Background and Objectives:
Exercise-induced desaturation (EID) is associated with increased mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship of EID with anthropometric and clinical parameters of resting pulmonary function test and six-minute walk test (6MWT) in COPD remains unclear. The study was designed to assess the correlate of EID and to identify various possible predictors of EID in stable normoxemic patients of COPD.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty patients with stable COPD diagnosed and staged as per the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines underwent 6MWT. A drop in standard pulse oximetry (SpO2) of ≥4% or nadir up to ≤88% was defined as EID. Based on EID during 6MWT, two groups were formed: desaturators (DS) and nondesaturators (NDS). DS and NDS were compared for baseline and clinical characters by the Student's t-test while Pearson and Spearman rho correlation coefficient assessed strength of the association of anthropometric and clinical variables with EID. The predictors of EID were identified by logistic regression and receiver operator curve analysis.
Out of 60 patients with stable COPD, 33 patients desaturated on exercise (n = 33/60). DS had significantly lower values of FEV1 (P < 0.001), FVC (P < 0.01) FEV1/FVC (P < 0.01) compared to NDS. EID had significant negative correlation with FEV1 (r = 0.31, P < 0.01), resting oxygen saturation (r = 0.549, P < 0.001) and 6MWD (r = 0.511, P < 0.001). Resting SpO2 ≤93% was found to a predictor of EID with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 78%, respectively.
Interpretation and Conclusion:
The 6MWT is a safe and sensitive test to recognize EID in normoxic stable COPD patients. Resting oxygen saturation is a good predictor of EID.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; exercise-induced desaturation; predictors; 6-minute walk test
Although sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality in hospitalized patients, information regarding early predictive factors for mortality and morbidity is limited.
Materials and Methods:
Patients fulfilling the Infectious Disease Society of America criteria of sepsis within the medical intensive care unit (ICU) were included over two years. Apart from baseline hematological, biochemical, and metabolic parameters, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and III (SAPS II and SAPS III), and Sequential Organ Function Assessment (SOFA) scores were calculated on day 1 of admission. Patients were followed till death or discharge from the ICU.
One hundred patients were enrolled over two years (54% males). The overall mortality was 53%, (69.5% in females, 38.8% in males (P < 0.01). Mortality was 65.7%, 55.7%, and 33.3% in patients with septic shock, severe sepsis, and sepsis, respectively. Patients who died were significantly older than the survivors (mean age, 57.37 ± 20.42 years and 44.29 ± 15.53 years respectively, P < 0.01). Nonsurvivors were significantly more anemic and had higher APACHE II, SAPS II, SAPS III, and SOFA scores. The presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal dysfunction were associated with higher mortality (75% and 70.2%, respectively). There was no significant difference in the duration of mechanical ventilation or ICU stay between survivors and nonsurvivors. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of mortality with odds ratio greater than 2 included the presence of anemia, SAPS II score greater than 35, SAPS III score greater than 47, and SOFA score greater than 6 at day 1 of admission.
Several demographic and laboratory parameters as well as composite critical illness scoring systems are reliable early predictors of mortality in sepsis. A sepsis mortality prediction formula (AIIMS Sepsis Score) based on SAPS II, SAPS III, and SOFA scores and hemoglobin has greater predictive power than these scoring methods individually. Routine use of critical illness scoring systems and a composite mortality prediction formula may provide useful early prognostic information in sepsis/severe sepsis.
Mortality; scoring; sepsis
Malignant pleural effusion is a major clinical problem associated with primary and metastatic pleural malignancies. Pleural effusions from an unknown primary are responsible for 7-15% of all malignant pleural effusions. Presence of malignant pleural effusion puts the patient in advanced stage and renders the prognosis as poor.
In this study we intend to find out the incidence of malignant pleural effusion, its aetiology and clinical course in patients attending a tertiary care teaching hospital.
A total of 308 patients were included in this study. A majority of the patients were in age group 50- 70 years (median age = 58.8 years; range 32- 85 yrs). Male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The major primary cancers were lung cancer (135), lymphoma (40), breast cancer (36), female genital tract (30) gastrointestinal (21), and others (8). In 38 cases primary remained unknown. The yields of pleural fluid cytology, blind pleural biopsy, CT/USG guided pleural biopsy and thoracoscopy were 60%, 49%, 76% and 91% respectively. Chemical pleurodesis yielded complete response in 80%, incomplete response in another 13% patients. Only 136 (44%) cases could be followed up for minimum of 6 months. A majority of them (95, 69.85%) died.
We conclude that malignant pleural effusion is a commonly misdiagnosed medical entity. Lung cancer is the commonest cause. Despite all efforts, in about 15% of the cases, primary remains undiagnosed. Thoracoscopy/pleuroscopy is a cost effective measure for diagnosis. Chemical pleurodesis provides expected results but mortality remains high.
Diagnosis; etiology; malignant pleural effusion
Lung administration of antibiotics by nebulization is promising for improved treatment efficiency for pulmonary infections, as it increases drug concentration at sites of infection while minimizing systemic side effects. For poorly soluble molecules like rifampicin, lipid particulate system may improve lung delivery.
Materials and Methods:
We investigated rifampicin-loaded freeze-dried liposomes. Various formulations were prepared with different drug lipid ratios and one formulation was optimized. Optimized colloidal liposome formulation was freeze-dried and subsequently subjected for various evaluation and characterization parameters such as in-vitro dissolution, in-vitro antitubercular activity, aerodynamic characters, surface morphology, and thermal behavior. The optimized formulation of rifampicin-loaded freeze-dried liposome and free rifampicin was subjected for the in-vivo drug disposition study in Wister rat model by intra-tracheal instillation in comparison with an oral route of administration.
The results of pharmacokinetic study for both free drug and the formulation suggested that liposomes released the drug in a controlled manner for a longer period of time. The enhanced efficiency of drug incorporated into liposomes suggested that the delivery of encapsulated drugs to macrophages was more rapid than that of free drug.
Therefore, the pharmacokinetic and drug disposition studies provided a sound basis for predicting the successful treatment for tuberculosis.
Freeze-dried liposomes; intra-tracheal instillation; nebulization; pulmonary delivery; rifampicin; tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the human pathogen causes Tuberculosis (TB). It is a highly infectious and globally pandemic disease. The severity increases when the MTB becomes resistant to antituberculosis drugs. India is reported to be in the second place, with the highest number of drug-resistant TB cases. The treatment of drug-resistant TB is even more complicated.
Materials and Methods:
The present study comprises of 159 TB patients, in which 88 are reported to have drug-resistant TB (55.3%). All the patients are in the age group of 18–70 years. Patients having extrapulmonary TB and diabetes were excluded from the study. The collected samples were processed and stained for acid fastness and smear positivity. They were subjected to inoculation on Lowenstein–Jensen (LJ) slants.
The results showed that out of the four drugs — Streptomycin, Isoniazid, Rifampicin, and Ethambutol — the resistant cases reported in Streptomycin were 45 (24.9%), whereas, in Isoniazid, Rifampicin, and Ethambutol, the resistant cases were 62 (34.2%), 27 (14.9%), and 47 (26.0%), respectively. Isoniazid showed the highest percentage of resistance among the patients.
Effective measures such as convincing the patients to take the prescribed drugs and follow the five major strategies under the Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS), could help in managing such cases.
Anti-TB drugs; drug resistance; isoniazid; Mycobacterium; tuberculosis
The optimal dose, duration, and efficacy of itraconazole in Indian patients of pulmonary aspergilloma (PA) are not clearly defined. Therefore, a study was carried out, to resolve these issues in diagnosed cases of PA complicating old treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Materials and Methods:
The study patients randomly received itraconazole either in a fixed dose schedule of 200 mg (group I), 200 mg twice daily (group II) or a variable dose schedule (group III), for 12 months. All the patients were followed up for the entire duration of the study for clinical, radiological, and immunological response. The side effects were recorded as and when reported by the patients and managed symptomatically.
A total of 60 patients were enrolled, 20, in each group. There were no intergroup differences with regard to age, sex, body weight, smoking status, alcohol intake, symptoms, Potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount, fungal culture, pattern of radiological lesions or anti-aspergillus antibodies (anti-Asp-Ab) titers. The radiological response was poor in group I patients, as compared to the other groups, at two months (P < 0.05). The dose of itraconazole was increased in five of the patients in group I due to poor response. A higher number of group II patients suffered side effects and the dose of itraconazole had to be decreased in three of these patients, but none of the patients on a variable dose schedule required a change in dose schedule.
Thus, a weight-based variable dose schedule of itraconazole was found to be a more effective and safer modality in the management of PA than a fixed dose schedule.
Anti-aspergillus antibody; itraconazole; pulmonary aspergilloma
Lung reactions to exposure to dust, gases, and fumes at work places have been studied in different populations. The emission level of pollutants that emit particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in size (PM 10) has been found very high in Ahmedabad. Hence, petrol pump workers in Ahmedabad are likely to get exposed to a high level of air pollution along with petrol and diesel vapors. Both of these factors can affect the respiratory health of petrol pump workers.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 53 different petrol pumps of Ahmedabad. A total of 227 petrol pump workers underwent pulmonary function testing. Their spirometry parameters were compared with 227 age-matched, healthy controls.
A significant reduction (P < 0.001) was found in the spirometry parameters, such as, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in petrol pump workers, as compared to the controls. The mean values of FEV1/FVC (%) were significantly increased (P < 0.001). A decline in FVC was not significantly different among the workers according to the duration of exposure. As the duration of exposure increased, there was a progressive decline in FEV1/FVC (%) and FEF25-75.
The study concludes that the deleterious effects of air pollution and petrol/diesel vapor inhalation on the lung function of petrol pump workers results in a restrictive type of lung function abnormality. The pattern of respiratory impairment changes to a mixed type as the duration of exposure increases.
Occupational exposure; petrol/diesel vapors; petrol pump workers; restrictive impairment; spirometry
Spirometric evaluation of pulmonary function has been evolved as clinical tool in diagnosis, management, and follow-up of respiratory disorders. There are very few studies on normative reference values of pulmonary function parameters for adolescents from Tripura, a North-eastern state of India. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and their predictors in male and female adolescents of Tripura.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 640 (320 from tribal and 320 non-tribal) healthy, non-smoking male and female school children (age 10-14 years) from four different districts of Tripura were randomly sampled for the study. The pulmonary function parameters analysed included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% expired volume (FEF25-75%), ratio of FEV1/FVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV).
The results revealed that body weight, body mass index (BMI), PEFR, FEF25-75% and MVV are significantly high among male tribal children in comparison to non-tribal children. Height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), PEFR and MVV were found to be significantly more in tribal girls. In case of adolescents from Tripura, most of the pulmonary function parameters correlated with anthropometric parameters of the subject like height, weight, BMI, WHR, and WHtR.
From the present study, it can be concluded that both anthropometric and pulmonary function status of tribal and non-tribal adolescents from Tripura are comparable. The computed regression norms may be used to predict pulmonary function of adolescents from Tripura by using anthropometric indices.
Anthropometric indices; correlation; prediction equation; pulmonary function; tribal and nontribal adolescents
Pulmonary function testing plays a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with lung diseases. Cases of cross infection acquired from the pulmonary function laboratory, although rare, have been reported from various countries. It is therefore imperative to identify the risks and potential organisms implicated in cross infections in a pulmonary function test (PFT) laboratory and implement better and more effective infection control procedures, which will help in preventing cross infections. The infrastructure, the daily patient flow, and the prevalent disinfection techniques used in a PFT laboratory, all play a significant role in transmission of infections. Simple measures to tackle the cross infection potential in a PFT laboratory can help reduce this risk to a bare minimum. Use of specialized techniques and equipment can also be of much use in a set up that has a high turnover of patients. This review aims at creating awareness about the possible pathogens and situations commonly encountered in a PFT laboratory. We have attempted to suggest some relevant and useful infection control measures with regard to disinfection, sterilization, and patient planning and segregation to help minimize the risk of cross infections in a PFT laboratory. The review also highlights the lacuna in the current scenario of PFT laboratories in India and the need to develop newer and better methods of infection control, which will be more user-friendly and cost effective. Further studies to study the possible pathogens in a PFT laboratory and evaluate the prevalent infection control strategies will be needed to enable us to draw more precious conclusions, which can lead to more relevant, contextual recommendations for cross infections control in PFT lab in India.
Cross infection in a PFT lab; potential pathogens; preventive and control strategies
Pulmonary emphysema occasionally occurs in the absence of smoking or noxious exposures. Other than through a known association with alpha-1 antitryspin deficiency, to our knowledge, no reports implicate granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in causing airflow obstruction with small airway involvement and severe air trapping. To extend available experience, we report a 51-year-old male with biopsy-proven cytoplasmic–antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody proteinase 3 (ANCA PR3)-positive GPA who developed centrilobular emphysema and airflow obstruction during a phase of active vasculitis. He was a lifelong non-smoker and had a normal alpha-1 antitrypsin level and a PI*MM phenotype. Treatment with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide caused clinical remission of his vasculitis which was associated with improvement in his respiratory symptoms. However, to date, structural changes of emphysema have persisted for over 9 years of follow-up. Clinicians should remain vigilant to the possibility of emphysema in patients with pulmonary vasculitis.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); emphysema; granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)
Central venous catheterization is one of the most prevalent procedures in the Intensive Care Unit. Complications are reported in about 15% of the patients and usually comprise of infection, arterial puncture, malpositioning, pneumothorax, local hematoma, hemothorax, and so on. Chylothorax is a rare complication of this procedure. We present a 42-year-old lady, who developed bilateral massive chylothorax after cannulation of her left internal jugular vein (IJV), due to direct injury to the thoracic duct during the procedure. The patient was successfully managed with bilateral chest tube drainage and omission of oral feeds for four days. Development of bilateral chylothorax as a complication of IJV cannulation is rare, but merits reporting, in view of a large number of central venous cannulations being undertaken. Critical care professionals should be aware of this rare complication of a common procedure to facilitate early identification and institute appropriate therapy.
Bilateral; central venous catheters; chylothorax; complication; internal jugular vein cannulation; thoracic duct
Pulmonary multi-vesicular hydatid disease (HD) with Echinococcus granulosus is rare. A 28-year-old woman presented to our center with cough and respiratory distress. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography scan revealed bilateral giant cysts with water-lily sign (ruptured hydatid cysts). The left cyst was in vicinity of heart. With thoracotomy cysts of both lungs were removed. Thousands of translucent, homogenized small daughter cysts were discovered from the left side cyst. Pathologic examinations revealed the ruptured hydatid cysts of both lungs with daughter cysts on the left lung cyst. To best of our knowledge probably this is the first report of multi-vesicular HD in lung. We suppose that the heart pulsation was effective in the formation of daughter cysts.
Daughter cyst; lungs; multi-vesicular hydatid cyst; ruptured
We report a case of left anterior descending coronary artery to left upper lobe bronchus fistula arising out of the coronary artery aneurysm, secondary to drug eluting balloon angioplasty done for in-stent restenosis in the left anterior descending coronary artery in a 54-year-old male. This is an unreported entity yet.
Aneurysm; drug eluting balloon angioplasty; left anterior descending coronary artery to left upper lobe bronchus fistula
Extralobar sequestration of lung is a rare congenital malformation frequently diagnosed during repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. However, the combined association of congenital diaphragmatic hernia with both pulmonary sequestration and malrotation of gut is rare. We report a case of a 1-year-old girl with extralobar sequestration of lung and malrotation of gut detected during the repair of diaphragmatic hernia. The histopathological examination of the sequestered lobe revealed dilated bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli along with dilated subpleural and peribronchiolar lymphatics and areas of type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; congenital pulmonary airway malformation; extralobar sequestration of lung; malrotation of gut
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare vascular anomaly of the lung, which manifests predominantly as dyspnea (due to right to left shunting) and paradoxical embolism. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) being a rare genetic disorder is one of the most common causes of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM). Here we report an interesting case of recurrent anemia in an elderly female, who was subsequently found to have multiple cutaneous and mucosal telangiectasias and a large pulmonary AVM.
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia; pulmonary arteriovenous malformation; recurrent epistaxis; telangiectasia
A 28-year-old male presented with fever with right-sided chest pain for 2 weeks. Clinicoradiological picture was suggestive of right-sided pleural effusion. He had history of polytrauma following a road traffic accident and had to undergo emergency laparotomy a month ago. Microscopic and culture examination of the pleural fluid showed neutrophilia, high bilirubin content and presence of gram-negative bacilli. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed the presence of biloma in the liver and right subdiaphragmatic space with fistulous communication into the right thoracic cavity. The patient was managed successfully with complete recovery.
Biliopleural fistula; biloma; pleural effusion
There are multiple causes of lung abscess, but the differential rarely includes pyelonephritis as a primary cause leading to lung abscess resulting from the development of a nephrobronchial fistula. The patient had no urinary symptoms or abdominal pain and the etiology of lung abscess was only incidentally discovered after chest CT revealed extension of pleural fluid below the diaphragm.
Lung abscess; nephrobronchial fistula; pyelonephritis
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is characterized by the presence of hemoptysis, anemia, and the presence of diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on imaging studies. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is an uncommon cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and is classically known to present in childhood. Adult-onset IPH is extremely rare. We report the case of a 48-year-old female patient who presented with hemoptysis and acute hypoxic respiratory failure, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Imaging studies showed diffuse bilateral patchy infiltrates. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) confirmed the diagnosis of DAH. Extensive workup including video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lung biopsy (VATS) failed to reveal any vasculitis, infectious, immunological or connective tissue disorder, as the underlying cause for DAH. The patient was successfully treated with high-dose steroid therapy.
Adult-onset; diffuse alveolar hemorrhage; glucocorticoid therapy; idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis
The occurrence of multiple malignancies in the same patient being synchronous or metachronous is a rare event. The incidence of multiple malignancies varies with age, sex, geographic origin, and site and type of tumors. The pathogenetic etiology may be multifactorial and include genetic predisposition, immunodeficiency, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and various infectious agents. It is crucial to recognize synchronous malignancies because course of treatment and management is difficult. The synchronous occurrence of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and ileal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not reported in the Indian medical literature until today; hence, we publish this case for its rarity.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; synchronous malignancies; squamous cell carcinoma