural lesions were treated with long-term oral doxycycline for a mean duration of 386.88 days related to the available radiological comparison. They showed a mean improvement of 3.99 on the Likert-like scale and 78% on the VAS scale. The mean significance of the change was 83.33%, with a mean expectedness of 18% as per the pooled opinion of the pulmonologists.
The significant and unexpected resolution of different tissue lesions from long-term doxycycline appears to be a novel observation. This needs proper scientific validation.
Doxycycline; lung lesions; matrix metalloproteinase
Cough is the most common symptom for which medical treatment is sought in the outpatient setting. Chronic dry cough poses a great diagnostic and management challenge due to myriad etiologies. Chronic cough has been commonly considered to be caused by gastroesophageal reflux, post-nasal drip or asthma. However, recent evidences suggest that many patients with these conditions do not have cough, and in those with cough, the response to specific treatments is unpredictable at best. This raises questions about the concept of a triad of treatable causes for chronic cough. This article discusses the mechanism and etiology of cough, along with recent advances in the field of cough, highlighting some of the diagnostic and management challenges.
Cough; chronic cough; diagnosis; guidelines; management
Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic drug which has been approved for the management of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). However, its role in interstitial lung disease (ILD) due to other causes such as systemic sclerosis (SSc) is not clear. We present a case of a patient with SSc associated ILD who showed a subjective as well as objective improvement in lung function with pirfenidone.
Interstitial lung disease; pirfenidone; systemic sclerosis
Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is associated with a variety of infections which pose management difficulties. Herein, we report a case of diabetic patient who developed combined pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis. The case illustrates management of this rare co-infection which despite being potentially fatal was treated successfully.
Diabetes mellitus; pulmonary tuberculosis; mucormycosis
A young house wife presented with low grade fever, cough, haemoptysis and SOB of unknown aetiology for 40 days duration. Respiratory system examination revealed diffuse crepts and rhonchi. Other organ system examination did not reveal any abnormality. X-ray chest PA view and CT thorax showed diffuse bilateral necrotising nodular lesions of various sizes with small pleural effusion. She also had low resting oxygen saturation with falling haematocrit. Her Serum was week positive for p-ANCA and negative for MPO-ANCA. Bronchoscopy revealed continuous bloody aspirates. We could not isolate any organisms in any of the specimens from her and she was unresponsive to any of the antibiotics either. Based on the clinical, laboratory data, radiological features and positive outcome to pulse therapy of methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, she was diagnosed as a case of IPIPC.
Isolated pauci-immune pulmonary capillaritis; hemoptysis; vasculitis
Background and Aim:
Several studies have reported the performance of combining endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration with an echobronchoscope (EUS-B-FNA), with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Herein we report our initial experience with this technique.
Patients and Methods:
In this retrospective study, we report the outcome of patients who underwent EUS-B-FNA with or without EBUS-TBNA during the same session. Details of the lymph nodes sampled, number of passes, duration of the procedure, results of the cytological examination, and the final diagnosis of all the patients are presented.
Eleven patients underwent EUS-B-FNA during the study period. EUS-B-FNA and EBUS-TBNA together yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 72.7 and 100%, respectively. The number of lymph nodes sampled per patient and the number of passes per lymph node were significantly higher with EBUS-TBNA compared to EUS-B-FNA. The mean duration of procedure was also significantly higher in the EBUS-TBNA group. The most common reason (five patients (45.5%)) for resorting to EUS-B-FNA was the patient being unfit for EBUS-TBNA or the inability of the operator to complete the procedure. Sarcoidosis was the most frequent final diagnosis in the study patients (four cases), followed by bronchogenic carcinoma (three cases).
EUS-B-FNA is a useful additional tool for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. In combination with EBUS-TBNA, it has a fairly good diagnostic yield and is a good alternative in situations where EBUS-TBNA is not feasible.
Bronchoscopy; EBUS; lung cancer; sarcoidosis; TBNA; transbronchial needle aspiration; tuberculosis
Ectopic breast is defined as the presence of breast tissue outside the pectoral region. In this article, we are reporting an extremely rare case of pulmonary aberrant breast tissue. A 79-years-old Caucasian woman with the history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease, presented to the emergency department for worsening dyspnea on exertion and pleuritic chest pain over the last few days. Both thoracic CT scan and the gross evaluation of tumor after its removal by thoracotomy were in favor of a soft tissue tumor such as pulmonary lipoma, whilst surprisingly the histological examinations revealed the mass to be ectopic breast tissue. Although it is extremely rare, this diagnosis should be considered in the evaluation of pulmonary masses.
Ectopic breast; intra-thoracic; mass; pulmonary
Malignant pleural effusion is a leading cause of morbidity in lung cancer patients requiring repeated pleural aspirations or persistent intercostal drainage tube. Using an indigenous method of putting icd tube of smaller size with subcutaneous tunneling would allow draining fluid from lungs easily and painlessly when needed and avoid the need for repeated injections and chest tube insertion every time the fluid is to be drained.
Indwelling catheter; intercostals drainage; malignant pleural effusion
Melioidosis is a multiorgan infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Few cases have been reported from south India. This is a case report of pleuropulmonary melioidosis with rib osteomyelitis.
Burkholderia pseudomallei; melioidosis; pleuropulmonary
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of recurrent diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) with no specific treatment. Herein, we discuss a case of hemoptysis, who had IPH and other rare associations. A 19-year-old man presented with recurrent hemoptysis, generalized weakness and progressive dyspnea for 3 years. Earlier, he was diagnosed with anemia and was treated with blood transfusions and hematinics. On examination he had pallor, tachycardia and was underweight. Investigations revealed low level of hemoglobin (7.8 g/dl) and iron deficiency. An electrocardiography (ECG) showed sinus tachycardia, interventricular conduction delay and T-wave inversion. Echocardiography revealed dilated cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dysfunction. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity suggestive of pulmonary hemorrhage. Pulmonary function tests showed restrictive pattern with increased carbon monoxide diffusion. Bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy showed hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Patient could recall recurrent episodes of diarrhea in childhood. Serum antitissue transglutamase antibodies were raised (291.66 IU/ml, normal <30 IU/ml). Duodenal biopsy showed subtotal villous atrophy consistent with celiac disease. He was started on gluten-free diet, beta blockers and diuretics. After two years of treatment, he has been showing consistent improvement. Screening for CD is important in patients with IPH. Cardiomyopathy forms rare third association. All three show improvement with gluten-free diet.
Cardiomyopathy; case-report; celiac disease; gluten-free diet; idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis; Lane-Hamilton syndrome
A 57-year-old male patient suffering from Buerger's disease presented with pre-gangrenous changes in right foot and ischemic symptoms in right hand. Computed tomographic angiography revealed diffuse distal disease not suitable for vascular bypass and angioplasty. Right lumbar sympathectomy was done using a retroperitoneal approach followed 1 year later by right thoracic sympathectomy using a transaxillary approach. Postoperatively, the patient had severe bronchospasm and excessive secretions in the respiratory tract resistant to theophylline and sympathomimetic group of drugs and without any clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of infection. The patient was started on anticholinergics in anticipation that sympathectomy might have lead to unopposed cholinergic activity and the symptoms improved rapidly. The patient recovered well and was discharged on 10th post-operative day.
Anticholinergics; bronchospasm; thoracic sympathectomy
Pulmonary sequestration (PS), a non-functioning lung tissue, which lacks the normal communication with the tracheobronchial tree and receives the blood supply from the systemic circulation, is a rare congenital malformation that comprises 0.5-6% of all congenital pulmonary malformations. The presentation of PS with chest pain is very rare. In this article, we are aimed to report the case of a patient with chief complaints of retrosternal chest pain and palpitation, which was suspected to be of cardiac origin. Primary evaluations including exercise tolerance test, 48-hour holter monitoring, coronary angiography ruled out any cardiac problem. Further evaluations with Thoracic CT scan revealed a cystic mass in the retrocardiac region of the lung. Thoracotomy surgery was done and the patient was finally diagnosed to be extralobar pulmonary sequestration.
Chest pain; extralobar; pulmonary sequestration; tachycardia