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2.  Methodological Concerns Comparing Buzzy to Transilluminator Device 
PMCID: PMC3903940  PMID: 24478562
3.  Ochronosis of the Hip Joint: Differential Diagnosis of Inflammatory Arthropathy with Lytic Lesion 
Alkaptonuria or ochronosis is a rare inborn disorder of metabolism which is characterized by deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase. There is accumulation of homogentisic acid in the connective tissues causing brownish black pigmentation and skeletal damage. The most serious complication of this disease is crippling degenerative arthropathy which presents in late years of life. There is no definitive treatment for the condition. Symptomatic management is the main stay. Surgical management such as arthroplasty is done for severe cases of ochronosis. We report a case of ochronosis of the hip joint presenting with inflammation and lytic lesion which can create confusion and lead to error in diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3903920  PMID: 24478561
Alkaptonuria; Ochronosis; Hip joint; Lytic lesion
4.  Arsenic-Induced Hepatic Toxicity and Its Attenuation by Fruit Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla) in Mice 
Arsenic a metalloid and environmental contaminated has been found to be associated with public health problems in the affected areas. It is naturally occurred in groundwater and its accumulation in plant and animals leads to toxicity in several tissues most notably hepatic organ. Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) in mice exhibited increased arsenic and Zn levels in hepatocytes associated with enhanced oxidative stress in hepatocytes while there were no significantly changes were observed in Cu level. An increase in the lipid peroxidation and decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were observed in arsenic treated mice as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure in mice also caused a significant change in serum biomarkers in the SGOT, SGPT and creatinine as compared to the controls. There were no significant changes in the serum levels of total protein in these mice. Co-administration of arsenic and fruit extract of amla (500 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) caused a significant reduction of arsenic transference associated with significantly decreases hepatic arsenic levels and balanced the antioxidant enzyme and levels of serum hepatic enzymes like SGOT and SGPT. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the antioxidant property of amla that could be responsible for its protective efficacy in arsenic induced hepatic toxicity.
PMCID: PMC3903921  PMID: 24478546
Arsenic; Emblicaofficinalis; Oxidative stress; Liver dysfunction; Metal estimation; Mice
5.  Chronic Exposure to Lead: A Cause of Oxidative Stress and Altered Liver Function in Plastic Industry Workers in Kolkata, India 
It is well known that chronic exposure of lead leads to adverse health effects. Workers for plastic industry are generally exposed to high concentration of lead as fume, dust, and additive that protect PVC. This study was done on them to find out the detrimental effects of chronic lead exposure on hepatic and hematological toxicity. Blood and 24 h urine sample was collected from 47 plastic industry workers and matched against 42 controls for various parameters. The study group shows significant increase in blood (p < 0.0001) and urinary level of lead (p < 0.0001). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.0001), and the liver enzymes like ALP, ALT, AST and y-GT were significantly increased (p < 0.0001) in all cases exposed for >10 years. Serum lipid peroxide by quantitative assay of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was also found increased in the study group (p < 0.0001). The observations point towards the acute health risk faced by plastic industry workers, in whom chronic exposure to lead increases the absorption and accumulation, over a period of time, of this highly toxic element in their body. This increases oxidative stress, causes metabolic damage to RBC and cell membranes, and also suggests necrosis of liver cell, hepatocellular injury and presence of space occupying lesions. Considering the data immediate health and hygiene monitoring and proper rehabilitation for the suffering population seem to be of paramount need in plastic industry to minimize occupational hazards.
PMCID: PMC3903922  PMID: 24478556
Lead intoxication; Oxidative stress; Hepatocellular injury
6.  Reference Interval Determination of Total Plasma Homocysteine in an Indian Population 
Hyperhomocysteinemia has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease as well as retinal vascular occlusion. Because of the epidemiological, dietary, genetic and environmental diversity among the different countries, each country should establish the reference interval of homocysteine of their own population for recommending appropriate medical decision limits. Hence a total of 1,288 apparently healthy subjects including 636 male and 652 female were enrolled in the present study to determine the reference intervals of homocysteine in an Indian population. Results of the study were presented as mean, standard deviation, median and 2.5th and 97.5th percentile with the 0.90 confidence interval of each percentile values of homocysteine along with decade-wise changes.
PMCID: PMC3903923  PMID: 24478553
Homocysteine (Hcys); Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcys); Reference interval; Confidence interval (CI); Percentile
7.  PCT as a Prognostic Marker in Cardiac Patients with Neutropenic Sepsis: Two Case Reports 
Procalcitonin (PCT) is an innovative and highly specific marker for diagnosis of clinically relevant bacterial infection and sepsis. PCT supports early diagnosis and Clinical decision making. A retrospective study of two classical cases of neutropenic sepsis with elevated PCT levels in cardiac ICU was done. PCT was analyzed using Elecsys Brahms PCT kit. Serum PCT levels <0.5 ng/ml and ANC <1,000/mm3 was taken as cutoff. The first patient had initial high levels of PCT 100 ng/ml, TLC 13,600/mm3 and ANC 12,250/mm3. It was followed by drop with subsequent rise in PCT levels and drop in TLC 1,000/mm3 and ANC 70/mm3. The second patient had normal PCT 0.116 ng/ml, TLC 5,600/mm3 and ANC 4,420/mm3 levels followed with sharp increase in all the values with subsequent drop in TLC 2,000/mm3 and ANC 880 cells/mm3. Both the patients died of neutropenic sepsis with multiorgan failure. The case reports showed the correlation of PCT with TLC and ANC levels in predicting the mortality of patients with neutropenic sepsis in cardiac ICU.
PMCID: PMC3903924  PMID: 24478560
Procalcitonin; Neutropenic sepsis; Total leucocyte count; Cardiac patients; Absolute eosinophil count
8.  Prevalence of +405G>C,−1154G>A Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Polymorphism in Breast Cancer 
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the development of Breast Cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the VEGF gene on prognosis of Breast Cancer patients. This study comprised 200 patients with histologically confirmed cases of Breast cancer and 200 controls. Genotyping of the VEGF gene polymorphisms at +405G>C,−1154G>A, were performed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Preoperative plasma VEGF levels were determined by ELISA. Amongst both cases and controls, the genotypic distribution of the individual SNPs were all in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Mean VEGF level was significantly elevated in cases compared to controls (t = 8.248; P < 0.001). No significant association was found between +405G>C,−1154G>A VEGF polymorphism and Breast Cancer. Logistic regression analysis revealed that 405GG & 1154GG were associated with higher levels of VEGF.
PMCID: PMC3903925  PMID: 24478545
Breast cancer; VEGF polymorphism; Genotype; Plasma VEGF; ELISA
9.  Determination of Acid β-Galactosidase Activity: Methodology and Perspectives 
Early, accurate diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders is a major challenge, even for trained specialists. Finding innovative, accurate diagnostic methods, and high throughput, cost-effective tools are crucial to medical progress and will contribute to improved quality of life. The goal of this work was to improve currently used protocols to determine activity of acid β-galactosidase, and discuss the possibility analysing lysosomal enzymes with microfluidic systems. A principle of the determination of β-galactosidase activity was fluorometric measurement of a deprotonated form of 4-methylumbelliferone released in the enzymatic reaction. Measurements were performed using Jurkat T cells as a source of the enzyme. We observed the temperature-dependent substrate inhibition effect and determined the substrate (4-MU-β-d-galactopyranoside) concentration which should be used to determine acid β-galactosidase activity at 37 °C (0.8 mM) and at room temperature (0.6 mM). We proved that the sample incubation time may be significantly reduced to only a few minutes. We also showed that the amount of alkaline buffer used to stop the enzymatic reaction may be minimized and even, in some cases, eliminated. The presented results show how the sensitivity of the available methods to diagnose patients suffer from gangliosidosis GM1 or Morquio B disease can be improved. The proposed method may be easily implemented with microfluidic systems, which currently are promising tools for point-of-care applications.
PMCID: PMC3903926  PMID: 24478550
β-Galactosidase activity; Lysosomal storage disorders; Substrate inhibition; Point of care; Microfluidic device; Lab on a chip
10.  A Study to Evaluate Lipid Profile in Treatment Naïve HIV Positive Patients 
HIV infection is associated with lipid abnormalities in treatment naïve patients. CD4 count is used for monitoring the HIV infection. Primary objective was to evaluate and correlate lipid profile and CD4 counts in HIV infection. Secondary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using Lipid profile to monitor the HIV infected treatment naïve patients instead of CD4 counts. 112 patients were selected based on a criteria from ART center in tertiary care center. CD4 counts were assessed and Lipid profile was evaluated enzymatically. A correlation study was done between the lipid profile and the CD4 count and clinical stages of infection. Cholesterol showed no significant correlation in any stage. HDL-C showed significant correlation (p < 0.05) with stage 2 and 4 disease. LDL-C showed no significant correlation in any stage. TGL showed significant correlation (p < 0.05) at stage 4 disease. Hence, HDL-C and TGL can be used as indicators of lipid status and for infection progression in treatment naive HIV patients, while Cholesterol and LDL-C has no role to play.
PMCID: PMC3903927  PMID: 24478548
Lipid profile; Treatment naïve HIV infected patients; NACO based clinical staging
11.  In Vitro Evaluation of the Efficacy of Liposomal and Pegylated Liposomal Hydroxyurea 
Breast cancer is one of the most frequent cancer types within women population. Hydroxyurea (HU) is a chemotherapy compound for treatment of patients with cancer diagnosis, including breast cancer associated with several adverse effects. In this study, we applied nanotechnology to decreased drug side effects along with improvement of therapeutic index. Liposomation is widely used in modern pharmacological developments in order to enhance the effects of the drugs. To achieve this, in this study a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol was made up and HU was added to the resultant mixture, was then pegylated using Polyethylene Glycol 2000 to increase resistance, applicability and solubility. The mean diameters of nanoliposomal and pegylated nanoliposomal HU were measured by Zeta sizer device and obtained about 402.5 and 338.2 nm. The efficiency of non-pegylated and pegylated liposomal HU was 70.8 and 64.2, respectively. Releasing HU in both formulations was estimated about 25.8 and 21.7 %. Also, this study investigated the cytotoxicity effect of nanoliposomal and pegylated nanoliposomal HU using MTT assay. Results of this investigation showed that the cytotoxic properties of pegylated HU was 3.6 % more than those non-pegylated form, while was 38.93 % more than ordinary from of HU. This study showed that the stability, releasing pattern and cytotoxicity of the pegylated nanoliposomal HU is better than that of nanoliposomal HU.
PMCID: PMC3903928  PMID: 24478555
Breast cancer; Hydroxyurea; Liposome; Pegylated liposome
12.  The Roles of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)-23, α-Klotho and Furin Protease in Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis : A Mini-Review 
The roles of calcitonin, parathormone and calcitriol in the regulation of plasma calcium and phosphate are well-established. However, in autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickety patients, studies have revealed normal plasma levels of calcium, associated with normal thyroid and parathyroid functions, but decreased levels of phosphate and calcitriol despite adequate reserves of vitamin D. Also, in tumoral calcinosis, persistent hyperphosphatemia with increased levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 have been observed. These studies indicate the involvement of factors other than the ones already known. The first decade of this century/millennium has led to the discovery of the involvement of fibroblast growth factor-23, furin protease and α-klotho in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate, which is the subject of this mini-review.
PMCID: PMC3903929  PMID: 24478543
Calcitriol; Fibroblast growth factor-23; Furin; α-Klotho; Sclerostin; Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 5 (TRPV5) protein
13.  Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Selected Persian Gulf Algae 
In the present study, the effect of red (Gracillaria corticata), green (Ulva fasciata) and brown (Sargassum ilicifolium) seaweeds alcoholic extract, against five important human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, HepG2, and HT-29) proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were evaluated. The reducing activity and total polyphenol content were also investigated. MTT assay was used for cytotoxicity test. Morphological alterations were examined using phase contrast, fluorescent and electron microscopy. All the extracts were antiproliferative against all the cancer cell lines, dose-dependently, with G. corticata methanol extract (GCME) having the greatest inhibition activity against MCF-7 cell line. The percentage of apoptosis increased from 18 to 78 %. The cell cycle analysis also showed that GCME can induce apoptosis which confirm by TEM. Algal extract reducing activities were as follows: G.corticata > S. ilicifolium > U. fasciata. The GCME is a good source of potential complementary and alternative functional food for prevention and treatment of cancer.
PMCID: PMC3903930  PMID: 24478544
Antioxidant; Apoptosis; Cytotoxicity; Persian Gulf; Seaweeds
15.  Assessment of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Drug Naive Patients of Bipolar Disorder 
The levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance (IR) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in a sample population of bipolar disorder (BPD) patients who were newly diagnosed and psychotropically naïve were assessed and compared with an age, sex and racially matched control population. 55 BPD-I patients (15–65 years) who were non-diabetic, nonpregnant, and drug naïve for a period of at least 6 months were included in the study. Diagnosis was made using the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders (SCID IV). IR was assessed using homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); MS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Data were compared with 25 healthy controls. BPD patients had significantly higher mean levels of fasting plasma insulin (13.2 ± 9.2 vs. 4.68 ± 3.1 μIU/ml, p < 0.05), postprandial plasma insulin (27.2 ± 14.5 vs. 18.1 ± 9.3 μIU/ml, p < 0.05) and a higher value of HOMA-IR (3.16 ± 2.2 vs. 1.19 ± 0.8, p < 0.05) when compared to the controls. A significantly higher proportion of patients of BPD compared to controls were manifesting levels of fasting plasma glucose, serum triglyceride and blood pressure higher than the cut off while waist circumference and serum HDL cholesterol failed to show any significant difference in the proportion. There was a significantly higher proportion of prevalence of IR between BPD cases and controls (26/55 vs. 2/25, z value 9.97, p < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in proportion of prevalence of MS between these two groups. Within BPD patients, logistic regression analysis showed that age, sex or current mood status (depressed/manic) were not significantly predictive of presence or absence of MS or increased IR.
PMCID: PMC3903932  PMID: 24478549
Bipolar disorder; Metabolic syndrome; Insulin resistance; HOMA-IR
16.  Serum Urea:Albumin Ratio as a Prognostic Marker in Critical Patients With Non-Chronic Kidney Disease 
Routine laboratory investigations play an important role in estimating the risk of mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The significance of urea:albumin ratio (UAR) in predicting the stay and mortality of ICU patients is not known. It is a retrospective study of patients admitted to ICU (n = 412) with non-chronic kidney disease (non-CKD). Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for predicting mortality was carried out to find area under curve (AUC) and threshold levels. Analysis of survival probability was carried out by Kaplan–Meier method and Log-rank test. The AUC to predict mortality were 0.695, 0.767 and 0.791 for serum albumin, urea and UAR, respectively. The threshold levels for albumin, urea and UAR were 2.8 g/dL, 53 mg/dL, and 23.44 mg/g, respectively. The highest odds ratio (OR) of 9.75 to predict mortality at threshold level was observed for UAR, while OR were 7.0 and 3.62 for serum urea and albumin, respectively. The serum urea above and albumin below threshold level were associated with increase in ICU stay of >3 days but the highest OR of 4.73 to predict stay of >3 days was observed for UAR. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis shows significant (p < 0.001) difference at the threshold value of UAR. Serum urea and albumin are found to be an independent predictor for the mortality and stay; however an increased UAR value is the best parameter in predicting mortality and stay in ICU patients with non-CKD illness.
PMCID: PMC3903933  PMID: 24478558
Urea:albumin ratio (UAR); Critical patients; Non-CKD; Stay; Mortality; Threshold level
17.  Biochemical Evaluation of Patients of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Non-alcoholic Liver Disease 
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is due to excessive alcohol intake for long duration. Distinguishing ALD from non-ALD (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatitis of viral origin) is difficult as patient may deny alcohol abuse. Clinical examination, histology and serology may not differentiate these conditions. Accurate diagnosis is important as management of ALD differs from non-ALD patients. The aim of our study was (1) To evaluate the patients of ALD and non-ALD by biochemical parameters compared to controls, (2) To assess whether these parameters can differentiate ALD from non-ALD. Study was carried out on 50 patients of ALD in group I and 35 patients of NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and acute viral hepatitis each in group II. Age matched healthy controls n = 50. Selection criteria—history of alcohol intake (amount and duration), clinical examination, sonography of abdomen, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and bilirubin levels. Blood samples were analyzed for bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) by kinetic method. Statistical analysis was done by Student unpaired ‘t’ test. Patients of ALD have raised AST/ALT ratio (De Ritis ratio) (>2), ALP and GGT compared to controls (P < 0.01).There is significant difference in AST/ALT ratio, serum GGT and ALP in ALD group compared to that in NASH and acute viral hepatitis (P < 0.05). This study suggests that De Ritis ratio >2 in ALD patients may be due to alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial injury and pyridoxine deficiency. High GGT and ALP values may indicate enzyme induction by alcohol and mild cholestasis. Thus ALD patients have severe hepatic damage. De Ritis ratio <1 and normal to mild elevation in GGT level in NASH and acute viral hepatitis suggest mild hepatic injury of non-alcoholic origin. Our study concludes that ALD patients can be differentiated from NASH and acute viral hepatitis with certainty by measuring serum AST/ALT ratio, GGT and ALP. These biochemical parameters may help clinicians to support the diagnosis of ALD and non-ALD.
PMCID: PMC3903934  PMID: 24478554
Alcoholic liver disease; Aspartate transaminase; Alanine transaminase; Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
18.  “P53 Codon 72 Single Base Substitution in Viral Hepatitis C and Hepatocarcinoma Incidences” 
Viral infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a high propensity in becoming chronic and it is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. This review was basically established to illustrate the putative role of the P53 gene Arg72Pro polymorphism on various cancer models and viral infections, focusing on HCV and HCC incidences. Authors studied the 72 G/C single base substitution of P53 gene at codon 72 using various polymorphic techniques. Intriguingly, authors investigated that the P53 codon 72 plays a crucial role as risk factor in several cancer models. Others found that there is no association between codon 72 genotypes and HCV disease severity or liver cancer. Moreover, the lack of a significant relationship between this polymorphism and risk of HCC shows that it does not predispose towards hepatocarcinogenesis and the frequent loss of the proline allele in HCV-associated carcinogenesis of the liver plays some critical role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Amazingly, there is a significant correlation between male homozygotes for P53 72Pro with HCV type 1b infection. However, there was no significant difference between the P53 polymorphism and HCV genotypes 2a and 2b. It was concluded that the P53 gene polymorphism at codon 72 has been investigated as potential risk factor in several cancer models and HCV infections.
PMCID: PMC3903935  PMID: 24478542
P53 codon 72; Hepatitis C; Hepatocarcinoma
19.  Interrelationship Between Procalcitonin and Organ Failure in Sepsis 
Sepsis suffers from lack of specific clinical symptoms which contribute to one of the major causes of mortality. In the present study, our aim was to evaluate the role of a recent biomarker Procalcitonin (PCT) in predicting organ dysfunction. 71 patients admitted with sepsis were included in the study. PCT levels were measured at 0, 24, 72 h and 7th day and sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA) scores were calculated. PCT levels significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in 89.3 % of surviving patients, whereas, in 60 % non surviving patients the PCT level increased significantly (p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation between PCT and SOFA score was observed in survivors at each hour. These observations indicate that PCT concentration is significantly associated with severity of multi organ dysfunction and also helps in determining the prognosis of septic patients.
PMCID: PMC3903936  PMID: 24478557
Procalcitonin; Sepsis; Organ dysfunction; Biomarker; Prognosis
20.  A Rare Case of Mucopolysaccharidosis 
Mucopolysaccharidosis are a group of rare metabolic disorders of the lysosomal storage disease family caused by the absence or malfunctioning of lysosomal enzymes responsible for their breakdown. It encompasses disorders in which undegraded or partly degraded glycosaminoglycans accumulate in the lysosomes of many tissues owing to a deficiency of specific lysosomal enzymes. Here we report a case of a 7 years old child displaying the symptoms of Morquio’s disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV). Urine screening tests were performed which gave contrasting results.
PMCID: PMC3903937  PMID: 24478559
Mucopolysaccharidosis; Glycosaminoglycans; Lysosomal storage diseases; Screening tests
21.  Impairment of Mitochondrial–Nuclear Cross Talk in Neutrophils of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Increased leukocyte apoptosis is intrinsically linked to disease patho-physiology, susceptibility to and severity of infections in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. A consistent defect in neutrophil function is considered central to this increased risk for infections. Although redox imbalance is considered a potential mediator of these associated complications, detailed molecular evidence in clinical samples remains largely undetected. The study consisted of three groups (n = 50 each) of Asian Indians: early diagnosed diabetic patients, cases with late-onset diabetic complications and age and gender-matched healthy controls. We evaluated mitochondrial oxidative stress, levels of nuclear DNA damage and apoptosis in peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from T2DM patients. We observed that in both early and late diabetic subjects, the HbA1c levels in neutrophils were altered considerably with respect to healthy controls. Increased oxidative stress observed in both early and late diabetics imply the disentanglement of fine equilibrium of mitochondria-nuclear cross talk which eventually effected the augmentation of downstream nuclear γH2AX activation and caspase-3 expression. It would be overly naïve to refute the fact that mitochondrial deregulation in neutrophils perturbs immunological balance in type 2 diabetic conditions. By virtue of our data, we posit that maneuvering mitochondrial function might offer a prospective and viable method to modulate neutrophil function in T2DM. Nevertheless, similar investigations from other ethnic groups in conjunction with experimental evidences would be a preeminent need. Obviously, our study might aid to comprehend this complex interplay between mitochondrial dysfunction and neutrophil homeostasis in T2DM.
PMCID: PMC3903938  PMID: 24478547
Mitochondria dysfunction; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Free radical injury; Translational research
22.  Characterization of Human Serum Immunoglobulin G Modified with Singlet Oxygen 
Reactive oxygen species, as singlet oxygen (1O2), is continuously being generated by aerobic organisms, and react actively with biomolecules. At excessive amounts, 1O2 induces oxidative stress and shows carcinogenic and toxic effects due to oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. In our study, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was modified by 1O2 generated by the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of methylene blue. The modified IgG was characterized by UV spectroscopy, carbonyl content determination, thermal denaturation and electrophoretic study. Oxidation induced by modification of IgG by 1O2 also analyzed by scavenging studies. It was found that ultraviolet absorption spectra of modified IgG shows marked hyperchromicity. The carbonyl content was found to be high in modified IgG as compared to native IgG which confirms its oxidation. Thermal denaturation of modified protein sample shows decrease in Tm value by 3 °C and less intensity banding pattern on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The quenching effect of sodium azide provides clue for modification of IgG by methylene blue, as it is known 1O2 scavenger. Hence, the IgG modified with 1O2 may be one of the etiological pathogenic factors for rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3903939  PMID: 24478551
IgG; ROS; Singlet oxygen; Methylene blue; Sodium azide
23.  Effect of Resveratrol and Nicotine on PON1 Gene Expression: In Vitro Study 
Dietary and lifestyle factors have been shown to have a profound effect on paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity. Cigarette smoke has been shown to inhibit its mass and activity where as resveratrol has been shown to enhance it. We exposed hepatoma derived cell line (HepG2) to resveratrol and nicotine in varying doses and measured PON1 enzymatic activity and PON1 gene expression. In addition, total protein content of HepG2 cells was also measured. Resveratrol in a dose of 15 μmol/l or above significantly increased the PON1 enzyme activity (p > 0.001) where as nicotine in a dose of 1 μmol/l or higher significantly reduced it (p < 0.05). The resveratrol in this dose also enhanced the PON1 gene expression whereas nicotine decreased it as compared to controls. However, the protein conent of cells was not changed suggesting that they were not cytotoxic in the doses used. Till date the antioxidant vitamins have shown disappointing results against LDL oxidation and cardiovascular protection. However, the effect of resveratrol on PON1 gene expression and activity was significant, suggesting increase in PON1 activity and enhanced gene expression may be its alternative mechanism for offering protection against cardiovascular disease and may be an potential pharmacological agent which can be used for this.
PMCID: PMC3903941  PMID: 24478552
Paraoxonase1; PON1 gene expression; HepG2 cell line; Resveratrol; Nicotine
24.  Thyroid Disorders in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
The study was planned to assess the prevalence of thyroid disorders in type 2 diabetes in North Indian population and to correlate the serum insulin and glycosylated haemoglobin levels with thyroid hormones. It is a case control study. One hundred and twenty patients of type 2 diabetes were included in the study along with 117 adults of the same age group and normal glucose levels as controls. All blood samples were taken from subjects who fasted for at least 12 h before the blood collection. Glycosylated hemoglobin was determined by ion exchange chromatography and serum insulin and thyroid hormones were assessed through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels were significantly higher in diabetics showing a poor glucose control. Serum tri-iodothyronine values were significantly lower in diabetics. There was a significant correlation between glycosylated haemoglobin and thyroid hormones. There was no correlation between serum insulin and thyroid hormones.
PMCID: PMC3783922  PMID: 24426234
Glycemic control; Thyroid hormones; Glycosylated haemoglobin; Insulin; Endocrine disorders; Hypothyroidism; Hyperthyroidism
25.  The Correlative Study of Serum Pseudo-cholinesterase, Biological Parameters and Symptoms Among Occupational Workers 
Cholinesterase is one of many important enzymes needed for acetylcholine hydrolysis. This study aimed to evaluate the serum pseudo-cholinesterase (BuChE) level and its relation to biological parameters (hematological and biochemical parameters) and symptoms among occupational workers, gasoline station worker in Bangkok, Thailand. Our results revealed that the average BuChE level was in normal range, but it had strong relation to hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and serum glutamic pyruvic trans-aminase (SGPT) (Linear regression analysis, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p = 0.001 and p < 0.01 respectively). Although, BuChE was not related to white blood cell parameters, but it may exhibit the skin irritation (p = 0.058) of the workers as it showed significant correlation to conjunctivitis and nausea (Pearson’s correlation, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). In conclusion, this finding may explain that BuChE was significantly related to red blood cells (RBC), liver and kidney functions.
PMCID: PMC3783904  PMID: 24426243
Serum cholinesterase; Biological parameters; Symptoms; Gasoline station workers

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