Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardias; Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation
The population of children and young adults requiring a cardiac pacing device has been consistently increasing. The current generation of devices are small with a longer battery life, programming capabilities that can cater to the demands of the young patients and ability to treat brady and tachyarrhythmias as well as heart failure. This has increased the scope and clinical indications of using these devices. As patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) comprise majority of these patients requiring devices, the knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations and the technical skills required are different than that required in the adult population. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points in detail to improve the understanding of cardiac pacing in children and young adults.
Pacemakers; pacing; ICDs; pediatrics; congenital heart defects
Chagas disease is a highly prevalent zoonosis in Mexico, Central, and South America. Early cardiac involvement is one of the most serious complications of this disease, and conduction disturbances may occur at an early age. We describe a young pregnant woman with Chagas disease and a high degree atrioventricular block, who required implantation of a permanent dual chamber pacemaker. Using an electroanatomic navigation EnSite NavX® system the pacemaker was successfully implanted with minimal fluoroscopic exposure. This case demonstrates the safety and feasibility of using an electroanatomic navigation system to guide permanent pacemaker implantation minimizing x-ray exposure in pregnant patients.
Chagas disease; Heart Block; Pregnancy; Electroanatomic Navigation; Permanent Cardiac Pacemaker; Non-fluoroscopic imaging
Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia; left ventricular outflow tract; tachycardiomyopathy
A 27 year-old- lady was evaluated due to recurrent ventricular tachycardia. After performing echocardiography and cardiac MRI, she was found to have large pericardial cyst. Pathologic examination confirmed it as mesothelial pericardial cyst. Up to our knowledge it is the first presentation of simple pericardial cyst as ventricular a tachycardia.
Pericardial cyst; Ventricular arrhythmia
This report details the case of 17 year old identical twins who both presented with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). Electrophysiological studies revealed atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) in both twins. Successful but technically challenging slow pathway ablation was performed in both twins. This is the first reported case of confirmed AVNRT in identical twins which adds strong evidence to heritability of the dual AV node physiology and AVNRT. A review of the current literature regarding PSVT in monozygotic twins is provided.
Twins; Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia; AVNRT
A 45-year old man presents with stable monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. He had previously been diagnosed with idiopathic fascicular ventricular tachycardia. Intravenous flecainide results in termination of his tachycardia but unmasks a latent type 1 Brugada ECG pattern not seen on his resting ECG. We discuss his subsequent management and the need to consider an alternative diagnosis in individuals with a Brugada type ECG pattern who present with stable monomorphic ventricular tachycardia.
monomorphic ventricular tachycardia; Brugada; fascicular; idiopathic
Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VA) consist of various subtypes of VA that occur in the absence of clinically apparent structural heart disease. Affected patients account for approximately 10% of all patients referred for evaluation of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Arrhythmias arising from the outflow tract (OT) are the most common subtype of idiopathic VA and more than 70-80% of idiopathic VTs or premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) originate from the right ventricular (RV) OT. Idiopathic OT arrhythmias are thought to be caused by adenosine-sensitive, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) mediated triggered activity and, in general, manifest at a relatively early age. Usually they present as salvos of paroxysmal ventricular ectopic beats and are rarely life-threatening. When highly symptomatic and refractory to antiarrhythmic therapy or causative for ventricular dysfunction, ablation is a recommended treatment with a high success rate and a low risk of complications.
ventricular arrhythmias; outflow tract; ICDs; premature ventricular contractions; ablation
Cardiac Sarcoidosis; Arrhythmias
Cryoballoon ablation (CBA) has been proven to be very effective for pulmonary vein (PV) isolation (PVI) if complete occlusion is achieved and conventionally assessed by angiographic injection of contrast within PV lumen. The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of saline contrast intracardiac echocardiography in guiding CBA with respect to PV angiography.
Thirty consecutive patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were randomly assigned fluoroscopy plus color-flow Doppler (n = 15; group 1: an iodinated medium as both angiographic and echographic contrast) or contrast intracardiac echocardiography plus color-flow Doppler (n = 15; group 2: saline contrast) for guidance of CBA.
We evaluated 338 occlusions of 107 PVs. The intracardiac echocontrastography-guided assessment of occlusion, defined as loss of echocontrastographic back-flow to the left atrium after saline injection regardless of the visualization of PV antrum, showed a high level of agreement with the angiographic diagnosis of occlusion. PVI rate was similar in both groups and effectively guided by intracardiac echocontrastography (PVI using ≤ 2 double cryofreezes: 89% of PVs in group 1 vs. 91% in group 2; p=n.s.). Group 2 patients had significantly shorter procedure (127 ± 16 vs. 152 ± 19 minutes; p<0.05) and fluoroscopy times (30 ± 12 vs. 43 ± 9 minutes, p<0.05) and used a lower iodinated contrast (88 ± 26 vs. 190 ± 47 mL, p<0.05).
PV occlusion and PVI during cryoablation can be effectively predicted by intracardiac saline echocontrastography. This technique reduces procedural time, radiological exposure and iodinated contrast use.
atrial fibrillation; cryoballoon ablation; intracardiac echocardiography; pulmonary vein isolation
Epicardial ablation has lately become a necessary tool to approach some ventricular tachycardias in different types of cardiomyopathy. Its diffusion is now limited to a few high volume centers not because of the difficulty of the pericardial puncture but since it requires high competence not only in the VT ablation field but also in knowing and recognizing the possible complications each of which require a careful treatment.
This article will review the state of the art of epicardial ablation with special attention to the procedural aspects and to the possible selection criteria of the patients
epicardial ablation; ventricular tachycardia
Transarterial lead implantation in the left ventricle or aorta is a rare complication. Percutaneous lead removal is associated with significant thromboembolic and bleeding risk. We present two cases of lead removal from the left ventricle via the left subclavian artery with concurrent carotid embolic protection followed by stent graft placement in the subclavian artery.
Patient 1 underwent prior pacemaker implant with atrial and ventricular active fixation leads positioned in the right coronary cusp and the left ventricle, respectively. Patient 2 had prior ICD implant with a single active fixation lead positioned in the left ventricular apex. Lead removal was performed in a hybrid operating room. Distal embolic filter wires were deployed in the carotid arteries following anticoagulation. Intravascular ultrasound of the left subclavian artery was performed and as the leads were withdrawn, a covered stent was deployed at the removal site. Final angiography demonstrated no evidence of embolic phenomena. Both patients underwent transvenous lead implantation followed by an uneventful postoperative clinical course.
Transarterial percutaneous lead removal may be safely performed using embolic filter protection of the cerebral circulation and stent graft placement of the arterial entry site.
Pacemaker; defibrillator; lead removal; carotid embolic protection
Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) is a life threatening complication in a patient with Cardiac Sarcoidosis. The management becomes extremely challenging when it is refractory to traditional anti-arrhythmic drugs. Herein, we describe a case where a 33-year-old patient with VT storm, with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), was managed by medications, sedation, ventilator support and multiple Radio-Frequency (RF) ablation procedures over 76-days ICU stay period.
Cardiac Sarcoidosis; Ventricular Tachycardia Storm; Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator; Radio-Frequency Ablation
We report two cases of systemic sarcoidosis with atrial flutter as the clinical manifestation. In one patient, who had symptoms of shorter duration, the arrhythmia was no longer inducible after a course of glucocorticoid therapy. Electroanatomical mapping in the other case revealed patchy fibrosis of the left atrial myocardium and multiple macro-reentrant circuits. Sinus rhythm could be restored with ablation of these reentrant circuits. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the demonstration of atrial scarring in a patient with sarcoidosis using 3-D electroanatomical mapping. These two cases illustrate that the inflammation of atrial myocardium is the primary mechanism of atrial arrhythmias in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.
atrial flutter; sarcoidosis; radiofrequency ablation
We report a case of sarcoidosis presenting initially as atrial fibrillation(AF). His response to anti-arrhythmic treatment strategy was suboptimal. On initiation of immunosuppressive therapy, AF was better controlled. This interesting case highlights a likely link between inflammation and pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation.
atrial fibrillation; sarcoidosis; inflammation
We read the case report of Dr. Puri and colleagues for treating an infected permanent pacemaker conservatively in an elderly patient. Due to its similarity of this work with ours, we wish to highlight some points regarding conservative treatment of pacemaker infection.
Pacemaker; infection; conservative treatment
Pacemaker; infection; conservative treatment
Central venous stenosis after the insertion of a permanent pacemaker is a well recognized complication. This late complication is encountered when there is a need to change the pacemaker lead or extract it. We describe a young male who had such a complication after many years after right side pacemaker implantation. The lesion was managed percutaneously leading to placement of a new lead from the left side.
Percutaneous Transvenous Angioplasty; Innominate Vein Stenosis; Permanent Pacemaker Implantation
atrial fibrillation; ablation
HIFU can achieve PVI, but severe esophageal complications have happened. We analyzed relative position of HIFU balloon catheter (BC) to esophageal temperature (ET) probe and correlated it to ET changes.
Methods and Results
Before each ablation relative position of HIFU BC to ET probe was recorded in RAO 30º and LAO 40º. We compared ablations where ET at end of ablation was <38.5ºC or ≥38.5ºC and <40.0ºC or ≥40.0ºC.
A total of 600 images from 311 ablations in 28 patients (18 male, age 63±7 years), were analyzed. ET ≥38.5ºC was reached when distance from BC to ET probe was: <20mm in LAO for RSPV and <29mm in LAO for RIPV. For RIPV ET ≥38.5ºC was reached when angle between BC and ET probe was significantly smaller in LAO and RAO. ET ≥40.0ºC was reached when distance of BC to ET probe was: <20mm in LAO for RIPV, <14mm in RAO for RIPV, <18mm in RAO for LIPV. ET increased to ≥40.0ºC when distance from BC to ET probe was significantly longer in LAO for LIPV. For RIPV ET ≥40.0ºC was reached when angle between BC and ET probe was significantly smaller in LAO.
There is a relationship between distance/angle of HIFU BC to ET probe and ET: shorter distances and smaller angles can cause higher ET.
Atrial fibrillation; Ablation; Complications; Esophagus; High-intensity focused ultrasound
Pacemakers and other cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have long been considered an absolute contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a crucial and growing imaging modality. In the last 20 years, protocols have been developed to allow MR scanning of CIED patients with a low complication rate. However, this practice has remained limited to a relatively small number of centers, and many pacemaker patients continue to be denied access to clinically indicated imaging. The introduction of MRI conditional pacemakers has provided a widely applicable and satisfactory solution to this problem. Here, the interactions of pacemakers with the MR environment, the results of MR scanning in patients with conventional CIEDs, the development and clinical experience with MRI conditional devices, and future directions are reviewed.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED); pacemaker; implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
Fragmented QRS (fQRS) is a convenient marker of myocardial scar evaluated by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. fQRS is defined as additional spikes within the QRS complex. In patients with CAD, fQRS was associated with myocardial scar detected by single photon emission tomography and was a predictor of cardiac events. fQRS was also a predictor of mortality and arrhythmic events in patients with reduced left ventricular function. The usefulness of fQRS for detecting myocardial scar and for identifying high-risk patients has been expanded to various cardiac diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, acute coronary syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and acquired long QT syndrome. fQRS can be applied to patients with wide QRS complexes and is associated with myocardial scar and prognosis. Myocardial scar detected by fQRS is associated with subsequent ventricular dysfunction and heart failure and is a substrate for reentrant ventricular tachyarrhythmias.
fragmented QRS; cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED); myocardial scar; cardiac event
Emergency department admissions due to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks constitute an important patient group. The correct evaluation includes a review of system integrity and a careful analysis of stored intracardiac electrograms. We present a patient admitted with a single ICD discharge due to an episode of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, and an unexpected finding.
Cardioverter-defibrillator; shock; evaluation
Ablation of cavotricuspid ishtmus flutter and atrial tachycardia in a complex substrate has never been reported using remote navigation via superior approach. Venous access was obtained via right internal jugular for ablation and left subclavian for duodecapolar catheter placement into the coronary sinus. In a posttransplant patient presenting with both regular and irregular tachycardia, both cavotricuspid isthmus flutter in the donor and atrial tachycardia in the recipient was mapped using a two catheter approach. Successful ablation of typical atrial flutter and anastomotic block was achieved. This is the first report of successful ablation of cavotricuspid isthmus flutter and posttransplant atrial tachycardia using magnetic navigation via superior approach. Using only two catheters, this approach is logical and feasible in complex substrates with interrupted inferior venous access.
pseudo-fibrillation; magnetic navigation; post transplant
supraventricular tachcyardia; acute myocardial infarction