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1.  An analysis of functional shoulder movements during task performance using Dartfish movement analysis software 
Purpose:
Video-based movement analysis software (Dartfish) has potential for clinical applications for understanding shoulder motion if functional measures can be reliably obtained. The primary purpose of this study was to describe the functional range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder used to perform a subset of functional tasks. A second purpose was to assess the reliability of functional ROM measurements obtained by different raters using Dartfish software.
Materials and Methods:
Ten healthy participants, mean age 29 ± 5 years, were videotaped while performing five tasks selected from the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH). Video cameras and markers were used to obtain video images suitable for analysis in Dartfish software. Three repetitions of each task were performed. Shoulder movements from all three repetitions were analyzed using Dartfish software. The tracking tool of the Dartfish software was used to obtain shoulder joint angles and arcs of motion. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the measurements were evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC).
Results:
Maximum (coronal plane) abduction (118° ± 16°) and (sagittal plane) flexion (111° ± 15°) was observed during ‘washing one's hair;’ maximum extension (−68° ± 9°) was identified during ‘washing one's own back.’ Minimum shoulder ROM was observed during ‘opening a tight jar’ (33° ± 13° abduction and 13° ± 19° flexion). Test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.45 to 0.94) suggests high inter-individual task variability, and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.68 to 1.00) showed moderate to excellent agreement.
Conclusion:
Key findings include: 1) functional shoulder ROM identified in this study compared to similar studies; 2) healthy individuals require less than full ROM when performing five common ADL tasks 3) high participant variability was observed during performance of the five ADL tasks; and 4) Dartfish software provides a clinically relevant tool to analyze shoulder function.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.131847
PMCID: PMC4049033  PMID: 24926157
Dartfish; DASH; functional range of motion; reliability; shoulder
2.  Oxford shoulder score in a normal population 
Background:
The function of the asymptomatic normal shoulder may differ according to gender and could also deteriorate with age. This may result in a disparity in the normal Oxford shoulder score (OSS) according to these variables. If a difference were to exist an adjusted OSS, for age and gender, could be calculated from the raw score using the expected normal score.
Aim:
The aim of this study was to define a normal OSS in an asymptomatic population according to age and gender.
Materials and Methods:
During the study period 202 patients aged from 20 years to 99 years with subjectively asymptomatic shoulders completed an OSS. These patients presented to the study center during a 1 week period for management of disorders out with their shoulder girdle. Patients with a known prior shoulder pathology, injury, or polyarthropathy were excluded.
Results:
The mean OSS varied according age and gender. There was a significant correlation between age and the OSS, with an increasing score (worse) being associated with older age (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001). The mean OSS for females was 18.8 (12-42, SD 5.4) and for males was 16.3 (12-30, SD 4.5), this difference was significant (P = 0.0001). We propose that a normalized OSS could be calculated as a percentage by the using the expected normal for that patient's age and gender as demonstrated in this study ((raw score/normal score) × 100).
Conclusion:
Our study provides normal data for an urban population presenting to orthopedic services and allows for a relative OSS to be calculated from the raw score.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.131849
PMCID: PMC4049034  PMID: 24926158
Normal; outcome; Oxford; score; shoulder
3.  Single-row, double-row, and transosseous equivalent techniques for isolated supraspinatus tendon tears with minimal atrophy: A retrospective comparative outcome and radiographic analysis at minimum 2-year followup 
Purpose:
The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the subjective, objective, and radiographic healing outcomes of single-row (SR), double-row (DR), and transosseous equivalent (TOE) suture techniques for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective comparative analysis of arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs by one surgeon from 2004 to 2010 at minimum 2-year followup was performed. Cohorts were matched for age, sex, and tear size. Subjective outcome variables included ASES, Constant, SST, UCLA, and SF-12 scores. Objective outcome variables included strength, active range of motion (ROM). Radiographic healing was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann — Whitney and Kruskal — Wallis tests with significance, and the Fisher exact probability test <0.05.
Results:
Sixty-three patients completed the study requirements (20 SR, 21 DR, 22 TOE). There was a clinically and statistically significant improvement in outcomes with all repair techniques (ASES mean improvement P = <0.0001). The mean final ASES scores were: SR 83; (SD 21.4); DR 87 (SD 18.2); TOE 87 (SD 13.2); (P = 0.73). There was a statistically significant improvement in strength for each repair technique (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between techniques across all secondary outcome assessments: ASES improvement, Constant, SST, UCLA, SF-12, ROM, Strength, and MRI re-tear rates. There was a decrease in re-tear rates from single row (22%) to double-row (18%) to transosseous equivalent (11%); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.6).
Conclusions:
Compared to preoperatively, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, using SR, DR, or TOE techniques, yielded a clinically and statistically significant improvement in subjective and objective outcomes at a minimum 2-year follow-up.
Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic level 3.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.131850
PMCID: PMC4049035  PMID: 24926159
Outcomes; rotator cuff; shoulder; surgical techniques
4.  Bone properties of the humeral head and resistance to screw cutout 
Surgical treatment of fractures involving the proximal humeral head is hampered by complications. Screw cutout is the major pitfall seen in connection with rigid plating. We have exploited a bony explanation for this phenomenon.
Materials and Methods:
We examined the convex surface of the humeral head looking at the density and the topographical strength of the subchondral bone using mechanical testing of bone cylinders harvested from the humeral head. We also studied the osseous architecture of the subchondral bone and thickness of the boneplate of the humeral head using a 3-dimensional serial sectioning technique.
Results:
The bone strength and bone density correlated well and revealed large regional variations across the humeral head. Bone strength and stiffness of the trabecular bone came to a maximum in the most medial anterior and central parts of the humeral head, where strong textural anisotropy was also found. We found in particular a lower bone strength and density in the posterior and inferior regions of the humeral head. A rapid decline in bone strength within a few mm below a relatively thin subchondral plate was also reported.
Clinical Relevance:
We have in this paper explored some of the most important factors connected with screw stability at the cancellous bone level. We discovered large variations in bone density and bone strength across the joint surface rendering certain areas of the humeral head less suitable for screw placement. The use of rigid plate constructs with divergent screw directions will predictably place screws in areas of the humeral head comprising low density and low strength cancellous bone. New concepts of plates and plating techniques for the surgical treatment of complex fractures of the proximal humerus should take bone distribution, strength, and architecture into account.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.131851
PMCID: PMC4049036  PMID: 24926160
Bone architecture; bone strength; humeral head; screw cutout
5.  Combination of a floating clavicle and a posterior shoulder dislocation: An “Unhappy Triad” of the shoulder girdle 
We present a case of a 31-year-old man who suffered from a floating clavicle in combination with a reverse Hill-Sachs lesion of his right shoulder girdle after a bicycle accident. Operative treatment was performed using minimal-invasive and arthroscopically assisted techniques.
We strongly recommend an early CT scan with later 3-dimensional reconstruction to detect and fully understand these complex injuries.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.131853
PMCID: PMC4049037  PMID: 24926161
Floating clavicle; lateral clavicle fracture; posterior shoulder dislocation; reverse Hill-Sachs lesion
6.  Recurrent Fusobacterium pyogenic myositis of the rotator cuff A case report of recurrent Fusobacterium pyogenic myositis of the rotator cuff 
Pyogenic myositis is uncommon. It normally affects the large muscle groups in the lower limb or trunk and the most common causative organism is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a case of an immunocompetent man who, unusually, had a recurring form of the disease in subscapularis and teres minor. The causative organism was also highly unusual (Fusobacterium).
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.131854
PMCID: PMC4049038  PMID: 24926162
Fusobacterium; pyomyositis; rotator cuff; Key Messages: Whilst uncommon, pyogenic myositis should be considered in patients presenting with signs and symptoms similar to those with septic joints
7.  Distal humerus shear-fractures: “Built-on” surgical technique 
When treating a distal humeral shear fracture, comminution of the lateral column may preclude the reconstruction of the lateral articular fragments.
In this article a new strategy for the management lateral column comminuted shear-fractures (LCCSF) is presented, called the “built-on” surgical technique. Three goals are obtained by this technique: (1) Restoration of the lateral column bone stock; (2) Provision of a solid scaffold for the repair of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL); and (3) Provision of a sable platform for the reconstruction and fixation of the articular fragments.
We will obtain these goals through the following surgical steps:
1/ Reconstruction of the lateral trochlea.
2/ Reconstruction of the lateral column
3/ Fixation of the Capitellum
4/ Reconstruction of the LUCL
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.131856
PMCID: PMC4049039  PMID: 24926163
Capitellar and trochlear fractures; distal humerus; fractures; lateral column; shear fractures
8.  The influence of rotator cuff pathology on functional outcome in total shoulder replacement 
Introduction:
Total shoulder replacement (TSR) is a reliable treatment for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In addition to proper component orientation, successful arthroplasty requires accurate restoration of soft tissues forces around the joint to maximize function. We hypothesized that pathological changes within the rotator cuff on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) adversely affect the functional outcome following TSR.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis of case notes and MRI of patients undergoing TSR for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis over a 4-year period was performed. Patients were divided into three groups based upon their preoperative MRI findings: (1) normal rotator cuff, (2) the presence of tendonopathy within the rotator cuff, or (3) the presence of a partial thickness rotator cuff tear. Intra-operatively tendonopathy was addressed with debridement and partial thickness tears with repair. Functional outcome was assessed with the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand score (quick-DASH).
Results:
We had a full dataset of complete case-notes, PACS images, and patient reported outcome measures available for 43 patients, 15 in group 1, 14 in group 2, and 14 in group 3. Quick-DASH and OSS were calculated at a minimum of 24 months following surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between the results obtained between the three groups of either the OSS (P = 0.45), or quick-DASH (P = 0.46).
Conclusions:
TSR is an efficacious treatment option for patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis in the medium term, even in the presence of rotator cuff tendonopathy or partial tearing. Minor changes within the cuff do not significantly affect functional outcome following TSR.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.123509
PMCID: PMC3883186  PMID: 24403759
MRI; outcome measures; rotator cuff; total shoulder replacement
9.  Acromioclavicular reconstruction using hook plate and anterior tibial tendon allograft with triple tunnel: The early results of revision surgery using a novel surgical technique 
In this study, a new modified surgical technique is presented for anatomic acromioclavicular (AC) joint reconstruction made by the application of anterior tibialis tendon autograft, three-way tunnel (two clavicular and one coracoid) and hook plate. The study is aimed to evaluate the post-operative short-term results of patients who underwent this treatment. A total of 11 patients underwent AC joint reconstruction because of persistent AC subluxation. In this reconstruction, a triple tunnel was made between the coracoid and the clavicle to anatomically restore the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament and an allograft was passed through the tunnels resembling conoid and trapezoid ligaments. The tendon had to be non-weight bearing at the appropriate tension to provide rapid and appropriate integration of the tendon in the tunnel. This was maintained by applying a hook plate. The hook plate method was used to protect the reconstructed ligament during the healing process as it has a similar hardness to that of the natural AC joint and provides rigid fixation. For a more comprehensive description of the technique, a cadaver demonstration was also performed. The mean follow-up period was 25.3 months (range: 18-34 month). None of the patients had a loss of reduction at the final follow-up. When the constant scores were examined, of the total 11 patients, 2 (18.2%) 38,39 had excellent results, 6 (54.5%) had good results and 3 (27.3%) had fair results. It can be seen that this newly described reconstruction technique has successful short-term results as an anatomic method and can be used effectively in revision cases. However, there is a need for further biomechanical and clinical studies to make comparisons with other techniques.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.123513
PMCID: PMC3883187  PMID: 24403760
Acromioclavicular joint; allograft; cadaver; reconstruction; surgical revision
10.  Lateral releases of the subscapularis tendon 
The technique of arthroscopic subscapularis repair continues to evolve. A three-sided subscapularis release (e.g. anterior, posterior, superior) is commonly advocated for improving tendon excursion to bone. However, a lateral release is commonly required as well, particularly for full thickness, upper subscapularis tears and full thickness, complete subscapularis tears. We describe the techniques to identify and release the lateral subscapularis border, which aids in the completion of other releases.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.123520
PMCID: PMC3883188  PMID: 24403761
Lateral release; release; subscapularis repair; subscapularis; three-sided subscapularis release
11.  Management of failed metal-backed glenoid component in patients with bilateral total shoulder arthroplasty 
Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is successful in providing pain relief and functional improvements for patients with shoulder arthritis. Outcomes are directly correlated with implant position and fixation, which ultimately affects wear and longevity. Metal-backed glenoid components were introduced as an alternative to the standard cemented glenoid fixation. Early loosening and cavitary glenoid bone loss has been reported as a major complication associated with these metal-backed glenoids, which presents the surgeon with a challenging revision situation. Furthermore, failure of bilateral TSA in patients with metal-backed glenoids is extremely rare. We present two patients with early failure of bilateral TSA secondary to loosening of the metal-backed glenoids. Both patients had significant glenoid bone loss and were treated with four different types of revision techniques. A description of treatments and outcomes of both patients are reported along with the simple shoulder test and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores. One patient underwent revision to bilateral reverse prosthesis and experienced a much-improved outcome in comparison to the patient revised to a hemiarthroplasty and resection arthroplasty, for each shoulder respectively. In patients who present with failed TSA, revision to a reverse prosthesis with or without staged glenoid bone graft should be considered as an option of treatment. It is also important to rule out infection with intraoperative tissue biopsy before proceeding to revision surgery. However, in patients with catastrophic glenoid bone loss, both hemiarthroplasty and resection arthroplasty can provide an alternative treatment option, but they are associated with a poorer functional outcome and pain relief.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.123527
PMCID: PMC3883189  PMID: 24403762
Custom reverse; hemiarthroplasty; illiac crest bone graft; reverse shoulder arthroplasty; revision; total shoulder arthroplasty
12.  Successful treatment of fractures of the base of the acromion after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: Case report and review of the literature 
Fractures of the acromion and scapula are known to occur after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. We present a case of a fracture at the base of the acromion 5 months after arthroplasty treated successfully with dual plating of the acromion. Eighteen months after fracture fixation, the patient had 160 degrees of active forward flexion, a QuickDASH of 29.5, a Constant score of 69 and she was satisfied with the result. A concomitant review of the literature produced, in addition to our patient, 56 cases. These were used to produce a classification system, based on bony and functional anatomy as follows. Tip fractures are of the most lateral or anterior portion of the acromion, those of the body of the acromion are medial to the tip but lateral to the beginning of the scapular base. Fractures at the scapular base are termed fractures of the base of the acromion and those more medial to that, fractures of the scapular spine. The functional results of these case series demonstrated poorer functional outcomes for more medial fractures. As future research in this domain increases, clarity on the nomenclature of these fractures will allow for prognostication and treatment based on fracture location as well as comparison between studies.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.123531
PMCID: PMC3883190  PMID: 24403763
Acromial fracture; post-operative complication; reverse shoulder arthroplasty; scapular fracture
14.  Relationship between the functional outcomes and radiological results of conservatively treated displaced proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: A prospective study 
Purpose:
The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between the functional outcome and the radiographic results of conservatively treated two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years.
Materials and Methods:
The study comprised 29 prospectively followed cases aged over 65 years who presented with displaced proximal humerus fracture between 2009 and 2011. The fractures were classified according to the Neer classification and all met the displacement criteria described by Neer. Standard physical therapy program was applied. Patients were evaluated clinically using Constant shoulder score, quick form of disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand score and visual analog scale. At the final follow-up, humeral head position in the coronal plane was assessed with neck-shaft angle. Any complication was recorded during the treatment period. Correlation between the functional outcomes and final radiologic results were statistically analyzed.
Results:
Data were analyzed from 29 cases (21 female, 8 male) with a mean age was 78 ± 8.6 years (range 65-93 years). The mean follow-up period was 18.2 ± 4.07 months (range 12-26 months). Functional results were significantly related with initial fragmentation. However, there was no correlation between the functional outcomes and the final geometry of the humeral head. Despite the union occurred with deformity, the functional outcome were satisfactory.
Conclusion:
The results of this study show that initial fragmentation has a negative effect on the functional results. However, the changed position of the humeral head on coronal plane does not affect the final functional results.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.118911
PMCID: PMC3807944  PMID: 24167402
Functional outcomes; non-operative treatment; proximal humerus fractures
15.  Thermal damage during humeral reaming in total shoulder resurfacing 
Introduction:
Total shoulder resurfacing (TSR) provides a reliable solution for the treatment of glenohumeral arthritis. It confers a number of advantages over traditional joint replacement with stemmed humeral components, in terms of bone preservation and improved joint kinematics. This study aimed to determine if humeral reaming instruments produce a thermal insult to subchondral bone during TSR.
Patients and Methods:
This was tested in vivo on 13 patients (8 with rheumatoid arthritis and 5 with osteoarthritis) with a single reaming system and in vitro with three different humeral reaming systems on saw bone models. Real-time infrared thermal video imaging was used to assess the temperatures generated.
Results:
Synthes (Epoca) instruments generated average temperatures of 40.7°C (SD 0.9°C) in the rheumatoid group and 56.5°C (SD 0.87°C) in the osteoarthritis group (P = 0.001). Irrigation with room temperature saline cooled the humeral head to 30°C (SD 1.2°C). Saw bone analysis generated temperatures of 58.2°C (SD 0.79°C) in the Synthes (Epoca) 59.9°C (SD 0.81°C) in Biomet (Copeland) and 58.4°C (SD 0.88°C) in the Depuy Conservative Anatomic Prosthesis (CAP) reamers (P = 0.12).
Conclusion:
Humeral reaming with power driven instruments generates considerable temperatures both in vivo and in vitro. This paper demonstrates that a significant thermal effect beyond the 47°C threshold needed to induce osteonecrosis is observed with humeral reamers, with little variation seen between manufacturers. Irrigation with room temperature saline cools the reamed bone to physiological levels and should be performed regularly during this step in TSR.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.118910
PMCID: PMC3807943  PMID: 24167401
Humeral reaming; thermal damage; total shoulder resurfacing
16.  Total shoulder arthroplasty versus hemiarthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis: A systematic review of the literature at long-term follow-up 
Introduction:
The optimal surgical treatment of end-stage primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis remains controversial. The objective of this article is to systematically review the current available literature to formulate evidence-based guidelines for treatment of this pathology with an arthroplasty.
Materials and Methods:
A systematic literature search was performed to identify all articles from 1990 onward that presented data concerning treatment of glenohumeral arthritis with total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) or head arthroplasty (HA) with a minimal follow-up of 7 years. The most relevant electronic databases were searched.
Results:
After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified 18 studies (of the initial 832 hits). The search included a total of 1,958 patients (HA: 316 and TSA: 1,642) with 2,111 shoulders (HA: 328 + TSA: 1,783). The revision rate for any reason in the HA group (13%) was higher than in the TSA group (7%) (P < 0.001). There was a trend of a higher complication rate (of any kind) in the TSA group (12%) when compared with the HA group (8%) (P = 0.065). The weighted mean improvement in anteflexion, exorotation and abduction were respectively 33°, 15° and 31° in the HA group and were respectively 56°, 21° and 48° in the TSA group. Mean decrease in pain scores was 4.2 in the HA and 5.5 in the TSA group.
Conclusion:
Finally, we conclude that TSA results in less need for revision surgery, but has a trend to result in more complications. The conclusions of this review should be interpreted with caution as only Level IV studies could be included.
Level of Evidence:
IV.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.118915
PMCID: PMC3807945  PMID: 24167403
Arthroplasty; complication; glenoid; humerus; osteoarthritis; revision rate; shoulder; systematic review
17.  Lipoma arborescens associated with osseous/chondroid differentiation in subdeltoid bursa 
Lipoma arborescens (LA) is a rare benign lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized histologically by villous proliferation of the synovial membrane and diffuse replacement of the subsynovial tissue by mature fat cells. This condition affects the knee joint most commonly. Cases involving other locations including glenohumeral joint,[1] hip,[2] elbow,[3] hand[4] and ankle[5] have been rarely described. Involvement of the subdeltoid bursa has also been reported, but to date no case has described LA with osseous/chondroid differentiation of this bursa. Another significant finding in our case was the coexistence of LA with intermuscular lipoma, SLAP lesion and labral cyst.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.118916
PMCID: PMC3807946  PMID: 24167404
Labral cyst; lipoma; lipoma arborescens; osseous/chondroid differentiation; shoulder; SLAP lesion; subdeltoid bursa
18.  Arthroscopically assisted Latarjet procedure: A new surgical approach for accurate coracoid graft placement and compression 
The Latarjet procedure is a confirmed method for the treatment of shoulder instability in the presence of bone loss. It is a challenging procedure for which a key point is the correct placement of the coracoid graft onto the glenoid neck. We here present our technique for an athroscopically assisted Latarjet procedure with a new drill guide, permitting an accurate and reproducible positioning of the coracoid graft, with optimal compression of the graft onto the glenoid neck due to the perfect position of the screws: perpendicular to the graft and the glenoid neck and parallel between them.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.118912
PMCID: PMC3807947  PMID: 24167405
Glenoid bone loss; Latarjet procedure; shoulder instability
21.  Non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis 
Purpose:
(1) Describe a previously unreported finding involving the intra-articular portion of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion. (2) Describe a novel classification system for the spectrum of non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. (3) Report the outcomes of surgical treatment of this spectrum of pathology.
Materials and Methods:
Outcomes of 34 patients (23 males and 11 females, mean age 60.5 ± 7.5) with non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis treated arthroscopically were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had anterior shoulder pain with no weakness during belly-press testing and no subscapularis footprint involvement on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were managed with subscapularis tendon debridement and side-to-side repair along with treatment of concomitant pathology.
Results:
Seven patients had a Type I lesion (so-called Conrad lesion) – a nodule on the leading edge of the subscapularis. Eighteen patients had a Type II lesion – a visible split tear with degeneration in the upper ½ of the intra-articular tendon. Nine patients had a Type III lesion – more extensive splitting in the tendon with advanced tendon degeneration. At a mean follow-up of 24 months, 97% of patients were completely satisfied. Significant improvements were seen in forward elevation (152 ± 12° to 172 ± 5°, P < 0.001) and visual analog scale pain scores (5.9 ± 1.7-0.6 ± 1.0, P < 0.001). Internal rotation strength and external rotation motion at the side were maintained. ASES scores averaged 95.4 ± 7.4, disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand scores averaged 6.19 ± 9.8, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff scores averaged 91.7 ± 9.3 and the average University of California at Los Angeles score was 33.1 ± 2.4.
Conclusions:
We present a previously unreported finding of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion, along with a novel classification system for non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. Arthroscopic treatment of this spectrum of tendinopathy along with concomitant shoulder pathology eliminated pain and improved patient outcomes without detrimental effects.
Level of Evidence:
IV, Retrospective Case Series.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.118876
PMCID: PMC3807950  PMID: 24167399
Non-insertional; subscapularis; tendinopathy
22.  Results of the repair of acute rotator cuff tears is not influenced by tear retraction 
Purpose:
This study evaluated retraction in the setting of acute rotator cuff tears and determined its effects on patient outcomes and tendon repair integrity.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 22 patients had surgery within 6 weeks or less from the time of injury. Fifteen of these patients were prospectively followed at a minimum of 2 years; average 40.5 months (range 24-69). Pre-operative objective and subjective outcomes were compared. Tendon repair integrity was assessed with ultrasound at a minimum of 1 year from surgery. The population was stratified into Group 1 (8 patients) with minimal intra-operative medial tendon retraction to the mid-line level of the humeral head and Group 2 (7 patients) with a large medial tendon retraction to the glenohumeral joint or greater.
Results:
The average time to surgery from the onset of symptoms was 27 days (range, 6-42). Post-operative motion increased significantly for external rotation and forward elevation, 77% of patients were pain free, 80% were completely satisfied, and 100% would have the surgery again. Group 1 (small retraction) versus Group 2 (large retraction) showed that post-operative pain levels, satisfaction, range of motion, strength, subjective shoulder value (95.4% vs. 92.3%), Constant Score (80.8 vs. 78.1), and American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (96.2 vs. 93.5) scores were not statistically different. Ultrasound showed a tendon repair integrity rate of 87%. 2 patients who did have a re-tear were in Group 2, yet had comparative outcomes.
Conclusion:
In acute rotator cuff tears, equal patient satisfaction, pain scores, range of motion, strength, and outcome measures should be expected with surgical repair despite the level of retraction.
Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic level IV
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.118906
PMCID: PMC3807951  PMID: 24167400
Outcomes; retraction; rotator cuff tear; shoulder
23.  An in-vitro study of rotator cuff tear and repair kinematics using single- and double-row suture anchor fixation 
Purpose:
Double-row suture anchor fixation of the rotator cuff was developed to reduce repair failure rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of simulated rotator cuff tears and subsequent repairs using single- and double-row suture anchor fixation on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics. It was hypothesized that both single- and double-row repairs would be effective in restoring active intact kinematics of the shoulder.
Materials and Methods:
Sixteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens (eight matched pairs) were tested using a custom loading apparatus designed to simulate unconstrained motion of the shoulder. In each specimen, the rotator cuff was sectioned to create a medium-sized (2 cm) tear. Within each pair, one specimen was randomized to a single-row suture anchor repair, while the contralateral side underwent a double-row suture anchor repair. Joint kinematics were recorded for intact, torn, and repaired scenarios using an electromagnetic tracking device.
Results:
Active kinematics confirmed that a medium-sized rotator cuff tear affected glenohumeral kinematics when compared to the intact state. Single- and double-row suture anchor repairs restored the kinematics of the intact specimen.
Conclusions:
This study illustrates the effects of medium-sized rotator cuff tears and their repairs on active glenohumeral kinematics. No significant difference (P ≥ 0.10) was found between the kinematics of single- and double-row techniques in medium-sized rotator cuff repairs.
Clinical Relevance:
Determining the relative effects of single- and double-row suture anchor repairs of the rotator cuff will allow physicians to be better equipped to treat patients with rotator cuff disease.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.114224
PMCID: PMC3743030  PMID: 23960362
Double-row; glenohumeral joint; rotator cuff; single-row; suture anchor repair
24.  Clinical and radiographic factors influencing the results of revision rotator cuff repair 
Purpose:
Historically, results of open revision of rotator cuff repair have been mixed and often poor. We reviewed the outcomes of revision rotator cuff repair with a detailed analysis of clinical and radiographic risk factors in order to improve patient selection for this type of surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-six patients (37 shoulders) underwent first-time, open revision rotator cuff repair between 1995 and 2005. Average follow-up was 7.0 years (range 1-14.9 years). The tear size was small in 1 shoulder, medium in 8, large in 22 and massive in 6. Associations of 29 clinical and radiographic factors with the outcomes of pain, motion, and function were assessed.
Results:
Satisfactory outcome occurred in 22 shoulders (59%): An excellent result in 2, a good result in 7, and a fair result in 13. Unsatisfactory, poor results occurred in 15. Pain was substantially reduced in 25 (68%). Median pain scores decreased to five from a pre-operative eight (P = 0.002). Median motion did not change from pre-operative to post-operative. The chance of a satisfactory outcome and improved post-operative motion were associated with males, greater pre-operative motion, increased acromial humeral distance, the absence of glenohumeral arthritis, or a degenerative re-tear.
Conclusions:
Revision rotator cuff repair, although a safe operation, with a low re-operative rate, has very mixed overall results. By knowing the factors associated with success, surgeons can better counsel patients and with this increased knowledge, consider alternative treatment choices.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.114221
PMCID: PMC3743029  PMID: 23960361
Factor analysis; revision; rotator cuff; shoulder
25.  Management of acute displaced midshaft clavicular fractures using Herbert cannulated screw: Technique and results in 114 patients 
Purpose:
A new and simple operative technique has been developed to provide internal fixation for midshaft clavicle fractures. This involves the use of a large fragment Herbert Screw that is entirely embedded within the bone. Screw fixation is combined with bone grafting from intramedullary reamings of the fracture fragments. The purpose of this report is to assess the outcomes following treatment of midshaft clavicular fracture using this method.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and fourteen patients with acute displaced midshaft fracture were identified between 2002 and 2007. All patients were followed until fracture union. Patients’ medical records were reviewed. Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Elbow form (ASES) were posted to all patients. Outcome measures included union rate, time to union, implant removal rate, DASH, and ASES scores.
Results:
Patients’ median age was 29.5 years (interquartile range, 19-44 years). The most common injury mechanism was sports injury (28%). The median time from injury to surgery was 5 days (interquartile range, 2-9 days). Union occurred in an average of 8.8 weeks. Non-union occurred in three cases (2.6%). The re-operation rate for symptomatic hardware prominence screw was 1.7%. The median DASH score was 0.83 and the median ASES was 100 (n = 35).
Conclusions:
Intramedullary fixation using cannulated Herbert screw can be used as an effective approach for operative management of midshaft clavicular fractures. Using this method, an appropriate outcome could be achieved and a second intervention for implant removal could be avoided in great majority of cases.
Level of Evidence:
Level III
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.114227
PMCID: PMC3743031  PMID: 23960363
Acute fracture; Herbert cannulated screw; internal fixation; intramedullary; midshaft clavicle fractures; open reduction

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