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1.  Interstitial pneumonia associated to peginterferon alpha-2a: A focus on lung function 
Pulmonary toxicity related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a during treatment of hepatitis C infections is rare; nonetheless, some cases with fatal outcomes have been reported. Evaluating patients’ pulmonary function is a key to diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of several respiratory diseases, but case reports of respiratory manifestations related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a have limited their findings to only baseline measurements. This paper examines the case of a 65-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who developed interstitial pneumonitis associated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a. Initial lung function evaluation revealed a marked reduction compared to an earlier assessment; the results were consistent with a moderate restricted pattern. Fortunately, over the ensuing 8 weeks of follow-up after discontinuing the drug, the patient recovered her lung function and experienced an overall improvement in her respiratory symptoms.
PMCID: PMC4797450  PMID: 27051119
Interstitial pneumonia; lung function; pegylated interferon alpha-2a; restrictive pattern
3.  Endoscopic ultrasound in mediastinal tuberculosis 
Tubercular lymphadenitis is the commonest extra pulmonary manifestation in cervical and mediastinal locations. Normal characteristics of lymph nodes (LN) have been described on ultrasonography as well as by Endoscopic Ultrasound. Many ultrasonic features have been described for evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. The inter and intraobserver agreement of the endosonographic features have not been uniformly established.
Methods and Results:
A total of 266 patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and 134 cases were diagnosed as mediastinal tuberculosis. The endoscopic ultrasound location and features of these lymph nodes are described.
Our series demonstrates the utility of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration as the investigation of choice for diagnosis of mediastinal tuberculosis and also describes various endoscopic ultrasound features of such nodes.
PMCID: PMC4797428  PMID: 27051097
Endoscopic ultrasound; mediastinal lymph node; tuberculosis
4.  Tuberculosis associated pulmonary hypertension: The revelation of a clinical observation 
Pulmonary tuberculosis is not listed as a cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Scanty information is available in the literature regarding this issue.
A group of patients with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis were diagnosed to have PH on the basis of a novel clinico-radio-echocardiographic criteria. Subdivided into two groups on the basis of the history of smoking, we looked for their demographic, spirometric, radiological characteristics along with the quality of life assessment.
A total of 40 patients (21 smokers and 19 nonsmokers) were found to have PH with history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The two groups were similar radiologically including the extent of fibrosis. The nonsmoker group had lower age range (52.16 ± 14.81 vs. 63.1 ± 10.05, P = 0.01), worse chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test score (16.11 ± 6.24 vs. 13.9 ± 5.6, P = 0.25) and higher pulmonary artery (PA) pressure (46.39 ± 7.44 vs. 44.55 ± 8.04, P = 0.46) compared to the smokers. Overall and for the smoker group, in particular, the spirometric pictures were favoring obstruction without reversibility as in COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] % as 64.26 ± 18.38 and 58.85 ± 14.61 with % of predicted FEV1 being 43.74 ± 17.26 and 42.38 ± 16.64 respectively). However, those with no history of smoking had restrictive changes as in diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) in their spirometry (FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC] of 79.33 ± 19.93 and FVC as 49.67 ± 11.54% of predicted). The smoker group had far more obvious involvement of the small airways in terms of change in FEF25-75 compared to nonsmokers (FEF25-75 = 22.85 ± 19.68 vs. 63.83 ± 48.61).
PH appears associated with the history of pulmonary tuberculosis. With or without a history of smoking, they pose two distinct phenotypes in spirometry as COPD and DPLD. The DPLD phenotype had worse quality of life.
PMCID: PMC4797429  PMID: 27051098
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test score; diffuse parenchymal lung disease; interstitial lung disease; pulmonary hypertension; quality of life; spirometry; tuberculosis
5.  Demographic characteristic and analysis of pulmonary paragonimiasis in patients attending RIMS, Manipur 
Human infection by the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani is widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and South America. Transmission of the parasite to humans primarily occurs through the consumption of raw or undercooked crabs. Clinical features of recently diagnosed pulmonary Paragonimiasis show that patients present with a variety of clinical and radiological findings, frequently mimics tuberculosis and lung cancer.
Here in this study, we report a cross-sectional study of pulmonary paragonimiasis in our institute over a period of two year.
it was observed that out of eleven cases, prevalence of paragonimiasis was almost equal among both the genders, with a mean age of 38.1 ± 16.96, affecting people from hills. Three patients were erroneously treated with antitubercular drugs without any relief. The association with eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and tissue[16] was seen in all the study subjects and majority patients had pleural fluid eosinophilia. Patients were diagnosed by serological test, Paragonimus ova in Sputum smear and Pleural fluid. All study subjects had excellent clinical responses to praziquantel given at dose of 25 mg/kg given orally 3 times daily for 3 consecutive days.
There is a need to generate awareness among the clinicians and public regarding Paragonimiasis and to consider it in differential diagnosis of TB and carcinoma lung. Physicians should consider the possibility of paragonimiasis among patients who present with chest complaints with eosinophilia from the endemic regions.
PMCID: PMC4797430  PMID: 27051099
Lung fluke; paragonimiasis; parasites
6.  Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis: A clinical profile 
Systemic sclerosis is a generalized disorder of connective tissue affecting skin and internal organs. Lung involvement accounts for significant morbidity and is a leading cause of mortality in patients.
This study intends to study the frequency of occurrence of pulmonary involvement in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) and to describe the clinical and radiological picture of pulmonary involvement in PSS.
Materials and Methods:
This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. A detailed history, modified Rodnan score, clinical examination, routine investigation, antinuclear antibody, immuno biot, chest X-ray (CXR), pulmonary function test (PFT), and 6 min walk test (6MWT) were performed on all patients. High resolution computed tomography was done on those who consented.
Hundred subjects with PSS were included in the study; 90 were females and 10 were males. Common presenting complaints were skin thickening in 98% and Raynaud's phenomenon in 98%. Skin thickening of digits beyond metacarpo phalangeal was seen in 98%, face and neck in 92%, and hands in 92%. Chest wall thickening was seen in 40 subjects (40%). 90 (90%) of the studied subjects had pulmonary involvement, longer duration of disease was significantly associated with pulmonary involvement (P < 0.05). Dyspnea, cough, bilateral crepitations, CXR, Borg score, and Rodnan score was found to be significantly associated with severe pulmonary involvement (P < 0.05).
The prevalence of pulmonary involvement in this cohort study was 90%. Almost 1/3rd of patients, that is 29 (29%) were detected to have pulmonary involvement despite being asymptomatic for respiratory complaints, hence early screening and evaluation is recommended. PFT and 6MWT are noninvasive, cost-effective, and easily available screening tests which can be used in resource-limited settings.
PMCID: PMC4797431  PMID: 27051100
Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO); forced expiratory volume at 1 s; forced vital capacity; metacarpo phalangeal; mixed connective tissue disorder; systemic sclerosis
7.  Health-related quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: Results from a community based cross-sectional study in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. It is an incurable disease with improvement in quality of life (QOL) as a major focus area for management. This study assesses the QOL of COPD patients and the factors affecting it.
Materials and Methods:
All 124 patients diagnosed with COPD in a larger cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of COPD were assessed for their QOL using St. George's respiratory questionnaire for COPD patients (SGRQ-C). Spirometry was performed to assess lung function and diagnose COPD. Chronic lung disease (CLD) severity index was used to assess the severity of symptoms and the Medical Research Council questionnaire was used to assess the severity of dyspnea. Sociodemographic data regarding the patients were also recorded.
Patients with COPD showed significantly reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). CLD estimate for severity of lung disease and the Medical Research Council assessment for dyspnea and the duration of illness showed a highly significant positive correlation with HRQOL. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between lung function and SGRQ-C score. Increasing age, increased quantum of smoking, and lower socioeconomic status were correlated with poorer HRQOL. No association between QOL and education, body mass index (BMI), and gender was observed.
This study showed that Indian patients with COPD had reduced HRQOL. Poor lung function, increased disease duration and smoking, and worsening symptoms impacted HRQOL negatively.
PMCID: PMC4797432  PMID: 27051101
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; India; quality of life; St. George's respiratory questionnaire for COPD patients
8.  Pharmacoeconomic benefit of cisplatin and etoposide chemoregimen for metastatic non small cell lung cancer: An Indian study 
The incidence of lung cancer is rising in developing countries like India. Due to unaffordability among the low socioeconomic status (SES) patients, there is a significant delay in seeking appropriate medical treatment due to which a high proportion of patients present in an advanced/metastatic stage and the outcomes are poor.
In this study, we studied the progression-free survival (PFS) and the pharmacoeconomic benefits with the cisplatin plus etoposide (EtoP) chemo regimen and compared it with the current generation chemo regimen.
Materials and Methods:
We performed a retrospective analysis of metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who received one or more cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy between 2011 and 2014.
Of the 304 patients, 56.6% of the patients were of the low SES. Of the low socioeconomic group patients, 67.45% and 31.4% received etoposide and paclitaxel platinum doublet combination regimen as first line, respectively. The mean PFS with the etoposide, paclitaxel, pemetrexed, and gemcitabine platinum-based doublet regimens were 9.35, 10, 10.76, and 9.83 months, respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis showed a statistically significant initial survival with the first line EtoP cisplatin regimen for the initial 6 months of starting chemotherapy in comparison with the other regimens.
This study showed a substantial pharmacoeconomic benefit with the cisplatin and etoposide chemo regimen in the lower socioeconomic group of patients. We believe that this is the first pharmacoeconomic study on metastatic non small cell lung treatment of great relevance to countries with limited resources.
PMCID: PMC4797433  PMID: 27051102
Cisplatin and etoposide; lower socioeconomic status; metastatic nonsmall lung cancer; pharmacoeconomics
9.  Household symptomatic contact screening of newly diagnosed sputum smears positive tuberculosis patients - An effective case detection tool 
Primary objective was to assess the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among household contacts of newly diagnosed sputum smear (SS) positive TB index cases. Secondary objectives were the evaluation of risk factors in household contacts for acquiring TB disease; and the evaluation of various characteristics of index cases which influence the transmission of disease to household contacts.
Settings and Design:
This exploratory cohort study included 521 household contacts of 133 newly diagnosed SS positive TB patients who were registered under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program at the Directly Observed Treatment-Short Course Centres of District Tuberculosis Centre, Kolhapur, Maharashtra from July 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014 (8 months).
Subjects and Methods:
Household contacts with symptoms suggestive to TB were subjected to SS examination of two samples for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and for X-ray chest postero-anterior view. Presence of risk factors in symptomatic contacts was also recorded.
Eighteen contacts out of 521 (3.45%) had symptoms suggestive of TB. Of these, 6 contacts were diagnosed to have TB; 5 being sputum positive cases and one with X-ray suggestive of TB; giving a prevalence of 1.15 %. The study achieved a yield of 4.51% secondary cases.
Household contact screening of newly diagnosed TB index cases provides modest yield of cases. Relatively fewer secondary symptomatic persons need to be investigated by this method for achieving additional yield proving it to be a practical and feasible approach.
PMCID: PMC4797434  PMID: 27051103
Case detection; contact screening; tuberculosis
10.  Respiratory problems among cotton textile workers 
Long term occupational exposure to cotton dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and loss of pulmonary function.
This study was conducted to explore respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and chest radiography of workers, and to evaluate the findings of high resolution computed tomographyand its correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT).
Material and Methods:
The study was conducted on 100 cotton workers as exposed group and 100 unexposed subjects. Smokers were excluded from the study. All workers were interviewed and examined by the pulmonologist. PFT and chest radiography were conducted for all subjects. HRCT was performed for those with abnormal PFT or chest radiography.
A total of 51% and 31% of the cotton textile workers had one or more respiratory symptoms and respiratory signs respectively. 28% of subjects in the exposed group and 5% of subjects in unexposed group had obstructive pattern. Bronchia wall thickening and air trapping were the most frequent chest radiography and HRCT abnormalities respectively. There was a significant correlation between HRCT and the results of PFT.
We conclude that long term exposure to cotton dust is associated with obstructive disease that increase with duration of exposure (history of working years), also use of HRCT as a sensitive tool in the assessment of pathologic changes and it's correlation with PFT, confirms the expected pathophysiology of airway obstruction in cotton workers.
PMCID: PMC4797435  PMID: 27051104
Cotton workers; respiratory; textile
11.  Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years) in Srinagar 
To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir.
Study design:
Cross-sectional study.
Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools.
School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages.
Main Outcome Measure:
Prevalence of current and past asthma.
Methods and Results:
After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4%) which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47]) had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4) had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9) had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]). Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7) and 10% (n = 6) had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26). On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178), seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852), atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004), and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034). On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors.
Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under diagnosis and wrong treatment.
PMCID: PMC4797436  PMID: 27051105
Asthma; Global Initiative for Asthma; International Study on Allergy and Asthma in Childhood; questionnaire
12.  Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients 
Psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety and depression have been reported to have an increased prevalence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but there is a paucity of data from India.
Aims and Objectives:
Aim of our study is to study the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients and their correlation with severity of COPD, as per global initiative for obstructive lung disease guidelines.
Materials and Methods:
This study was conducted in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital (King George's Medical University). A total of 74 COPD patients were included in this study and compared with 74 controls. The diagnosis and severity of COPD were assessed by spirometry. Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire.
The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in COPD patients (28.4%) as compared to controls (2.7%). As regards to severity, the frequency was significantly increased in severe and very severe COPD. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients increased significantly with the increase in duration of symptoms being present in 67% of patients with duration of symptoms more than 10 years and only 23% of patients with duration of symptoms ≤5 years.
The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities is increased in COPD patients as compared to controls. We recommend that all patients with COPD should be screened for psychiatric comorbidity, if any.
PMCID: PMC4797437  PMID: 27051106
Anxiety; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; psychiatric comorbidities
13.  Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis 
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease.
PMCID: PMC4797438  PMID: 27051107
Benzimidazoles; cystic echinococcosis; Echinococcus granulosus; water-lily sign
14.  Tubercular mycotic aortic aneurysm: A case report 
Tubercular aneurysms of larger vessels, particularly the aorta is very rare. The first case of tubercular involvement of the aorta in the form of aortitis was reported in 1882 by Weigert and the first case of tubercular mycotic aneurysm of the aorta was reported in 1895. The preoperative diagnosis of tubercular aortic aneurysm is difficult. Even at surgery, determining the tubercular nature of the lesion is problematic. The gross appearance may not be distinctive, and acid-fast stains are unlikely to be performed. We report the case of a young female patient who was started on antitubercular treatment for pleural effusion and was found to have aortic aneurysm, which later on proved to be tubercular in origin.
PMCID: PMC4797439  PMID: 27051108
Anti-tubercular treatment; mycotic aneurysm; saccular; tubercle Bacilli
15.  Askin tumor: A rare neoplasm of thoracopulmonary region 
Askin tumor is a rare neoplasm of thoracopulmonary region. But it mimics other common pediatric disorders, such as empyema, lymphoma, and tuberculosis, posing a great diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the treating clinicians. So it is of utmost importance to make an early diagnosis and proper referral/treatment in such cases. We highlighted diagnostic challenge, treatment, and favorable outcome of a case that presented to us.
PMCID: PMC4797440  PMID: 27051109
Adolescent; askin tumor; neural crest
16.  Ganglioneuroblastoma: Unusual presentation as a pleural mass mimicking mesothelioma 
Ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB) is a rare peripheral neuroblastic tumor that is derived from developing neuronal cells of the sympathetic nervous system, and usually occurs in young children. We present a case of GNB occurring as pleural mass in a 2-year-old boy, which led to diagnostic confusion. On fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), it was misinterpreted as mesothelioma. He underwent thoracotomy with excision of the mass. Histopathological findings showed features of a biphasic tumor suggestive of mesothelioma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed for mesothelioma markers were inconclusive. On review of the histology slides, GNB was considered, which was subsequently proven by IHC. The rarity of this tumor, along with its nearly restricted occurrence at a young age, necessitates a strong suspicion in patients presenting with a symptomatic intrathoracic mass.
PMCID: PMC4797441  PMID: 27051110
Ganglioneuroblastoma; immunohistochemistry; mesothelioma; pleura
17.  Salvage pneumonectomy for pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in a 12-year-old boy with brain abscess and hemiparesis: A fatal outcome 
Large pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) constitute an uncommon cause of central cyanosis with septic embolism and brain abscess. This large right to left shunt can lead to chronic severe hypoxemia and significant morbidity and mortality if untreated. Conservative parenchyma-sparing lung resection was used widely as treatment of choice. However, with the advent of embolotheraphy, it is considered the preferred mode of treatment with less invasiveness. We here report a 12-year-old boy with large aneurysmal pulmonary arteriovenous fistula presented with brain abscess and hemiparesis. He underwent thoracotomy and pneumonectomy for large PAVMs, and it was complicated with bleeding and massive blood transfusion. The patient developed acute renal failure as a postoperative complication and succumbed to it. We suggest proper look out for systemic collateral and their management by embolitheraphy either alone or in combination should be tried first. We also suggest median sternotomy and intrapericardial approach for pneumonectomy in such difficult situation can be helpful.
PMCID: PMC4797442  PMID: 27051111
Brain abscess; contrast echocardiography; cyanosis; embolotheraphy; lung resection; pulmonary arteriovenous malformation
18.  Left lung agenesis discovered by a spontaneous pneumothorax in a 20-year-old girl 
Lung agenesis is a rare condition which prognosis widely depends on associated malformations. Clinical presentation is so variable and diagnosis is often made in childhood. Here, we present a case of a 20-year-old girl who was admitted because of a spontaneous pneumothorax. Explorations concluded at a left lung agenesis, a hyperinflated right lung crossing the midline with a corresponding pneumothorax. There was no malformation else. This congenital condition and treatment for this rare presentation are discussed in detail.
PMCID: PMC4797443  PMID: 27051112
Congenital; lung; pneumothorax; surgical treatment
19.  Pyopneumothorax with Stocker type III congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in a 5-month-old infant 
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a rare, developmental, hamartomatous abnormality of the lung characterized by a cessation of normal bronchiolar maturation, resulting in cystic overgrowth of the terminal bronchioles. We report one such case of CCAM in a 5-month-old female infant who was in perfect health until she suffered from spontaneous pyopneumothorax with type III CCAM of the lung and recovered after lobectomy.
PMCID: PMC4797444  PMID: 27051113
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation; lobectomy; pyopneumothorax
20.  Use of radial probe endobronchial ultrasound for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesion: First report from India 
Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) helps in the evaluation and sampling of peripheral pulmonary lesions (nodules, masses, consolidation), and has been demonstrated a safer alternative to computed tomography guided procedure, especially in lesions that are away from the chest wall. Although radial probe EBUS has been available for more than two decades, there is no report from the Indian subcontinent. Herein, we describe two cases of peripheral lung lesions that were successfully sampled with the use of radial probe EBUS.
PMCID: PMC4797445  PMID: 27051114
Convex probe EBUS; endobronchial ultrasound; lung cancer; radial probe EBUS; solitary pulmonary nodule
21.  Transcutaneous closure of chronic broncho-pleuro-cutaneous fistula by duct occluder device 
Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a well known complication of several pulmonary conditions posing challenging management problem and is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Though no consensus exists on a definite closure management algorithm, strategies for closure widely include various methods like tube thoracostomy with suction, open surgical closure, bronchoscopy directed glue, coiling and sealants which now also includes use of occlusion devices. We report a case in which a novel method of delivery and closure of recurrent post-operative broncho-pleuro-cutaneous fistula by a duct occluder device was done transcutaneously which has not been previously described in literature.
PMCID: PMC4797446  PMID: 27051115
Broncho-pleuro-cutaneous fistula; duct occluder device; transcutaneous closure
22.  Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive? 
Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition.
PMCID: PMC4797447  PMID: 27051116
Interstitial lung disease; pulmonary fibrosis; swine flu
23.  Parasitic infestation of lung: An unusual cause of interstitial pneumonitis 
Parasite infections are increasing worldwide due to increasing migration and traveling. Parasitic infections can affect lungs and present as a focal or diffuse lung diseases. High index of suspicion and detailed history are most important. We present a case of interstitial pneumonitis caused by parasite infestation, which was diagnosed on transbronchial lung biopsy.
PMCID: PMC4797448  PMID: 27051117
Interstitial pneumonitis; parasitic infestation; transbronchial lung biopsy
24.  Combined tracheoinnominate artery fistula and tracheoesophageal fistula: A very rare complication of indwelling tracheostomy tube 
Tracheoinnominate artery fistula (TIF) is a serious complication of tracheostomy. If untreated, it could be life-threatening. The emergency approach to the condition that includes prompt diagnosis, rapid control of bleeding with a clear airway, and operation with or without interruption of the innominate artery are the most important factors influencing patient outcome. Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is another complication of tracheostomy. In association with compromised quality of life, this condition is really hard to be treated. We report a case of combined TIF and TEF in a 27-year-old man with quadriplegia who suffered a car accident but was successfully managed with interruption and ligature of the innominate artery repair of trachea.
PMCID: PMC4797449  PMID: 27051118
Surgery; tracheoesophageal fistula; tracheoinnominate artery fistula; tracheostomy
25.  Tuberculosis and pulmonary hypertension: Commentary 
PMCID: PMC4797451  PMID: 27051120

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