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1.  Comparative sequence analysis of citrate synthase and 18S ribosomal DNA from a wild and mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with various fungi 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):1-7.
A mutation was induced in Aspergillus niger wild strain using ethidium bromide resulting in enhanced expression of citric acid by three folds and 112.42 mg/mL citric acid was produced under optimum conditions with 121.84 mg/mL of sugar utilization. Dendograms of 18S rDNA and citrate synthase from different fungi including sample strains were made to assess homology among different fungi and to study the correlation of citrate synthase gene with evolution of fungi. Subsequent comparative sequence analysis revealed strangeness between the citrate synthase and 18S rDNA phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, the citrate synthase movement suggests that the use of traditional marker molecule of 18S rDNA gives misleading information about the evolution of citrate synthase in different fungi as it has shown that citrate synthase gene transferred independently among different fungi having no evolutionary relationships. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis was also employed to study genetic variation between wild and mutant strains of A. niger and only 71.43% similarity was found between both the genomes. Keeping in view the importance of citric acid as a necessary constituent of various food preparations, synthetic biodegradable detergents and pharmaceuticals the enhanced production of citric acid by mutant derivative might provide significant boost in commercial scale viability of this useful product.
CS - Citrate synthase, CA - Citric acid, RAPD - Random amplified polymorphic DNA, TAF - Total amplified fragments, PAF - Polymorphic amplified fragments, CAF - Common amplified fragments.
PMCID: PMC3916811  PMID: 24516318
citrate synthase; Aspergillus niger; phylogenetic analysis; polymorphism; RAPD-PCR
2.  Molecular Docking studies of D2 Dopamine receptor with Risperidone derivatives 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):8-12.
In this work, 3D model of D2 dopamine receptor was determined by comparative homology modeling program MODELLER. The computed model's energy was minimized and validated using PROCHECK and Errat tool to obtain a stable model structure and was submitted in Protein Model Database (PMDB-ID: PM0079251). Stable model was used for molecular docking against Risperidone and their 15 derivatives using AutoDock 4.2, which resulted in energy-based descriptors such as Binding Energy, Ligand Efficiency, Inhib Constant, Intermol energy, vdW + Hbond + desolv Energy, Electrostatic Energy, Total Internal Energy and Torsional Energy. After that, we have built quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model, which was trained and tested on Risperidone and their 15 derivatives having activity value pKi in µM. For QSAR modeling, Multiple Linear Regression model was engendered using energy-based descriptors yielding correlation coefficient r2 of 0.513. To assess the predictive performance of QSAR models, different cross-validation procedures were adopted. Our results suggests that ligand-receptor binding interactions for D2 employing QSAR modeling seems to be a promising approach for prediction of pKi value of novel antagonists against D2 receptor.
PMCID: PMC3916812  PMID: 24516319
Schizophrenia; Docking; AutoDock; Risperidone analogues; D2 dopamine receptor
3.  Protease characteristics of bacteriocin producing Lysinibacilli, isolated from fruits and vegetable waste 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):13-18.
This study describes the physical stability and optimization of nutrient components for an extracellular protease produced by Bacillus strains isolated from fruits and vegetable waste, Lucknow, India. The isolated proteases could hydrolyze various native proteinaceous substrates such as bovine serum albumin, casein, skim milk, but not the gelatin. The strain JX416854 and isolate 10 yielded maximum protease (831; 703 U/ml) under optimized conditions: Nutrient, Casein broth; pH 7.0; shaking condition 37°C for 36 h. Crude protease exhibited activity over a wide range of pH (6.0–10.0) and found to be stable at (10–70°C), pH stable at 7- 9.0. The significant protease activity was observed with divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ and EDTA. Further, significant blood destaining properties and stabilities with detergents were also observed. Thus, the significant potency and stability of these enzymes indicated their industrial importance and could be an alternative protease for various industrial applications.
PMCID: PMC3916813  PMID: 24516320
Protease; Lysinibacillus; 16S r RNA gene; Phylogenetic analysis
4.  In silico analysis of Myoglobin in Channa striata 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):19-22.
Myoglobin is a cytoplasmic hemoprotein, expressed solely in cardiac myocytes and oxidative skeletal muscle fibers, that reversibly binds O2 by its heme residue. Myoglobin is an essential oxygen-storage hemoprotein capable of facilitating oxygen transport and modulating nitric oxide homeostasis within cardiac and skeletal myocytes. Functionally, myoglobin is well accepted as an O2- storage protein in muscle, capable of releasing O2 during periods of hypoxia or anoxia. There is no evidence available regarding active sites, ligand binding sites, antigenic determinants and the ASA value of myoglobin in Channa striata. We further document the predicted active sites in the structural model with solvent exposed ASA residues. During this study, the model was built by CPH program and validated through PROCHECK, Verify 3D, ERRAT and ProSA for reliability. The active sites were predicted in the model with further ASA analysis of active site residues. The discussed information thus provides the predicted active sites, ligand binding sites, antigenic determinants and ASA values of myoglobin model in Channa striata.
PMCID: PMC3916814  PMID: 24516321
Validation; Active Sites Prediction; Ligand Binding Sites; Antigenic Determinants and ASA analysis
5.  Screening of commercial cyclic peptide as inhibitor NS5 methyltransferase of Dengue virus through Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):23-27.
Dengue has become a major global health threat, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The development of antiviral agent targeting viral replication is really needed at this time. NS5 methyltransferase presents as a novel antiviral target. This enzyme plays an important role in the methylation of 5'-cap mRNA. Inhibition of the NS5 methyltransferase could inhibit dengue virus replication. In this research, two sites of NS5 methyltransferase (S-Adenosyl methionine/SAM binding site and RNA-cap site) were used as targets for inhibition. As much as 300 commercial cyclic peptides were screened to these target sites by means of molecular docking. Analysis of ligand-enzyme binding free energy and pharmacological prediction revealed two best ligands, namely [Tyr123] Prepro Endothelin (110-130), amide, human and Urotensin II, human. According to molecular dynamic simulation, both ligands maintain a stable complex conformation between enzyme and ligand at temperature 310 K and 312 K. Hence, Urotensin II, human is more reactive at 312 K than at 310 K. However, both ligands can be used as potential inhibitor candidates against NS5 methyltransferase of dengue virus with Urotensin II, human exposes more promising activity at 312 K.
PMCID: PMC3916815  PMID: 24516322
Dengue virus; NS5 methyltransferase; commercial cyclic peptides; molecular dynamics
6.  A diabetic retinopathy detection method using an improved pillar K-means algorithm 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):28-32.
The paper presents a new approach for medical image segmentation. Exudates are a visible sign of diabetic retinopathy that is the major reason of vision loss in patients with diabetes. If the exudates extend into the macular area, blindness may occur. Automated detection of exudates will assist ophthalmologists in early diagnosis. This segmentation process includes a new mechanism for clustering the elements of high-resolution images in order to improve precision and reduce computation time. The system applies K-means clustering to the image segmentation after getting optimized by Pillar algorithm; pillars are constructed in such a way that they can withstand the pressure. Improved pillar algorithm can optimize the K-means clustering for image segmentation in aspects of precision and computation time. This evaluates the proposed approach for image segmentation by comparing with Kmeans and Fuzzy C-means in a medical image. Using this method, identification of dark spot in the retina becomes easier and the proposed algorithm is applied on diabetic retinal images of all stages to identify hard and soft exudates, where the existing pillar K-means is more appropriate for brain MRI images. This proposed system help the doctors to identify the problem in the early stage and can suggest a better drug for preventing further retinal damage.
PMCID: PMC3916816  PMID: 24516323
Diabetic Retinopathy; K-Means; Fuzzy C-means; Pillar k-Means; Dark Spots; Hard exudates; Soft exudates
7.  Affinity comparison of different THCA synthase to CBGA using modeling computational approaches 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):33-38.
The Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA) is the primary psychoactive compound of Cannabis Sativa. It is produced by Δ1- Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCA) which catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) the precursor of the THCA. In this study, we were interested by the three dimensional structure of THCA synthase protein. Generation of models were done by MODELLER v9.11 and homology modeling with Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase X ray structure (PDB code 3VTE) on the basis of sequences retrieved from GenBank. Procheck, Errat, and Verify 3D tools were used to verify the reliability of the six 3D models obtained, the overall quality factor and the Prosa Z-score were also used to check the quality of the six modeled proteins. The RMSDs for C-alpha atoms, main-chain atoms, side-chain atoms and all atoms between the modeled structures and the corresponding template ranged between 0.290 Å-1.252 Å, reflecting the good quality of the obtained models. Our study of the CBGA-THCA synthase docking demonstrated that the active site pocket was successfully recognized using computational approach. The interaction energy of CBGA computed in ‘fiber types’ proteins ranged between -4.1 95 kcal/mol and -5.95 kcal/mol whereas in the ‘drug type’ was about -7.02 kcal/mol to -7.16 kcal/mol, which maybe indicate the important role played by the interaction energy of CBGA in the determination of the THCA level in Cannabis Sativa L. varieties. Finally, we have proposed an experimental design in order to explore the binding energy source of ligand-enzyme in Cannabis Sativa and the production level of the THCA in the absence of any information regarding the correlation between the enzyme affinity and THCA level production. This report opens the doors to more studies predicting the binding site pocket with accuracy from the perspective of the protein affinity and THCA level produced in Cannabis Sativa.
PMCID: PMC3916817  PMID: 24516324
Cannabis Sativa; Homology modeling; Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase potency; THC synthase binding energy; dynamic study; experimental design
8.  WGDB: Wood Gene Database with search interface 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):39-42.
Wood quality can be defined in terms of particular end use with the involvement of several traits. Over the last fifteen years researchers have assessed the wood quality traits in forest trees. The wood quality was categorized as: cell wall biochemical traits, fibre properties include the microfibril angle, density and stiffness in loblolly pine [1]. The user friendly and an open-access database has been developed named Wood Gene Database (WGDB) for describing the wood genes along the information of protein and published research articles. It contains 720 wood genes from species namely Pinus, Deodar, fast growing trees namely Poplar, Eucalyptus. WGDB designed to encompass the majority of publicly accessible genes codes for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in tree species which are responsive to wood formation and quality. It is an interactive platform for collecting, managing and searching the specific wood genes; it also enables the data mining relate to the genomic information specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Pinus radiata, Cedrus deodara, Cedrus atlantica. For user convenience, this database is cross linked with public databases namely NCBI, EMBL & Dendrome with the search engine Google for making it more informative and provides bioinformatics tools named BLAST,COBALT.
The database is freely available on
PMCID: PMC3916818  PMID: 24516325
Wood; Cellulose; Pinus; Cedrus; Poplar; Eucalyptus
9.  GRIMD: distributed computing for chemists and biologists 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):43-47.
Motivation: Biologists and chemists are facing problems of high computational complexity that require the use of several computers organized in clusters or in specialized grids. Examples of such problems can be found in molecular dynamics (MD), in silico screening, and genome analysis. Grid Computing and Cloud Computing are becoming prevalent mainly because of their competitive performance/cost ratio. Regrettably, the diffusion of Grid Computing is strongly limited because two main limitations: it is confined to scientists with strong Computer Science background and the analyses of the large amount of data produced can be cumbersome it. We have developed a package named GRIMD to provide an easy and flexible implementation of distributed computing for the Bioinformatics community. GRIMD is very easy to install and maintain, and it does not require any specific Computer Science skill. Moreover, permits preliminary analysis on the distributed machines to reduce the amount of data to transfer. GRIMD is very flexible because it shields the typical computational biologist from the need to write specific code for tasks such as molecular dynamics or docking calculations. Furthermore, it permits an efficient use of GPU cards whenever is possible. GRIMD calculations scale almost linearly and, therefore, permits to exploit efficiently each machine in the network. Here, we provide few examples of grid computing in computational biology (MD and docking) and bioinformatics (proteome analysis).
GRIMD is available for free for noncommercial research at
Supplementary information
PMCID: PMC3916819  PMID: 24516326
10.  PPS: A computing engine to find Palindromes in all Protein sequences 
Bioinformation  2014;10(1):48-51.
The primary structure of a protein molecule comprises a linear chain of amino acid residues. Certain parts of this linear chain are unique in nature and function. They can be classified under different categories and their roles studied in detail. Two such unique categories are the palindromic sequences and the Single Amino Acid Repeats (SAARs), which plays a major role in the structure, function and evolution of the protein molecule. In spite of their presence in various protein sequences, palindromes have not yet been investigated in detail. Thus, to enable a comprehensive understanding of these sequences, a computing engine, PPS, has been developed. The users can search the occurrences of palindromes and SAARs in all the protein sequences available in various databases and can view the three-dimensional structures (in case it is available in the known three-dimensional protein structures deposited to the Protein Data Bank) using the graphics plug-in Jmol. The proposed server is the first of its kind and can be freely accessed through the World Wide Web.
PMCID: PMC3916820  PMID: 24516327
Single Amino Acid Repeats; computing engine; three-dimensional crystal structures; Palindromes
11.  Virtual Screening of Indonesian Herbal Database as HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):52-55.
HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1)׳s infection is considered as one of most harmful disease known by human, the survivability rate of the host reduced significantly when it developed into AIDS. HIV drug resistance is one of the main problems of its treatment and several drug designs have been done to find new leads compound as the cure. In this study, in silico virtual screening approach was used to find lead molecules from the library or database of natural compounds as HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Virtual screening against Indonesian Herbal Database with AutoDock was performed on HIV-1 protease. From the virtual screening, top ten compounds obtained were 8-Hydroxyapigenin 8-(2",4"-disulfatoglucuronide), Isoscutellarein 4'-methyl ether, Amaranthin, Torvanol A, Ursonic acid, 5-Carboxypyranocyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), Oleoside, Jacoumaric acid, Platanic acid and 5-Carboxypyranocyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside.
PMCID: PMC3937575  PMID: 24616554
Indonesian herbal database; HIV-1 protease; molecular docking; virtual screening
12.  in silico identification of protein-protein interactions in Silkworm, Bombyx mori 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):56-62.
The Domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, an economically important insect has been used as a lepidopteran molecular model next only to Drosophila. Compared to the genomic information in silkworm, the protein-protein interaction data are limited. Therefore experimentally identified PPI maps from five model organisms such as E.coli, C.elegans, D.melanogaster, H. sapiens, S. cerevisiae were used to infer the PPI network of silkworm using the well-recognized Interlog based method. Among the 14623 silkworm proteins, 7736 protein-protein interaction pairs were predicted which include 2700 unique proteins of the silkworms. Using the iPfam interaction domains and the gene expression data, these predictions were validated. In that 625 PPI pairs of predicted network were associated with the iPfam domain-domain interactions and the random network has average of 9. In the gene expression method, the average PCC value of the predicted network and random network was 0.29 and 0.23100±0.00042 respectively. It reveals that the predicted PPI networks of silkworm are highly significant and reliable. This is the first PPI network for the silkworm which will provide a framework for deciphering the cellular processes governing key metabolic pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori and available at SilkPPI (
PMCID: PMC3937576  PMID: 24616555
protein-protein interaction; Interlog method; Bombyx mori
13.  Computational analyses of protein coded by rice (Oryza sativa japonica) cDNA (GI: 32984786) indicate lectin like Ca2+ binding properties for Eicosapenta Peptide Repeats (EPRs) 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):63-67.
Eicosapenta peptide repeats (EPRs) occur exclusively in flowering plant genomes and exhibit very high amino acid residue conservation across occurrence. DNA and amino acid sequence searches yielded no indications about the function due to absence of similarity to known sequences. Tertiary structure of an EPR protein coded by rice (Oryza sativa japonica) cDNA (GI: 32984786) was determined based on ab initio methodology in order to draw clues on functional significance of EPRs. The resultant structure comprised of seven α-helices and thirteen anti-parallel β-sheets. Surface-mapping of conserved residues onto the structure deduced that (i) regions equivalent to β α4- the primary function of EPR protein could be Ca2+ binding, and (iii) the putative EPR Ca2+ binding domain is structurally similar to calcium-binding domains of plant lectins. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis showed an evolving taxa-specific distribution of EPR proteins observed in some GNA-like lectins.
PMCID: PMC3937577  PMID: 24616556
ab initio structure prediction; function prediction; repeat proteins; surface mapping; taxa-specific
14.  Genome wide survey and molecular modeling of hypothetical proteins containing 2Fe-2S and FMN binding domains suggests Rieske Dioxygenase Activity highlighting their potential roles in bioremediation 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):68-75.
‘Conserved hypothetical’ proteins pose a challenge not just for functional genomics, but also to biology in general. As long as there are hundreds of conserved proteins with unknown function in model organisms such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, any discussion towards a ‘complete’ understanding of these biological systems will remain a wishful thinking. Insilico approaches exhibit great promise towards attempts that enable appreciating the plausible roles of these hypothetical proteins. Among the majority of genomic proteins, two-thirds in unicellular organisms and more than 80% in metazoa, are multi-domain proteins, created as a result of gene duplication events. Aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, also called Rieske dioxygenases (RDOs), are class of multi-domain proteins that catalyze the initial step in microbial aerobic degradation of many aromatic compounds. Investigations here address the computational characterization of hypothetical proteins containing Ferredoxin and Flavodoxin signatures. Consensus sequence of each class of oxidoreductase was obtained by a phylogenetic analysis, involving clustering methods based on evolutionary relationship. A synthetic sequence was developed by combining the consensus, which was used as the basis to search for their homologs via BLAST. The exercise yielded 129 multidomain hypothetical proteins containing both 2Fe-2S (Ferredoxin) and FNR (Flavodoxin) domains. In the current study, 17 proteins with N-terminus FNR domain and C-terminus 2Fe-2S domain are characterized, through homology modelling and docking exercises which suggest dioxygenase activity indicate their plausible roles in degradation of aromatic moieties.
PMCID: PMC3937578  PMID: 24616557
Hypothetical proteins; multi-domain redox proteins; FMN; FAD; 2F2-2S; FNR; Rieske dioxygenases; aromatic ring cleavage; Xenobiotic; MOSC
15.  Design of inhibitors of the HIV-1 integrase core domain using virtual screening 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):76-80.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The integrase (IN) enzyme of HIV interacts with several cellular and viral proteins during the integration process. Thus, it represents an appropriate target for antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). We performed virtual screening of database compounds and designed analogues using Elvitegravir (EVG) as a standard compound. The 378 screened compounds were retrieved from ZINC, ChemSpider, PubChem, and ChemBank Chemical Databases based on chemical similarity and literature searches related to the structure of EVG. The Physiochemical properties, Bioactivity, Toxicity and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of Molecules (ADME) of these compounds were predicted and docking Experiments were conducted using Molegro Virtual Docker software. The docking and ADME suggested very significant results in regard to EVG. The MolDock and Rerank scores were used to analyze the results. The compounds ZINC26507991 (-84.22), Analogue 9 (-68.49), ZINC20731658 (-66.79), ZINC00210363 (-43.44) showed better binding orientation with IN receptor model with respect to EVG (182.52). The ZINC26507991 has showed significant ADME result.
PMCID: PMC3937579  PMID: 24616558
HIV-1 integrase; Virtual screening; Elvitegravir; docking; ADME
16.  Structural and Functional analysis of Staphylococcus aureus NADP-dependent IDH and its comparison with Bacterial and Human NADPdependent IDH 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):81-86.
Staphylococcus aureus a natural inhabitant of nasopharyngeal tract mainly survives as biofilms and possess complete Krebs cycle which plays major role in its pathogenesis. This TCA cycle is regulated by Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) we have earlier cloned, sequenced (HM067707), expressed and characterized this enzyme from S. aureus ATCC12600. We have observed only one type of IDH in all the strains of S. aureus which dictates the flow of carbon thereby controlling the virulence and biofilm formation, this phenomenon is variable among bacteria. Therefore in the present study comparative structural and functional analysis of IDH was undertaken. As the crystal structure of S. aureus IDH was not available therefore using the deduced amino sequence of complete gene the 3D structure of IDH was built in Modeller 9v8. The PROCHECK and ProSAweb analysis showed the built structure was close to the crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis. This structure when superimposed with other bacterial IDH structures exhibited extensive structural variations as evidenced from the RMSD values correlating with extensive sequential variations. Only 24% sequence identity was observed with both human NADP dependent IDHs (PDB: 1T09 and 1T0L) and the structural comparative studies indicated extensive structural variations with an RMSD values of 14.284Å and 10.073Å respectively. Docking of isocitrate to both human IDHs and S. aureus IDH structures showed docking scores of -11.6169 and -10.973 respectively clearly indicating higher binding affinity of isocitrate to human IDH.
PMCID: PMC3937580  PMID: 24616559
Isocitrate dehydrogenase; NADP; RMSD; TCA Cycle
17.  Isolation and in-silico characterization of Peroxidase isoenzymes from Wheat (Triticum aestivum) against Karnal Bunt (Tilletia indica) 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):87-93.
To investigate the role of Peroxidase and its physiological significance under Karnal Bunt (KB) were determined in resistant (HD-29) and susceptible genotype (WH-542) of wheat during different developmental stages. The enzymes were expressed constitutively in both the susceptible and resistant genotype. In gel assay and differential expression analysis of POD was significantly higher (p >0.05) in Sv and S2, than the S1 and S3 stages. in silico analysis of Peroxidase for eg. physico-chemical properties, secondary structural features and phylogenetic classification for comparative analysis. Motif and Domain analysis of Peroxidase by MEME, to be important for the biological functions, and studies of evolution. Our results clearly indicate that the enhanced expression of POD at the WS2 stage, which reinforces its role in stage dependent immunity against Karnal bunt and role of POD metabolism provides genotype and stage dependant structural barrier resistance in wheat against KB.
PMCID: PMC3937581  PMID: 24616560
Peroxidase (POD); Karnal Bunt; Triticum; insilico analysis; Fungus
18.  Mapping the amino acid properties of constituent nucleoporins onto the yeast nuclear pore complex 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):94-97.
Visualization of molecular structures aids in the understanding of structural and functional roles of biological macromolecules. Macromolecular transport between the cell nucleus and cytoplasm is facilitated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The ring structure of the NPC is large and contains several distinct proteins (nucleoporins) which function as a selective gate for the passage of certain molecules into and out of the nucleus. In this note we demonstrate the utility of a python code that allows direct mapping of the physiochemical properties of the constituent nucleoporins on the scaffold of the yeast NPC׳s cytoplasmic view. We expect this tool to be useful for researchers to visualize the NPC based on their physiochemical properties and how it alters when specific mutations are introduced in one or more of the nucleoporins. The code developed using Python is available freely from the authors.
PMCID: PMC3937582  PMID: 24616561
NPC (nuclear pore complex); IDP (intrinsically disordered protein); AA Index
19.  Insect Barcode Information System 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):98-100.
Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally important insects. IBIn was developed using PHP/My SQL by using relational database management concept. This database is based on the client– server architecture, where many clients can access data simultaneously. IBIn is freely available on-line and is user-friendly. IBIn allows the registered users to input new information, search and view information related to DNA barcode of agriculturally important insects.This paper provides a current status of insect barcode in India and brief introduction about the database IBIn.
PMCID: PMC3937583  PMID: 24616562
Insect barcode database; genomic tools; barcode generation; molecular taxonomy; DNA barcode
20.  Study on Folate Binding Domain of Dihydrofolate Reductase in Different Plant species and Human beings 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):101-104.
Data base (NCBI and TIGR) searches are made to retrieve protein sequences of different plant species namely Medicago truncatula, Pisum sativum, Ricinus communis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Glycine max, Daucus carota, Oryza sativa Japonica Group, Arabidopsis lyrata subsp. lyrata, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa Indica Group, Zea mays and careful alignment of derived sequences shows 95% or higher identity. Similarly, DHFR sequence of human being is also retrieved from NCBI. A phylogenetic tree is constructed from different plant and human DHFR domain using the Neighbour – Joining method in MEGA 5.05. Conservation score is performed by using PARALINE. Result suggests that folate binding domain of dihydrofolare reductase is conserved (score 8.06) and excepting some minor variations the basic structure of the domain in both plant species and human being is rather similar. Human DHFR domain contains PEKN sequence near active site, though proline is common for all the selected organisms but the other sequences are different in plants. The plant domain is always associated with TS (Thymidylate synthase). Plant based system is predicted to be an effective model for assessment of MTX (Methotrexate) and other antifolate drugs.
PMCID: PMC3937584  PMID: 24616563
DHFR; Methotrexate; phylogenetic tree
21.  PHYSICO: An UNIX based Standalone Procedure for Computation of Individual and Group Properties of Protein Sequences 
Bioinformation  2014;10(2):105-107.
In the genomic and proteomic era, efficient and automated analyses of sequence properties of protein have become an important task in bioinformatics. There are general public licensed (GPL) software tools to perform a part of the job. However, computations of mean properties of large number of orthologous sequences are not possible from the above mentioned GPL sets. Further, there is no GPL software or server which can calculate window dependent sequence properties for a large number of sequences in a single run. With a view to overcome above limitations, we have developed a standalone procedure i.e. PHYSICO, which performs various stages of computation in a single run based on the type of input provided either in RAW-FASTA or BLOCK-FASTA format and makes excel output for: a) Composition, Class composition, Mean molecular weight, Isoelectic point, Aliphatic index and GRAVY, b) column based compositions, variability and difference matrix, c) 25 kinds of window dependent sequence properties. The program is fast, efficient, error free and user friendly. Calculation of mean and standard deviation of homologous sequences sets, for comparison purpose when relevant, is another attribute of the program; a property seldom seen in existing GPL softwares.
PHYSICO is freely available for non-commercial/academic user in formal request to the corresponding author
PMCID: PMC3937585  PMID: 24616564
UNIX; physicochemical properties; FASTA; software; protein sequence
22.  Differences in structural elements of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein isoforms in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia 
Bioinformation  2014;10(3):108-114.
in silico modeling, using Psipred and ExPASy servers was employed to determine the structural elements of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein (p210BCR-ABL) isoforms, b2a2 and b3a2, expressed in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML). Both these proteins are tyrosine kinases having masses of 210-kDa and differing only by 25 amino acids coded by the b3 exonand an amino acidsubstitution (Glu903Asp). The secondary structure elements of the two proteins show differences in five α-helices and nine β-strands which relates to differences in the SH3, SH2, SH1 and DNA-binding domains. These differences can result in different roles played by the two isoforms in mediating signal transduction during the course of CML.
PMCID: PMC3974235  PMID: 24748748
23.  Computer Aided Screening of Phytochemicals from Garcinia against the Dengue NS2B/NS3 Protease 
Bioinformation  2014;10(3):115-118.
Dengue virus NS2/NS3 protease because of its ability to cleave viral proteins is considered as an attractive target to screen antiviral agents. Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Therefore, this study was designed to uncover possible phytochemical of different classes (Aromatic, Carbohydrates, Lignin, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins, Terpenoids, Xanthones) that could be used as inhibitors against the NS2B/NS3 protease of DENV. With the help of molecular docking, Garcinia phytochemicals found to be bound deeply inside the active site of DENV NS2B/NS3 protease among all tested phytochemicals and had interactions with catalytic triad (His51, Asp75, Ser135). Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy.
PMCID: PMC3974236  PMID: 24748749
Dengue virus (DENV); NS2/NS3 Protease; Medicinal Plants; Phytochemicals; Inhibitors; Molecular docking; Catalytic traid
24.  Modeling and phylogenetic analysis of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (OsAPX1) from rice reveal signature motifs that may play a role in stress tolerance 
Bioinformation  2014;10(3):119-123.
Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a crucial, haeme-containing enzyme of the ascorbate glutathione cycle that detoxifies reactive oxygen species in plants by catalyzing the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in discrete subcellular compartments in rice and their expression is stress regulated. We revealed the homology model of OsAPX1 protein using the crystal structure of soybean GmAPX1 (PDB ID: 2XIF) as template by Modeller 9.12. The resultant OsAPX1 model structure was refined by PROCHECK, ProSA, Verify3D and RMSD that indicated the model structure is reliable with 83 % amino acid sequence identity with template, RMSD (1.4 Å), Verify3D (86.06 %), Zscores (-8.44) and Ramachandran plot analysis showed that conformations for 94.6% of amino acid residues are within the most favoured regions. Investigation revealed two conserved signatures for haeme ligand binding and peroxidase activity in the alpha helical region that may play a significant role during stress.
PMCID: PMC3974237  PMID: 24748750
Haeme ligand; homology modeling; ascorbate peroxidase; Oryza sativa
25.  Molecular Modeling and docking of Wheat Hydroquinone Glucosyl transferase by using Hydroquinone, Phenyl phosphorodiamate and n-(n butyl) Phosphorothiocic Triamide as Inhibitors 
Bioinformation  2014;10(3):124-129.
In agriculture high urease activity during urea fertilization causes substantial environmental and economical problems by releasing abnormally large amount of ammonia into the atmosphere which leads to plant damage as well as ammonia toxicity. All over the world, urea is the most widely applied nitrogen fertilizer. Due to the action of enzyme urease; urea nitrogen is lost as volatile ammonia. For efficient use of nitrogen fertilizer, urease inhibitor along with the urea fertilizer is one of the best promising strategies. Urease inhibitors also provide an insight in understanding the mechanism of enzyme catalyzed reaction, the role of various amino acids in catalytic activity present at the active site of enzyme and the importance of nickel to this metallo enzyme. By keeping it in view, the present study was designed to dock three urease inhibitors namely Hydroquinone (HQ), Phenyl Phosphorodiamate (PPD) and N-(n-butyl) Phosphorothiocic triamide (NBPT) against Hydroquinone glucosyltransferase using molecular docking approach. The 3D structure of Hydroquinone glucosyltransferase was predicted using homology modeling approach and quality of the structure was assured using Ramachandran plot. This study revealed important interactions among the urease inhibitors and Hydroquinone glucosyltransferase. Thus, it can be inferred that these inhibitors may serve as future anti toxic constituent against plant toxins.
PMCID: PMC3974238  PMID: 24748751
Soil Urease activity; Hydroquinone glucosyltransferase; Molecular docking and Homology modeling

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