Drug Therapy; Brugada syndrome; Ventricular Arrhythmia
Epicardial pacing lead fixation is employed in patients with cavopulmonary anastamosis (Glenn shunts) when they need permanent pacing. Epicardial pacing in these patients may malfunction due to high pacing thresholds or diaphragmatic pacing. A novel technique of transatrial insertion of two endocardial screw-in pacing leads through right anterolateral minithoracotomy could achieve synchronous atrioventricular pacing in a patient with Ebsteins anomaly with symptomatic sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal disease.
Peratrial pacing; Permanent pacing; Diaphragmatic pacing; Endocardial screw-in pacing lead; Epicardial pacing lead
Brugada syndrome is an inherited channelopathy associated with an increased risk of syncope and sudden cardiac death. In rare cases it can be manifested with electrical storm. We report two cases of Brugada syndrome that presented with electrical storm and were treated successfully with oral quinidine, an "endangered species" drug.
Brugada syndrome; electrical storm; quinidine
We report a case of a 67-year old male with a recent diagnosis of left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), initially presenting with symptomatic ventricular ectopy and runs of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). This ventricular arrhythmia originated in a structurally normal right ventricle (RV) and was successfully localized and ablated with the aid of the three-dimensional mapping and remote magnetic navigation.
left ventricular non-compaction; ventricular tachycardia; electrophysiology study; ablation
We report a clinical case of a 22-year-old female referred to our institution due to palpitations and preexcitation. Her ECG suggested a right superior paraseptal accessory pathway (AP), which was localised during the electrophysiological study at the superior paraseptal region in close proximity to the His recordings. Reproducible orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia was induced by atrial pacing with extrastimuli. Cryo-mapping performed in the area of earliest atrial activation was not able to terminate the tachycardia. A second attempt, slightly more posterior, caused mechanical block of the AP, which rendered the tachycardia non-inducible. More pressure with the ablation catheter determined a Wenckebach type supra-hisian AV block, which was transient but reproducible. Given this finding no ablation was done. Simultaneous block to the AP and the atrioventricular node has rarely been reported using radiofrequency energy. However, to our knowledge this phenomenon has not been previously reported in large series using cryo-thermal energy.
Orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia; Accessory pathway; Cryoablation; Atrioventricular node; Block
The ventricular tachycardia (VT) monitoring zone in implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is usually programmed to detect slow VTs. However, it is not well known whether programming this zone can affect the ICD arrhythmia redetection or confirmation criteria. We report two cases of inappropriate ICD shocks due to the programming of a slow VT monitoring zone in the same device model.
Inappropriate ICD Shocks; Monitoring Zones
A 58 year-old-patient developed an episode of polymorphic atrial tachycardia which looked like "atrial torsades de pointes" after a 5J shock from implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
atrial torsades de pointes; implantable cardioverter defibrillator; low-energy shock
Coexistent Brugada syndrome and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is rare, and as such poses management challenges. The overlap of symptoms attributable to each condition, the timing of ventricular stimulation after accessory pathway ablation and the predictive value of programmed stimulation in Brugada syndrome are controversial. We describe a case of coexistent Brugada syndrome and WPW syndrome in a symptomatic young adult. We discuss our treatment approach and the existing literature along with the challenges in management of such cases.
Brugada syndrome; WPW syndrome; accessory pathway; sudden cardiac death; implantable defibrillator
Premature Ventricular Complexes; Left Atrial Appendage Dysfunction
A 16-year-old female with ventricular dysfunction and frequent ventricular arrhythmia presented with a cardioembolic stroke. Prior electrophysiology study and ablation was performed for ventricular tachycardia (VT). For remaining ventricular ectopy, the patient was maintained on carvedilol and mexiletine. After one year on this regimen, she presented with an acute stroke. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed no evidence of an intracardiac or ventricular thrombus but demonstrated markedly decreased left atrial appendage (LAA) flow velocity worsened during frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVC). In the absence of atrial fibrillation (AF), the LAA dysfunction was considered secondary to the frequent PVCs and was thought to be the underlying cause for the stroke. We present this case to highlight a potential under recognized association between LAA dysfunction and ventricular arrhythmia, similar to that observed with atrioventricular dyssynchronous pacing.
PVC; left atrial appendage; stroke; risk; noncompaction cardiomyopathy
Catheter ablation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is associated with up to 5% of failure. Coronary sinus (CS) abnormalities or connections between CS myocardial coat and left ventricular epicardium are associated with posteroseptal and left posterior accessory pathways (AP). A 41-year-old patient with WPW syndrome was referred to our hospital after three unsuccessful ablations. The 12-lead ECG suggested a left posteroseptal AP. CT imaging and electro-anatomic mapping showed a relationship between AP electrical course and CS posterior branch. This finding supports the hypothesis CSAPs lie in the myocardial coat around CS and represent an extensive connection between atrial and ventricular epicardial surface.
Coronary sinus myocardial coat; Left posterior accessory pathways; CT imaging; Electro-anatomic mapping; Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
All procedures have inherent risk. Our patient endured a sequence of rare life-threatening complications from commonly preformed procedures. The sequence of these complications was; large pericardial effusion post implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation with echocardiographic signs of tamponade, left main narrowing post radiofrequency ablation, and late stent thrombosis post coronary intervention with a bare metal stent. All these occurred to one unfortunate young man. Furthermore, our patient demonstrated an unintended benefit of ICD which saved his life.
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; radiofrequency ablation; coronary injury; pericardial effusion
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a genetically heterogenous form of cardiomyopathy which may remain undiagnosed till adulthood due to the late presentation of typical symptoms such as dyspnea, congestion, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolism. Symptomatic bradycardia secondary to persistent sinus node dysfunction is very rare. Coexistent cardiac defects are common in children however in adults the disease is usually in isolated form. Here, we present a case of twenty-three year-old female LVNC patient with patent ductus arteriosus, bicuspid aortic valve and persistent sinus node dysfunction who presented with dizziness as the first manifestation of the disease.
Cardiomyopathy; congenital heart disease; sinus node dysfunction
We present an interesting image showing sequential loss of anterograde, and subsequently, retrograde conduction during radiofrequency ablation of an accessory pathway. We discuss the possible mechanisms and prior literature concerning this interesting finding.
Accessory Pathway; Radiofrequency Ablation; Anterograde and Retrograde Conduction Block
Pacemakers; Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillators; Reuse Potential
Many cardiac patients need and undergo device implants. Veterans' preferences regarding post-mortem handling of devices are not known. Cardiac patients in low- and middle-income countries who need but cannot afford devices rely on donations. Charitable organizations have successfully provided devices for reuse to such patients.
We estimated the number of devices with potential for possible reuse in a veteran population.
Between January and December 2008, at a tertiary medical center, veterans with implanted cardiac devices were surveyed using a questionnaire for their preferences regarding post-mortem handling. One choice was donation to charity for reuse. Although altruistic, it is unclear what percent of such devices have reuse potential. Retrospective chart review of veterans who underwent device implants between 1992 and 2007 identified a cohort of patients with Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators (ICDs) who had died by April 31st 2009. In this cohort, ICDs implanted in the year preceding the patient's death were counted as having reuse potential.
94 of 97 veterans completed the survey. 56% were unaware of how devices are handled after death. The top three preferences for postmortem handling were: return to manufacturer, return to hospital and donation for reuse. 88% were willing to sign an advance device directive. Retrospective review identified 161 veterans who had received 301 ICDs. Of these, 77 ICDs (25%) had median reuse potential of 3.1 years.
In a VA cohort of deceased patients a substantial proportion of devices had reuse potential. Further research is needed to direct health policy.
Patient preferences; Devices; Postmortem; Reuse
A 24-year-old male with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome developed systolic cardiomyopathy and severe heart failure following membranous ventricular septal defect repair and tricuspid valve replacement. Following successful catheter ablation of a right anterolateral accessory pathway (AP), complete AV block with junctional escape rhythm was noted. Patient subsequently underwent implantation of a biventricular ICD. Heart failure symptoms significantly improved soon after and left ventricular systolic function normalized 3 months post-procedure. In this case, surgically acquired AV block likely explains development of postoperative cardiomyopathy by facilitating ventricular activation solely via the AP and thereby increasing the degree of ventricular dyssynchrony.
Left ventricular dysfunction; accessory pathway; right free wall; complete AV block; dyssynchrony
Premature atrial contraction is a common form of supraventricular arrhythmias. In rare cases, severe symptoms other than palpitation may occur. In this report, we present a patient with symptomatic bradycardia which developed secondary to blocked premature atrial contractions and was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation.
bradycardia; premature atrial contraction; radiofrequency ablation
We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block.
Bundle Branch Block; Linking
Complications related to coronary sinus lead are not infrequent in recipients of cardiac resynchronization devices. We describe the case of a patient with a biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator with persistent phrenic nerve stimulation, previous coronary sinus lead fracture, and severe left subclavian vein stenosis. The reimplantation of a new coronary sinus lead on the left side, ipsilateral to the original implant, was unsuccessful. In order to avoid more complex and risky procedures, we performed the repair of the fractured abandoned lead with the reconstruction of the unipolar lead terminal. Effective biventricular pacing was obtained with satisfactory electrical parameters and it was maintained at twelve months follow-up.
lead fracture; cardiac resynchronisation therapy; lead repair; venous obstruction
A 33-year old female with a background of Eisenmenger syndrome secondary to multiple congenital muscular ventricular septal defects (VSD) was admitted with a recent history of frequent intermittent palpitations. It was noted that she had an independent accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR), with rates varying between 85-110bpm, which exhibited a repetitive grouped beating pattern. Although generally perceived as benign, in this case this rhythm was drug refractory, was associated with significant compromise to cardiac filling and output and progressed to haemodynamically intolerable sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Successful ablation was performed at the inferior aspect of the residual VSD, from within the Purkinje network.
Bundle Branch Block; Linking
We present an image of pseudo-polymorphic ventricular tachycardia recording on a 12-lead surface ECG Holter. Although at first glance the appearance of the recording resembled polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, careful investigation revealed normal electrocardiographic findings.
Holter recording; artifacts; polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmia
phrenic nerve stimulation; quadripolar lead