Total shoulder replacement (TSR) is a reliable treatment for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In addition to proper component orientation, successful arthroplasty requires accurate restoration of soft tissues forces around the joint to maximize function. We hypothesized that pathological changes within the rotator cuff on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) adversely affect the functional outcome following TSR.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis of case notes and MRI of patients undergoing TSR for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis over a 4-year period was performed. Patients were divided into three groups based upon their preoperative MRI findings: (1) normal rotator cuff, (2) the presence of tendonopathy within the rotator cuff, or (3) the presence of a partial thickness rotator cuff tear. Intra-operatively tendonopathy was addressed with debridement and partial thickness tears with repair. Functional outcome was assessed with the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand score (quick-DASH).
We had a full dataset of complete case-notes, PACS images, and patient reported outcome measures available for 43 patients, 15 in group 1, 14 in group 2, and 14 in group 3. Quick-DASH and OSS were calculated at a minimum of 24 months following surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between the results obtained between the three groups of either the OSS (P = 0.45), or quick-DASH (P = 0.46).
TSR is an efficacious treatment option for patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis in the medium term, even in the presence of rotator cuff tendonopathy or partial tearing. Minor changes within the cuff do not significantly affect functional outcome following TSR.
MRI; outcome measures; rotator cuff; total shoulder replacement
In this study, a new modified surgical technique is presented for anatomic acromioclavicular (AC) joint reconstruction made by the application of anterior tibialis tendon autograft, three-way tunnel (two clavicular and one coracoid) and hook plate. The study is aimed to evaluate the post-operative short-term results of patients who underwent this treatment. A total of 11 patients underwent AC joint reconstruction because of persistent AC subluxation. In this reconstruction, a triple tunnel was made between the coracoid and the clavicle to anatomically restore the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament and an allograft was passed through the tunnels resembling conoid and trapezoid ligaments. The tendon had to be non-weight bearing at the appropriate tension to provide rapid and appropriate integration of the tendon in the tunnel. This was maintained by applying a hook plate. The hook plate method was used to protect the reconstructed ligament during the healing process as it has a similar hardness to that of the natural AC joint and provides rigid fixation. For a more comprehensive description of the technique, a cadaver demonstration was also performed. The mean follow-up period was 25.3 months (range: 18-34 month). None of the patients had a loss of reduction at the final follow-up. When the constant scores were examined, of the total 11 patients, 2 (18.2%) 38,39 had excellent results, 6 (54.5%) had good results and 3 (27.3%) had fair results. It can be seen that this newly described reconstruction technique has successful short-term results as an anatomic method and can be used effectively in revision cases. However, there is a need for further biomechanical and clinical studies to make comparisons with other techniques.
Acromioclavicular joint; allograft; cadaver; reconstruction; surgical revision
The technique of arthroscopic subscapularis repair continues to evolve. A three-sided subscapularis release (e.g. anterior, posterior, superior) is commonly advocated for improving tendon excursion to bone. However, a lateral release is commonly required as well, particularly for full thickness, upper subscapularis tears and full thickness, complete subscapularis tears. We describe the techniques to identify and release the lateral subscapularis border, which aids in the completion of other releases.
Lateral release; release; subscapularis repair; subscapularis; three-sided subscapularis release
Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is successful in providing pain relief and functional improvements for patients with shoulder arthritis. Outcomes are directly correlated with implant position and fixation, which ultimately affects wear and longevity. Metal-backed glenoid components were introduced as an alternative to the standard cemented glenoid fixation. Early loosening and cavitary glenoid bone loss has been reported as a major complication associated with these metal-backed glenoids, which presents the surgeon with a challenging revision situation. Furthermore, failure of bilateral TSA in patients with metal-backed glenoids is extremely rare. We present two patients with early failure of bilateral TSA secondary to loosening of the metal-backed glenoids. Both patients had significant glenoid bone loss and were treated with four different types of revision techniques. A description of treatments and outcomes of both patients are reported along with the simple shoulder test and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores. One patient underwent revision to bilateral reverse prosthesis and experienced a much-improved outcome in comparison to the patient revised to a hemiarthroplasty and resection arthroplasty, for each shoulder respectively. In patients who present with failed TSA, revision to a reverse prosthesis with or without staged glenoid bone graft should be considered as an option of treatment. It is also important to rule out infection with intraoperative tissue biopsy before proceeding to revision surgery. However, in patients with catastrophic glenoid bone loss, both hemiarthroplasty and resection arthroplasty can provide an alternative treatment option, but they are associated with a poorer functional outcome and pain relief.
Custom reverse; hemiarthroplasty; illiac crest bone graft; reverse shoulder arthroplasty; revision; total shoulder arthroplasty
Fractures of the acromion and scapula are known to occur after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. We present a case of a fracture at the base of the acromion 5 months after arthroplasty treated successfully with dual plating of the acromion. Eighteen months after fracture fixation, the patient had 160 degrees of active forward flexion, a QuickDASH of 29.5, a Constant score of 69 and she was satisfied with the result. A concomitant review of the literature produced, in addition to our patient, 56 cases. These were used to produce a classification system, based on bony and functional anatomy as follows. Tip fractures are of the most lateral or anterior portion of the acromion, those of the body of the acromion are medial to the tip but lateral to the beginning of the scapular base. Fractures at the scapular base are termed fractures of the base of the acromion and those more medial to that, fractures of the scapular spine. The functional results of these case series demonstrated poorer functional outcomes for more medial fractures. As future research in this domain increases, clarity on the nomenclature of these fractures will allow for prognostication and treatment based on fracture location as well as comparison between studies.
Acromial fracture; post-operative complication; reverse shoulder arthroplasty; scapular fracture
The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between the functional outcome and the radiographic results of conservatively treated two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years.
Materials and Methods:
The study comprised 29 prospectively followed cases aged over 65 years who presented with displaced proximal humerus fracture between 2009 and 2011. The fractures were classified according to the Neer classification and all met the displacement criteria described by Neer. Standard physical therapy program was applied. Patients were evaluated clinically using Constant shoulder score, quick form of disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand score and visual analog scale. At the final follow-up, humeral head position in the coronal plane was assessed with neck-shaft angle. Any complication was recorded during the treatment period. Correlation between the functional outcomes and final radiologic results were statistically analyzed.
Data were analyzed from 29 cases (21 female, 8 male) with a mean age was 78 ± 8.6 years (range 65-93 years). The mean follow-up period was 18.2 ± 4.07 months (range 12-26 months). Functional results were significantly related with initial fragmentation. However, there was no correlation between the functional outcomes and the final geometry of the humeral head. Despite the union occurred with deformity, the functional outcome were satisfactory.
The results of this study show that initial fragmentation has a negative effect on the functional results. However, the changed position of the humeral head on coronal plane does not affect the final functional results.
Functional outcomes; non-operative treatment; proximal humerus fractures
Total shoulder resurfacing (TSR) provides a reliable solution for the treatment of glenohumeral arthritis. It confers a number of advantages over traditional joint replacement with stemmed humeral components, in terms of bone preservation and improved joint kinematics. This study aimed to determine if humeral reaming instruments produce a thermal insult to subchondral bone during TSR.
Patients and Methods:
This was tested in vivo on 13 patients (8 with rheumatoid arthritis and 5 with osteoarthritis) with a single reaming system and in vitro with three different humeral reaming systems on saw bone models. Real-time infrared thermal video imaging was used to assess the temperatures generated.
Synthes (Epoca) instruments generated average temperatures of 40.7°C (SD 0.9°C) in the rheumatoid group and 56.5°C (SD 0.87°C) in the osteoarthritis group (P = 0.001). Irrigation with room temperature saline cooled the humeral head to 30°C (SD 1.2°C). Saw bone analysis generated temperatures of 58.2°C (SD 0.79°C) in the Synthes (Epoca) 59.9°C (SD 0.81°C) in Biomet (Copeland) and 58.4°C (SD 0.88°C) in the Depuy Conservative Anatomic Prosthesis (CAP) reamers (P = 0.12).
Humeral reaming with power driven instruments generates considerable temperatures both in vivo and in vitro. This paper demonstrates that a significant thermal effect beyond the 47°C threshold needed to induce osteonecrosis is observed with humeral reamers, with little variation seen between manufacturers. Irrigation with room temperature saline cools the reamed bone to physiological levels and should be performed regularly during this step in TSR.
Humeral reaming; thermal damage; total shoulder resurfacing
The optimal surgical treatment of end-stage primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis remains controversial. The objective of this article is to systematically review the current available literature to formulate evidence-based guidelines for treatment of this pathology with an arthroplasty.
Materials and Methods:
A systematic literature search was performed to identify all articles from 1990 onward that presented data concerning treatment of glenohumeral arthritis with total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) or head arthroplasty (HA) with a minimal follow-up of 7 years. The most relevant electronic databases were searched.
After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified 18 studies (of the initial 832 hits). The search included a total of 1,958 patients (HA: 316 and TSA: 1,642) with 2,111 shoulders (HA: 328 + TSA: 1,783). The revision rate for any reason in the HA group (13%) was higher than in the TSA group (7%) (P < 0.001). There was a trend of a higher complication rate (of any kind) in the TSA group (12%) when compared with the HA group (8%) (P = 0.065). The weighted mean improvement in anteflexion, exorotation and abduction were respectively 33°, 15° and 31° in the HA group and were respectively 56°, 21° and 48° in the TSA group. Mean decrease in pain scores was 4.2 in the HA and 5.5 in the TSA group.
Finally, we conclude that TSA results in less need for revision surgery, but has a trend to result in more complications. The conclusions of this review should be interpreted with caution as only Level IV studies could be included.
Level of Evidence:
Arthroplasty; complication; glenoid; humerus; osteoarthritis; revision rate; shoulder; systematic review
Lipoma arborescens (LA) is a rare benign lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized histologically by villous proliferation of the synovial membrane and diffuse replacement of the subsynovial tissue by mature fat cells. This condition affects the knee joint most commonly. Cases involving other locations including glenohumeral joint, hip, elbow, hand and ankle have been rarely described. Involvement of the subdeltoid bursa has also been reported, but to date no case has described LA with osseous/chondroid differentiation of this bursa. Another significant finding in our case was the coexistence of LA with intermuscular lipoma, SLAP lesion and labral cyst.
Labral cyst; lipoma; lipoma arborescens; osseous/chondroid differentiation; shoulder; SLAP lesion; subdeltoid bursa
The Latarjet procedure is a confirmed method for the treatment of shoulder instability in the presence of bone loss. It is a challenging procedure for which a key point is the correct placement of the coracoid graft onto the glenoid neck. We here present our technique for an athroscopically assisted Latarjet procedure with a new drill guide, permitting an accurate and reproducible positioning of the coracoid graft, with optimal compression of the graft onto the glenoid neck due to the perfect position of the screws: perpendicular to the graft and the glenoid neck and parallel between them.
Glenoid bone loss; Latarjet procedure; shoulder instability
(1) Describe a previously unreported finding involving the intra-articular portion of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion. (2) Describe a novel classification system for the spectrum of non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. (3) Report the outcomes of surgical treatment of this spectrum of pathology.
Materials and Methods:
Outcomes of 34 patients (23 males and 11 females, mean age 60.5 ± 7.5) with non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis treated arthroscopically were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had anterior shoulder pain with no weakness during belly-press testing and no subscapularis footprint involvement on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were managed with subscapularis tendon debridement and side-to-side repair along with treatment of concomitant pathology.
Seven patients had a Type I lesion (so-called Conrad lesion) – a nodule on the leading edge of the subscapularis. Eighteen patients had a Type II lesion – a visible split tear with degeneration in the upper ½ of the intra-articular tendon. Nine patients had a Type III lesion – more extensive splitting in the tendon with advanced tendon degeneration. At a mean follow-up of 24 months, 97% of patients were completely satisfied. Significant improvements were seen in forward elevation (152 ± 12° to 172 ± 5°, P < 0.001) and visual analog scale pain scores (5.9 ± 1.7-0.6 ± 1.0, P < 0.001). Internal rotation strength and external rotation motion at the side were maintained. ASES scores averaged 95.4 ± 7.4, disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand scores averaged 6.19 ± 9.8, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff scores averaged 91.7 ± 9.3 and the average University of California at Los Angeles score was 33.1 ± 2.4.
We present a previously unreported finding of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion, along with a novel classification system for non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. Arthroscopic treatment of this spectrum of tendinopathy along with concomitant shoulder pathology eliminated pain and improved patient outcomes without detrimental effects.
Level of Evidence:
IV, Retrospective Case Series.
Non-insertional; subscapularis; tendinopathy
This study evaluated retraction in the setting of acute rotator cuff tears and determined its effects on patient outcomes and tendon repair integrity.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 22 patients had surgery within 6 weeks or less from the time of injury. Fifteen of these patients were prospectively followed at a minimum of 2 years; average 40.5 months (range 24-69). Pre-operative objective and subjective outcomes were compared. Tendon repair integrity was assessed with ultrasound at a minimum of 1 year from surgery. The population was stratified into Group 1 (8 patients) with minimal intra-operative medial tendon retraction to the mid-line level of the humeral head and Group 2 (7 patients) with a large medial tendon retraction to the glenohumeral joint or greater.
The average time to surgery from the onset of symptoms was 27 days (range, 6-42). Post-operative motion increased significantly for external rotation and forward elevation, 77% of patients were pain free, 80% were completely satisfied, and 100% would have the surgery again. Group 1 (small retraction) versus Group 2 (large retraction) showed that post-operative pain levels, satisfaction, range of motion, strength, subjective shoulder value (95.4% vs. 92.3%), Constant Score (80.8 vs. 78.1), and American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (96.2 vs. 93.5) scores were not statistically different. Ultrasound showed a tendon repair integrity rate of 87%. 2 patients who did have a re-tear were in Group 2, yet had comparative outcomes.
In acute rotator cuff tears, equal patient satisfaction, pain scores, range of motion, strength, and outcome measures should be expected with surgical repair despite the level of retraction.
Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic level IV
Outcomes; retraction; rotator cuff tear; shoulder
Double-row suture anchor fixation of the rotator cuff was developed to reduce repair failure rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of simulated rotator cuff tears and subsequent repairs using single- and double-row suture anchor fixation on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics. It was hypothesized that both single- and double-row repairs would be effective in restoring active intact kinematics of the shoulder.
Materials and Methods:
Sixteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens (eight matched pairs) were tested using a custom loading apparatus designed to simulate unconstrained motion of the shoulder. In each specimen, the rotator cuff was sectioned to create a medium-sized (2 cm) tear. Within each pair, one specimen was randomized to a single-row suture anchor repair, while the contralateral side underwent a double-row suture anchor repair. Joint kinematics were recorded for intact, torn, and repaired scenarios using an electromagnetic tracking device.
Active kinematics confirmed that a medium-sized rotator cuff tear affected glenohumeral kinematics when compared to the intact state. Single- and double-row suture anchor repairs restored the kinematics of the intact specimen.
This study illustrates the effects of medium-sized rotator cuff tears and their repairs on active glenohumeral kinematics. No significant difference (P ≥ 0.10) was found between the kinematics of single- and double-row techniques in medium-sized rotator cuff repairs.
Determining the relative effects of single- and double-row suture anchor repairs of the rotator cuff will allow physicians to be better equipped to treat patients with rotator cuff disease.
Double-row; glenohumeral joint; rotator cuff; single-row; suture anchor repair
Historically, results of open revision of rotator cuff repair have been mixed and often poor. We reviewed the outcomes of revision rotator cuff repair with a detailed analysis of clinical and radiographic risk factors in order to improve patient selection for this type of surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-six patients (37 shoulders) underwent first-time, open revision rotator cuff repair between 1995 and 2005. Average follow-up was 7.0 years (range 1-14.9 years). The tear size was small in 1 shoulder, medium in 8, large in 22 and massive in 6. Associations of 29 clinical and radiographic factors with the outcomes of pain, motion, and function were assessed.
Satisfactory outcome occurred in 22 shoulders (59%): An excellent result in 2, a good result in 7, and a fair result in 13. Unsatisfactory, poor results occurred in 15. Pain was substantially reduced in 25 (68%). Median pain scores decreased to five from a pre-operative eight (P = 0.002). Median motion did not change from pre-operative to post-operative. The chance of a satisfactory outcome and improved post-operative motion were associated with males, greater pre-operative motion, increased acromial humeral distance, the absence of glenohumeral arthritis, or a degenerative re-tear.
Revision rotator cuff repair, although a safe operation, with a low re-operative rate, has very mixed overall results. By knowing the factors associated with success, surgeons can better counsel patients and with this increased knowledge, consider alternative treatment choices.
Factor analysis; revision; rotator cuff; shoulder
A new and simple operative technique has been developed to provide internal fixation for midshaft clavicle fractures. This involves the use of a large fragment Herbert Screw that is entirely embedded within the bone. Screw fixation is combined with bone grafting from intramedullary reamings of the fracture fragments. The purpose of this report is to assess the outcomes following treatment of midshaft clavicular fracture using this method.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and fourteen patients with acute displaced midshaft fracture were identified between 2002 and 2007. All patients were followed until fracture union. Patients’ medical records were reviewed. Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Elbow form (ASES) were posted to all patients. Outcome measures included union rate, time to union, implant removal rate, DASH, and ASES scores.
Patients’ median age was 29.5 years (interquartile range, 19-44 years). The most common injury mechanism was sports injury (28%). The median time from injury to surgery was 5 days (interquartile range, 2-9 days). Union occurred in an average of 8.8 weeks. Non-union occurred in three cases (2.6%). The re-operation rate for symptomatic hardware prominence screw was 1.7%. The median DASH score was 0.83 and the median ASES was 100 (n = 35).
Intramedullary fixation using cannulated Herbert screw can be used as an effective approach for operative management of midshaft clavicular fractures. Using this method, an appropriate outcome could be achieved and a second intervention for implant removal could be avoided in great majority of cases.
Level of Evidence:
Acute fracture; Herbert cannulated screw; internal fixation; intramedullary; midshaft clavicle fractures; open reduction
The floating shoulder (FS) is an uncommon injury, which can be managed conservatively or surgically. The therapeutic option remains controversial.
The goal of our study was to evaluate the long-term results and to identify predictive factors of functional outcomes.
Settings and Design:
Retrospective monocentric study.
Materials and Methods:
Forty consecutive FS were included (24 nonoperated and 16 operated) from 1984 to 2009. Clinical results were assessed with Simple Shoulder Test (SST), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Short Form-12 (SF12), Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand score (DASH), and Constant score (CST). Plain radiographs were reviewed to evaluate secondary displacement, fracture healing, and modification of the lateral offset of the gleno-humeral joint (chest X-rays). New radiographs were made to evaluate osteoarthritis during follow-up.
Statistical Analysis Used:
T-test, Mann-Whitney test, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient were used. The significance level was set at 0.05.
At mean follow-up of 135 months (range 12-312), clinical results were satisfactory regarding different mean scores: SST 10.5 points, OSS 14 points, SANE 81%, SF12 (50 points and 60 points), DASH 14.5 points and CST 84 points. There were no significant differences between operative and non-operative groups. However, the loss of lateral offset influenced the results negatively. Osteoarthritis was diagnosed in five patients (12.5%) without correlation to fracture patterns and type of treatment.
This study advocates that floating shoulder may be treated conservatively and surgically with satisfactory clinical long-term outcomes. However, the loss of gleno-humeral lateral offset should be evaluated carefully before taking a therapeutic option.
Arthritis; clavicle; floating shoulder; fracture; scapula
Distal interlocking is regarded as an inherent part of the antegrade humeral nailing technique, but it exposes both the patient and surgeon to radiation, is time consuming, and has a potential risk of damaging neurovascular structures. We have presented our technique of diaphyseal humeral nailing without any distal interlocking in this paper.
Materials and Methods:
We have presented a series of 64 consecutive patients (33 male and 31 female, mean age: 41.5 years) with humeral shaft fractures treated with antegrade rigid intramedullary nailing without distal interlocking following a strict intra and postoperative protocol. According to the AO classification, there were 36 type A fractures, 22 type B, and 6 type C. Nails were inserted unreamed or by using limited proximal reaming and they were fitted as snuggly as possible into the medullary canal. After impaction of the nail into the fossa, we carefully tested rotational stability of fixation by checking any potential external rotation when the arm was slightly turned externally and left to the gravity forces. We were ready to add distal screws, but that was not required in these cases. Follow-up assessment included fracture union, complications and failures, and the final clinical outcome at minimum 2-year follow-up using the parameters of the constant score.
All fractures, except two, united between the 4th and 5th postoperative month. In one case, nail was exchanged with plate, and, in another, a larger nail was used at a second surgery. Shoulder function according to constant score, at a minimum of 2-year follow-up, was excellent or very good in 93.7% of the patients.
Provided that some technical issues are followed, the method reduces intraoperative time and radiation exposure and avoids potential damage to neurovascular structures.
Distal interlocking; humeral fractures; humeral nailing
The indications for surgical intervention in complex fractures of the proximal humerus are disputed. In elderly patients with poor bone stock it may be impossible to obtain satisfactory fixation of the tuberosities to a hemiarthroplasty (HA). In such cases primary insertion of a reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has been suggested. We aimed to review clinical studies reporting benefits and harms of RSA in acute fractures. A systematic review. We included 18 studies containing 430 RSA in acute fractures. We found no randomized clinical trials. Four studies compared outcome after RSA with a historical control group of HA. The median constant score was 58 (range 44-68) which is comparable to previous reviews of HA in 4-part fractures. Complications included dislocation, infection, hematoma, instability, neurological injury, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, intraoperative fractures, periprosthetic fractures, and baseplate failure. Scapular notching was reported in 11 studies with a median value of 25% (range 0-94). Heterogeneity of study designs and lack of primary data precluded statistical pooling of data. No high quality evidence was identified. Based on the available evidence the use of RSA in acute fractures is questionable. The complication rate was high and the clinical implications of long term scapular notching are worrying. Randomized studies with long term follow up using the latest techniques of tubercular reinsertion in RSA toward HA should be encouraged.
Proximal humeral fractures; proximal humerus fractures; reverse shoulder arthroplasty; reverse shoulder prosthesis; tuberosity fixation
Arthroscopically assisted latissimus dorsi transfer is a viable option for treatment of patients in their 50s to 70s, without arthritis of the glenohumeral joint, who suffer from massive rotator cuff tears that are not amendable to primary repair due to fatty changes in the muscle tissue, or that have failed previous repair attempts. This procedure offers immediate and dramatic pain relief and is not as technically demanding as one might think. Understanding and respecting the principles of tendon transfer is a key to the success of this procedure.
Latissimus dorsi; massive cuff tear endobutton; shoulder arthroscopy; tendon transfer
One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis.
Materials and Methods:
A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques.
The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P < 0.01).
To our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that show the causes of coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure.
Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings.
Level of Evidence:
Prospective case series, Treatment study.
Bone graft; coracoid; istability; latarjet; osteolysis; shoulder
The purpose of this study was to quantify the width of bone beyond the peak of the anterior glenoid rim and to determine if this anatomic region of the glenoid significantly affects measurement of the anteroposterior glenoid diameter.
Materials and Methods:
19 cadaveric scapulae were examined and the width of bone beyond the peak of the anterior glenoid rim was measured. The percent width of this region relative to the anteroposterior diameter of the glenoid was evaluated. Male and female specimens were compared. Measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the glenoid, both including and excluding this region, were compared.
The mean width of bone beyond the peak of the anterior glenoid rim was 3.2 ± 0.7 mm, corresponding to 10.5% of the anteroposterior glenoid diameter. This anatomic region is of similar relative size in males and females (11% vs 10% of the glenoid diameter). Measurement of the anteroposterior diameter of the glenoid is significantly different depending on whether this region is included or not (P = 0.0064).
There exists a portion of the anterior glenoid that is beyond the peak of the anterior rim, and is not part of the concave articular surface. The width of this anatomic area comprises a significant percent of the anteroposterior glenoid diameter, and should be understood when quantifying and describing anterior glenoid bone loss in cases of glenohumeral instability.
Understanding of anterior glenoid anatomy is important in the evaluation of glenohumeral instability. The portion of glenoid bone beyond the anterior rim peak is likely important for its soft tissue attachments, but its contribution to bony stability may be misunderstood.
Bone loss; glenoid; shoulder instability
Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch may be due to an ossified suprascapular ligament. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the incidence of this anomaly and to analyze the resultant bony foramen (foramen scapula) for gross nerve compression.
Materials and Methods:
We evaluated 104 human scapulae from 52 adult skeletons for the presence of complete ossification of the suprascapular ligament. When an ossified suprascapular ligament was identified, the diameter of the resultant foramen was measured. Also, the suprascapular regions of 50 adult cadavers (100 sides) were dissected. When an ossified suprascapular ligament was identified, the spinati musculature was evaluated for gross atrophy and the diameters of the resultant foramen scapulae and the suprascapular nerve were measured. Immunohistochemical analysis of the nerve was also performed.
For dry scapular specimens, 5.7% were found to have an ossified suprascapular ligament. The mean diameter of these resultant foramina was 2.6 mm. For cadavers, an ossified suprascapular ligament was identified in 5% of sides. Sections of the suprascapular nerve at the foramen scapulae ranged from 2 to 2.8 mm in diameter. In all cadaveric samples, the suprascapular nerve was grossly compressed (~10-20%) at this site. All nerves demonstrated histologic signs of neural degeneration distal to the site of compression. The presence of these foramina in male cadavers and on right sides was statistically significant.
Based on our study, even in the absence of symptoms, gross compression of the suprascapular nerve exists in cases of an ossified suprascapular ligament. Asymptomatic patients with an ossified suprascapular ligament may warrant additional testing such as electromyography.
Anatomy; entrapment; neurosurgery; ossification; peripheral nerve; suprascapular nerve; suprascapular ligament