The development of small molecule therapeutics to combat norovirus infection is of considerable interest from a public health perspective because of the highly contagious nature of noroviruses. A series of amino acid-derived acyclic sulfamide-based norovirus inhibitors has been synthesized and evaluated using a cell-based replicon system. Several compounds were found to display potent anti-norovirus activity, low toxicity, and good aqueous solubility. These compounds are suitable for further optimization of pharmacological and ADMET properties.
Norovirus; Inhibitor; Acyclic sulfamide
The extract of UIC 10035, a strain obtained from a sample collected near the town of Homestead, south Florida, showed antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-435 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of a series of cyclic lipodecapeptides, named minutissamides E - L (1 – 8). The planar structures were determined by analysis of HRESIMS, tandem MS, and 1D and 2D NMR data, and the stereoconfigurations were assigned by LC-MS analysis of the Marfey's derivatives after acid hydrolysis. Minutissamides E - L (1 – 8) exhibited antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-435 cells with IC50 values ranging between 1 and 10 μM. The structures of minutissamides E - L (1 – 8) were closely related with those of the previously reported lipopeptides, puwainaphycins A - E and minutissamides A - D, characterized by the presence of a lipophilic -amino acid and three non-standard amino acids NMeAsn, OMeThr and Dhb (, -dehydro- -aminobutyric acid). The strain UIC 10035 was designated as cf. Anabaena sp. on the basis of morphological and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses.
Cyanobactreia; Anabaena; Cyclic lipopeptides; MDA-MB-435; Antiproliferative activity
Inhibition of TLR4 signaling is an important therapeutic strategy for intervention in the etiology of several pro-inflammatory diseases. There has been intensive research in recent years aiming to explore this strategy, and identify small molecule inhibitors of the TLR4 pathway. However, the recent failure of a number of advanced drug candidates targeting TLR4 signaling (e.g. TAK242 and Eritoran) prompted us to continue the search for novel chemical scaffolds to inhibit this critical inflammatory response pathway. Here we report the identification of a group of new TLR4 signaling inhibitors through a cell-based screening. A series of arylidene malonate analogs were synthesized and assayed in murine macrophages for their inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. The lead compound 1 (NCI126224) was found to suppress LPS-induced production of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and nitric oxide (NO) in the nanomolar-low micromolar range. Taken together, this study demonstrates that 1 is a promising potential therapeutic candidate for various inflammatory diseases.
Toll-like receptor 4; NF-κB; arylidene malonate; anti-inflammation
A series of tetracyclic nitrofuran isoxazoline antituberculosis agents was designed and synthesized to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of an initial lead compound, which had potent antituberculosis activity but suffered from poor solubility, high protein binding and rapid metabolism. In this study, structural modifications were carried on the outer phenyl and piperidine rings to introduce solubilizing and metabolically blocking functional groups. The compounds generated were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity, bacterial spectrum of activity, solubility, permeability, microsomal stability and protein binding. Pharmacokinetic profiles for the most promising candidates were then determined. Compounds with phenyl morpholine and pyridyl morpholine outer rings were found to be the most potent antituberculosis agents in the series. These compounds retained a narrow antibacterial spectrum of activity, with weak anti-gram positive and no gram negative activity, as well as good activity against non-replicating M. tuberculosis in a low oxygen model. Overall, the addition of solubilizing and metabolically blocked outer rings did improve solubility and decrease protein binding as designed. However, the metabolic stability for compounds in this series was generally lower than desired. The best three compounds selected for in vivo pharmacokinetic testing all showed high oral bioavailability, with one notable compound showing a significantly longer half-life and good tolerability supporting its further advancement.
Tuberculosis; antibiotic; nitrofuran; isoxazoline; nitroaromatic
We sought to explore the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-amines for TLR7 (or 8)-modulatory activities. This chemotype, readily accessed via the Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaymé multi-component reaction, resulted in compounds that were TLR7/8-inactive, but exhibited bacteriostatic activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). To investigate the mechanism of antibacterial activity of this new chemotype, a resistant strain of S. aureus was generated by serially passaging the organism in escalating doses of the most active analogue. A comparison of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of known bacteriostatic agents in wild-type and resistant strains indicates a novel mechanism of action. Structure-activity relationship studies have led to the identification of positions on the scaffold for additional structural modifications that should allow for the introduction of probes designed to examine cognate binding partners and molecular targets, while not significantly compromising antibacterial potency.
Antibacterials; Imidazopyridines; Antibiotics; MRSA; Bacteriostatic; Multicomponent reaction; Groebke reaction
Two principal neurotransmitters are involved in the regulation of mammalian neuronal activity, namely, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and L-glutamic acid, an excitatory neurotransmitter. Low GABA levels in the brain have been implicated in epilepsy and several other neurological diseases. Because of GABA’s poor ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a successful strategy to raise brain GABA concentrations is the use of a compound that does cross the BBB and inhibits or inactivates GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT), the enzyme responsible for GABA catabolism. Vigabatrin, a mechanism-based inactivator of GABA-AT, is currently a successful therapeutic for epilepsy, but has harmful side effects, leaving a need for improved GABA-AT inactivators. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of heteroaromatic GABA analogues as substrates of GABA-AT, which will be used as the basis for the design of novel enzyme inactivators.
γ-aminobutyric acid; GABA aminotransferase; enzyme inhibition; synthetic substrates; heteroaromatic compounds
Potent and selective inhibitors of the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) are useful as molecular probes to better understand cellular regulation of nitric oxide. Inhibitors are also potential therapeutic agents for treatment of pathological states associated with the inappropriate overproduction of nitric oxide, such as septic shock, selected types of cancer, and other conditions. Inhibitors with structures dissimilar to substrate may overcome limitations inherent to substrate analogs. Therefore, to identify structurally-diverse inhibitor scaffolds, high-throughput screening (HTS) of a 4000-member library of fragment-sized molecules was completed using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa DDAH and human DDAH-1 isoforms. Use of a substrate concentration equal to its KM value during the primary screen allowed for the detection of inhibitors with different modes of inhibition. A series of validation tests were designed and implemented in the identification of four inhibitors of human DDAH-1 that were unknown prior to the screen. Two inhibitors share a 4-halopyridine scaffold and act as quiescent affinity labels that selectively and covalently modify the active-site Cys residue. Two inhibitors are benzimidazole-like compounds that reversibly and competitively inhibit human DDAH-1 with Ligand Efficiency values ≥ 0.3 kcal / mol / heavy (non-hydrogen) atom, indicating their suitability for further development. Both inhibitor scaffolds have available sites to derivatize for further optimization. Therefore, use of this fragment-based HTS approach is demonstrated to successfully identify two novel scaffolds for development of DDAH-1 inhibitors.
Fragment library; High-throughput screen; Inhibitor discovery; Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase; Nitric oxide
Riluzole (1) is an approved therapeutic for the treatment of ALS and has also demonstrated antimelanoma activity in metabotropic glutamate GRM1 positive cell lines, a mouse xenograft assay and human clinical trials. Highly variable drug exposure following oral administration among patients, likely due to variable first pass effects from heterogeneous CYP1A2 expression, hinders its clinical use. In an effort to mitigate effects of this clearance pathway and uniformly administer riluzole at efficacious exposure levels, several classes of prodrugs of riluzole were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in multiple in vitro stability assays to predict in vivo drug levels. The optimal prodrug would possess the following profile: stability while transiting the digestive system, stability towards first pass metabolism, and metabolic lability in the plasma releasing riluzole. (S)-O-Benzyl serine derivative 9 was identified as the most promising therapeutically acceptable prodrug.
Riluzole; Prodrug; Cancer; Melanoma; Cyp1A2
Previously we have shown that trityl and diphenyl deoxyuridine derivatives and their acyclic analogues can inhibit Plasmodium falciparum dUTPase (PfdUTPase). We report the synthesis of conformationally restrained amide derivatives as inhibitors PfdUTPase, including both acyclic and cyclic examples. Activity was dependent on the orientation and location of the amide constraining group. In the case of the acyclic series, we were able to obtain amide-constrained analogues which showed similar or greater potency than the unconstrained analogues. Unfortunately these compounds showed lower selectivity in cellular assays.
Copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry is reported for the construction of previously unknown 5-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-4,5′-bithiazoles from 2-bromo-1-(thiazol-5-yl)ethanones. These novel triazolobithiazoles are shown to have cystic fibrosis (CF) corrector activity and, compared to the benchmark bithiazole CF corrector corr-4a, improved logP values (4.5 vs. 5.96).
CuAAC; Triazolobithiazole; Cystic Fibrosis; CF corrector
The P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor naturally activated by extracellular ADP. Its stimulation is an essential requirement of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, thus making antagonists highly sought compounds for the development of antithrombotic agents. Here, through a virtual screening campaign based on a pharmacophoric representation of the common characteristics of known P2Y1R ligands and the putative shape and size of the receptor binding pocket, we have identified novel antagonist hits of µM affinity derived from a N,N’-bis-arylurea chemotype. Unlike the vast majority of known P2Y1R antagonists, these drug-like compounds do not have a nucleotidic scaffold or highly negatively charged phosphate groups. Hence, our compounds may provide a direction for the development of receptor probes with altered physicochemical properties.
P2Y1 receptor; G protein-coupled receptor; antagonist; virtual screening; molecular modeling
Chemical investigation of two cultured cyanobacteria, Westiellopsis sp. (SAG strain number 20.93) and Fischerella muscicola (UTEX strain number LB1829) led to the isolation of three hapalindole-type alkaloids, namely hapalindole X (1), deschloro hapalindole I (2), and 13-hydroxy dechlorofontonamide (3), along with ten known indole alkaloids (hapalindoles A, C, G, H, I, J, and U, hapalonamide H, anhydrohapaloxindole A, and fischerindole L) and fischerellins A and B. The structures were determined by a combination of spectroscopic analyses mainly based on 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. Selected compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity and exhibited weak to moderate cytotoxicity against HT-29, MCF-7, NCI-H460, SF268, and IMR90 cells. All compounds, except hapalindole C, were evaluated for 20S proteasome inhibition and displayed either weak or no inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Selected compounds were also evaluated for antimicrobial activity, and hapalindoles X (1) and A, and hapalonamide H showed potent activity against both M. tuberculosis and C. albicans with MIC values ranging from 0.6 to 2.5 μM.
Several acyclic hydroxy-methylthio-amines with 3 to 5 carbon atoms were prepared and coupled via a methylene link to 9-deazaadenine. The products were tested for inhibition against human MTAP and E. coli and N. meningitidis MTANs and gave Ki values as low as 0.23 nM. These results were compared to those obtained with 1st and 2nd generation inhibitors (1S)-1-(9-deazaadenin-9-yl)-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-5-methylthio-d-ribitol (MT-Immucillin-A, 3) and (3R,4S)-1-[9-deazaadenin-9-yl)methyl]3-hydroxy-4-methylthiomethylpyrrolidine (MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A, 4). The best inhibitors were found to exhibit binding affinities of approximately 2- to 4-fold those of 3 but were significantly weaker than 4. Cleavage of the 2,3 carbon–carbon bond in MT-Immucillin-A (3) gave an acyclic product (79) with a 21,500 fold loss of activity against E. coli MTAN. In another case, N-methylation of a side chain secondary amine resulted in a 250-fold loss of activity against the same enzyme [(±)-65 vs (±)-68]. The inhibition results were also contrasted with those acyclic derivatives previously prepared as inhibitors for a related enzyme, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), where some inhibitors in the latter case were found to be more potent than their cyclic counterparts.
Human MTAP; Bacterial MTANs; Ribooxacarbenium ion mimics; Inhibitors; Acyclic hydroxy-methylthio-amines
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints, deformities, and disability. The prolonged use of conventional anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with severe adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for safer and less expensive therapeutic products. Celastrol is a bioactive component of Celastrus, a traditional Chinese medicine, and it possesses anti-arthritic activity. However, the mechanism of action of Celastrol remains to be fully defined. In this study based on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model of RA, we examined the effect of Celastrol on two of the key mediators of arthritic inflammation, namely chemokines and their receptors, and related pro-inflammatory cytokines. We treated arthritic Lewis rats with Celastrol (200 μg/rat) or its vehicle by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection beginning at the onset of AA. At the peak phase of AA, the sera, the draining lymph node cells, spleen adherent cells, and synovial-infiltrating cells of these rats were harvested and tested. Celastrol-treated rats showed a significant reduction in the levels of chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and GRO/KC) as well as cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) that induce them, compared to the vehicle-treated rats. However, Celastrol did not have much effect on cellular expression of chemokine receptors except for an increase in CCR1. Further, Celastrol inhibited the migration of spleen adherent cells in vitro. Thus, Celastrol-induced suppression of various chemokines that mediate cellular infiltration into the joints might contribute to its anti-arthritic activity. Our results suggest that Celastrol might offer a promising alternative/adjunct treatment for RA
Inflammation; arthritis; chemokines; cytokines; traditional Chinese medicine; natural plant products; animal model
Accurate unbound solution 3D-structures of ligands provide unique opportunities for medicinal chemistry and, in particular, a context to understand binding thermodynamics and kinetics. Previous methods of deriving these 3D-structures have had neither the accuracy nor resolution needed for drug design and have not yet realized their potential. Here, we describe and apply a NMR methodology to the aminoglycoside streptomycin that can accurately quantify accessible 3D-space and rank the occupancy of observed conformers to a resolution that enables medicinal chemistry understanding and design. Importantly, it is based upon conventional small molecule NMR techniques and can be performed in physiologically-relevant solvents. The methodology uses multiple datasets, an order of magnitude more experimental data than previous NMR approaches and a dynamic model during refinement, is independent of computational chemistry and avoids the problem of virtual conformations. The refined set of solution 3D-shapes for streptomycin can be grouped into two major families, of which the most populated is almost identical to the 30S ribosomal subunit bioactive shape. We therefore propose that accurate unbound ligand solution conformations may, in some cases, provide a subsidiary route to bioactive shape without crystallography. This experimental technique opens up new opportunities for drug design and more so when complemented with protein co-crystal structures, SAR data and pharmacophore modeling.
NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; CSD, Cambridge structural database; PDB, protein data bank; NOE, nuclear Overhauser enhancement; Bioactive conformation; Solution conformation; NMR; Streptomycin; Aminoglycoside; Antibiotic; 30S ribosomal subunit; Ligand binding; Pharmacophore; Preorganization; Virtual screening
A series of 5-alkylsulfamoyl benzimidazole derivatives have been designed and synthesized as novel angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor antagonists. The compounds have been evaluated for in vitro Ang II antagonism and for in vivo antihypertensive activity on isolated rat aortic ring and desoxycortisone acetate induced hypertensive rats, respectively. The activity is found related to size of alkyl group. The maximum activity is observed with a compact and bulky alkyl group like tert-butyl and cyclohexyl. The compounds 4g and 4h have shown promising both in vitro and in vivo activities. A receptor binding model is also proposed on the basis on the basis of structure–activity relationship in this study.
Benzimidazole; Angiotensin II antagonists; Sulfamoyl; Antihypertensive; Binding profile
Pilicides prevent pili formation and thereby the development of bacterial biofilms in Escherichia coli. We have performed a comprehensive structure activity relationship (SAR) study of the dihydrothiazolo ring-fused 2-pyridone pilicide central fragment by varying all open positions. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to distinguish active from inactive compounds in which polarity proved to be the most important factor for discrimination. A quantitative SAR (QSAR) partial least squares (PLS) model was calculated on the active compounds for prediction of biofilm inhibition activity. In this model, compounds with high inhibitory activity were generally larger, more lipophilic, more flexible and had a lower HOMO. Overall, this resulted in both highly valuable SAR information and potent inhibitors of type 1 pili dependent biofilm formation. The most potent biofilm inhibitor had an EC50 of 400 nM.
Pilicide; Antivirulence; 2-Pyridone; Peptidomimetic; Structure–activity; Biofilm inhibitor
Sphingosine kinase (SphK) has emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapeutics due to its role in cell survival. SphK phosphorylates sphingosine to form sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which has been implicated in cancer growth and survival. SphK exists as two different isotypes, namely SphK1 and SphK2, which play different roles inside the cell. In this report, we describe SphK inhibitors based on the immunomodulatory drug, FTY720, which is phosphorylated by SphK2 to generate a S1P mimic. Structural modification of FTY720 provided a template for synthesizing new inhibitors. A diversity-oriented synthesis generated a library of SphK inhibitors with a novel scaffold and headgroup. We have discovered subtype selective inhibitors with Ki’s in the low micromolar range. This is the first report describing quaternary ammonium salts as SphK inhibitors.
Sphingosine kinase; Structure–activity relationships; Cancer; Sphingosine; Lipid; FTY720; Kinase inhibitor; Sphingosine-1-phosphate; Reductive amination
PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus PlsY and for their Gram-positive antibacterial activities. From this series phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate had the best overall profile, selectively inhibiting S. aureus phospholipid biosynthesis and causing the accumulation of both long-chain fatty acids and acyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates demonstrating that PlsY was the primary cellular target. Bacillus anthracis was unique in being more potently inhibited by long chain acyl-sulfamates than other bacterial species. However, it is shown that Bacillus anthracis PlsY is not more sensitive to the acyl-sulfamates than S. aureus PlsY. Metabolic profiling showed that B. anthracis growth inhibition by the acyl-sulfamates was not specific for lipid synthesis illustrating that the amphipathic acyl-sulfamates can also have off-target effects in Gram-positive bacteria. Nonetheless, this study further advances PlsY as a druggable target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics, through the discovery and validation of the probe compound phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate as a S. aureus PlsY inhibitor.
Accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). To identify ligands having high binding potency toward aggregated α-synuclein, we synthesized a series of phenothiazine derivatives and assessed their binding affinity to recombinant α-synuclein fibrils using a fluorescent thioflavin T competition assay. Among 16 new analogues, the in vitro data suggest that compound 11b has high affinity to α-synuclein fibrils (Ki = 32.10 ± 1.25 nM) and compounds 11d, 16a and 16b have moderate affinity to α-synuclein fibrils (Ki ≈ 50 to 100 nM). Further optimization of the structure of these analogues may yield compounds with high affinity and selectivity for aggregated α-synuclein.
Parkinson’s disease; Lewy bodies; α-Synuclein; Phenothiazine; Fluorescence
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to public health because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics most commonly used to treat infection. In this study, we report the unique ability of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib to kill Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA with modest potency. We hypothesize that the anti-Staphylococcus activity of celecoxib could be pharmacologically exploited to develop novel anti-MRSA agents with a distinct mechanism. Examination of an in-house, celecoxib-based focused compound library in conjunction with structural modifications led to the identification of compound 46 as the lead agent with high antibacterial potency against a panel of Staphylococcus pathogens and different strains of MRSA. Moreover, this killing effect is bacteria-specific, as human cancer cells are resistant to 46. In addition, a single intraperitoneal administration of compound 46 at 30 mg/kg improved the survival of MRSA-infected C57BL/6 mice. In light of its high potency in eradicating MRSA in vitro and its in vivo activity, compound 46 and its analogues warrant continued preclinical development as a potential therapeutic intervention against MRSA.
C1027 is a potent antitumor agent that damages DNA. It has the unusual ability to produce double strand breaks and interstrand cross-links (ICLs) intracellularly, which enable it to initiate concurrent ataxia-telangiestasia mutated (ATM) and Rad-3 related (ATR) independent damage responses. The latter form of damage is not well characterized. We have examined the effect of DNA sequence on C1027 reactivity and found it to be more diverse than previously thought. In addition, analysis of the chemical stability of ICLs suggests that they result from reaction with the deoxyribose ring on one strand but direct addition to a nucleobase on the opposite strand. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
DNA damage; enediynes; interstrand cross-link; oxidized abasic sites
A series of novel indomethacin analogues with carbaboranes as three-dimensional substitutes for the chlorophenyl ring have been prepared. Their cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and enzyme selectivity has been tested and compared to the corresponding adamantyl analogues. Surprisingly, only the ortho-carbaborane derivatives were active compounds. Preliminary biological studies gave an interesting insight into the validity of employing carbaboranes as pharmacophores.
Carbaborane; Carborane; Cyclooxygenase; Indomethacin; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
A high throughput in vitro screen has been developed to identify substances that induce expression of C/EBPα in tumor cells. An extract of the fruit of Gyrocarpus jacquinii showed induction of C/EBPα activity that was attributed by dereplication analysis to the presence of bisbenzylisoquinoline (BBIQ) alkaloids, including the known compound pheanthine. (13). The research project was broadened to assess the effect of other natural BBIQ structural types occurring outside the genus Gyrocarpus. Several of the 28 compounds assayed showed enhancement of C/EBPα induction in U937 cells. The results of this study should encourage future efforts toward obtaining and screening a larger set of both natural and synthetic analogs of this interesting group of alkaloids.
bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids; C/EBPα; Gyrocarpus jacquinii; structure-activity relationships
The urokinase receptor (uPAR) serves as a docking site to the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) to promote extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and tumor invasion and metastasis. Previously, we had reported a small molecule inhibitor of the uPAR•uPA interaction that emerged from structure-based virtual screening. Here, we measure the affinity of a large number of derivatives from commercial sources. Synthesis of additional compounds was carried out to probe the role of various groups on the parent compound. Extensive structure-based computational studies suggested a binding mode for these compounds that led to a structure-activity relationship study. Cellular studies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines that include A549, H460 and H1299 showed that compounds blocked invasion, migration and adhesion. The effects on invasion of active compounds were consistent with their inhibition of uPA and MMP proteolytic activity. These compounds showed weak cytotoxicity consistent with the confined role of uPAR to metastasis.