Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) constitute a large and structurally diverse family of signaling enzymes that control the cellular levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Malfunction of PTP activity has significant implications in many human diseases, and the PTP protein family provides an exciting array of validated diabetes/obesity (PTP1B), oncology (SHP2), autoimmunity (Lyp), and infectious disease (mPTPB) targets. However, despite the fact that PTPs have been garnering attention as novel therapeutic targets, they remain largely an untapped resource. The main challenges facing drug developers by the PTPs are inhibitor specificity and bioavailability. Work over the last ten years has demonstrated that it is feasible to develop potent and selective inhibitors for individual members of the PTP family by tethering together small ligands that can simultaneously occupy both the active site and unique nearby peripheral binding sites. Recent results with the bicyclic salicylic acid pharmacophores indicate that the new chemistry platform may provide a potential solution to overcome the bioavailability issue that has plagued the PTP drug discovery field for many years. Structural analysis of PTP-inhibitor complexes reveals molecular determinants important for the development of more potent and selective PTP inhibitors, thus offering hope in the medicinal chemistry of a largely unexploited protein class with a wealth of attractive drug targets.
protein tyrosine phosphatases; therapeutic target; salicylic acid; inhibitor specificity and bioavailability; combinatorial chemistry
We report an indirect method for synthesis of previously inaccessible diazeniumdiolated carbamates. Synthesis involves use of previously reported triisopropylsilyloxymethylated isopropylamine diazeniumdiolate (TOM-ylated IPA/NO). These novel diazeniumdiolated carbamate prodrugs upon activation release nitric oxide (NO) similar to their secondary amine counterparts. They are also efficient sources of intracellular NO. These prodrugs may have potential applications as therapeutic NO-donors.
Nitric oxide; Diazeniumdiolate prodrugs; Diazeniumdiolated carbamates; TOM protecting group; Intracellular nitric oxide
To develop SAR at both the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors for 3-(1-naphthoyl)indoles bearing moderately electron withdrawing substituents at C-4 of the naphthoyl moiety, 1-propyl and 1-pentyl-3-(4-fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl) derivatives were prepared. To study the steric and electronic effects of substituents at the 8-position of the naphthoyl group, the 3-(4-chloro, bromo and iodo-1-naphthoyl)indoles were also synthesized. The affinities of both groups of compounds for the CB1 and CB2 receptors were determined and several of them were evaluated in vivo in the mouse. The effects of these substituents on receptor affinities and in vivo activity are discussed and structure-activity relationships are presented. Although many of these compounds are selective for the CB2 receptor, only three JWH-423, 1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, JWH-422, 2-methyl-1-propyl-3-(4-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, the 2-methyl analog of JWH-423 and JWH-417, 1-pentyl-3-(8-iodo-1-naphthoyl)indole, possess the desirable combination of low CB1 affinity and good CB2 affinity.
cannabinoids; structure-activity relationships; cannabinoid receptors; aminoalkylindole
Extract prepared form Xenopus eggs represents a cell-free system that has been shown to recapitulate a multitude of cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, DNA replication/repair, and cytoskeletal dynamics. In addition, this system has been used to successfully reconstitute the Wnt pathway. Xenopus egg extract, which can be biochemically manipulated, offers an ideal medium in which small molecule screening can be performed in near native milieu. Thus, the use of Xenopus egg extract for small molecule screening represents an ideal bridge between targeted and phenotypic screening approaches. This review focuses on the use of this system for small molecules modulators of major signal transduction pathways (Notch, Hedgehog, and Wnt) that are critical for the development of the early Xenopus embryo. We describe the properties of Xenopus egg extract and our own high throughput screen for small molecules that modulate the Wnt pathway using this cell-free system. We propose that Xenopus egg extract could similarly be adapted for screening for modulators of the Notch and Hedgehog pathways.
A series of lobelane analogues has been synthesized and their structure–activity relationships at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) have been evaluated. The most potent analogues in this series were the cis-2,6-piperidino analogues, 25b, 27b, 28b, and 30b, with Ki values ranging from 430 to 580 nM.
Lobeline; Methamphetamine; Vesicular monoamine transporter; Structure–activity relationships
Laccases are copper-containing oxidases that are involved in sclerotization of the cuticle of mosquitoes and other insects. Oxidation of exogenous compounds by insect laccases may have the potential to produce reactive species toxic to insects. We investigated two classes of substituted phenolic compounds, halogenated di- and trihydroxybenzenes and substituted di-tert-butylphenols, on redox potential, oxidation by laccase and effects on mosquito larval growth. An inverse correlation between the oxidation potentials and laccase activity of halogenated hydroxybenzenes was found. Substituted di-tert-butylphenols however were found to impact mosquito larval growth and survival. In particular, 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenol (15) caused greater than 98% mortality of Anopheles gambiae larvae in a concentration of 180 nM, whereas 2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanal oxime (13) and 6,8-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene (33) caused 93% and 92% mortalities in concentrations of 3.4 and 3.7 μM, respectively. Larvae treated with di-tert-butylphenolic compounds died just before pupation.
Anopheles gambiae; anti-larval activity; halogenated di- and trihydroxybenzenes; laccases; mosquito larvicides; redox potential; substituted di-tert-butylphenols
Structure–activity relationship studies on 4-(4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl) butan-1-one (SYA 013), a homopiperazine analog of haloperidol has resulted in an understanding of the effect of structural modifications on binding affinity at dopamine and serotonin receptor subtypes. Further exploration, using bioisosteric replacement strategies has led to the identification of several new agents including compounds 7, 8, 11 and 12 which satisfy the initial criteria for further exploration as new antipsychotic agents. In addition, compound 18, a D3 selective tropanol, has been identified as having the potential for further optimization into a useful drug which may combat neuropsychiatric diseases.
Antipsychotics; Haloperidol analogs; Structure–activity relationship studies; Atypical antipsychotics; Homopiperazine; Benzothiazole
On the basis of potent and selective binding affinity of truncated 4′-thioadenosine derivatives at the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR), their bioisosteric 4′-oxo derivatives were designed and synthesized from commercially available 2,3-O-isopropylidene-d-erythrono lactone. The derivatives tested in AR binding assays were substituted at the C2 and N6 positions. All synthesized nucleosides exhibited potent and selective binding affinity at the human A3 AR. They were less potent than the corresponding 4′-thio analogues, but showed higher selectivity to other subtypes. The 2-Cl series generally were better than the 2-H series in view of binding affinity and selectivity. Among compounds tested, compound 5d (X = Cl, R = 3-bromobenzyl) showed the highest binding affinity (Ki = 13.0±6.9 nM) at the hA3 AR with high selectivity (at least 1000-fold) in comparison to other AR subtypes. Like the corresponding truncated 4′-thio series, compound 5d antagonized the action of an agonist to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in hA3 AR-expressing CHO cells. Although the 4′-oxo series were less potent than the 4′-thio series, this class of human A3 AR antagonists is also regarded as another good template for the design of A3 AR antagonists and for further drug development.
A3 Adenosine Receptor; Antagonists; Truncated Adenosine; Structure-Activity Relationships
Previous studies have identified the 3,6-dialkyl-4-hydroxy-pyran-2-one marine microbial metabolites pseudopyronines A and B to be modest growth inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a range of tropical diseases including Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani. In an effort to expand the structure-activity relationship of this compound class towards. infectious diseases, a library of natural product and natural product-like 4-methoxy-6-styryl-pyran-2-ones and a subset of catalytically reduced examples were synthesised. In addition, the photochemical reactivity of several of the 4-methoxy-6-styryl-pyran-2-ones were investigated yielding head-to-head and head-to-tail cyclobutane dimers as well as examples of asymmetric aniba-dimer A-type dimers. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity and activity against M. tuberculosis, P. falciparum, L. donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and T. cruzi. Of the styryl-pyranones, natural product 3 and non-natural styrene and naphthalene substituted examples 13, 18, 21, 22 and 23 exhibited antimalarial activity (IC50 < 10 μM) with selectivity indices (SI) > 10. Δ7 Dihydro analogues were typically less active or lacked selectivity. Head-to-head and head-to-tail photodimers 5 and 34 exhibited moderate IC50s of 2.3 to 17 μM towards several of the parasitic organisms, while the aniba-dimer-type asymmetric dimers 31 and 33 were identified as being moderately active towards P. falciparum (IC50 1.5 and 1.7 μM) with good selectivity (SI ∼ 80). The 4-tert-butyl aniba-dimer A analogue 33 also exhibited activity towards L. donovani (IC50 4.5 μM), suggesting further elaboration of this latter scaffold could lead to the identification of new leads for the dual treatment of malaria and leishmaniasis.
Malaria; Tuberculosis; Natural product; Pyran-2-one; Photochemical dimerisation
Protein aggregates that accumulate in neurodegenerative diseases are important targets of radiotracer discovery efforts. Although multiple scaffold classes have been reported to bind cross-beta sheet structure, their mechanism of binding and their ability to interact selectively with aggregates of varying protein composition are not well understood. Here we take a ligand-based quantitative structure activity relationship approach to identify descriptors of binding affinity and selectivity for a series of fifty closely related benzothiazole derivatives reported to displace Thioflavin T fluorescent probe from synthetic aggregates composed of beta-amyloid peptide and insulin. Using a two-step workflow involving both partial least squares and multiple linear regression methods, compound polarizability and hydrophobicity were identified as tunable mediators of binding selectivity. The correlations also revealed how polarizability could be modulated in neutral compounds having push-pull character. These data suggest that the relative affinity of small molecules for binding sites exposed on aggregate surfaces can be modulated by simple chemical design considerations that are compatible with multiple scaffolds.
Protein ligand interaction; QSAR; polarizability; dispersion forces; Alzheimer's disease
Voltage gated sodium channels represent an important therapeutic target for a number of neurological disorders including epilepsy. Unfortunately, medicinal chemistry strategies for discovering new classes of antagonist for trans-membrane ion channels have been limited to mostly broad screening compound arrays. We have developed new sodium channel antagonist based on a propofol scaffold using the ligand based strategy of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). The resulting CoMFA model was correlated and validated to provide insights into the design of new antagonists and to prioritize synthesis of these new structural analogues (compounds 4 and 5) that satisfied the steric and electrostatic model. Compounds 4 and 5 were evaluated for [3H]-batrachotoxinin-A-20-α-benzoate ([3H]-BTX-B) displacement yielding IC50's of 22 and 5.7 μM, respectively. We further examined the potency of these two compounds to inhibit neuronal sodium currents recorded from cultured hippocampal neurons. At a concentration of 50 μM, compounds 4 and 5 tonically inhibited sodium channels currents by 59 ± 7.8% (n=5) and 70 ± 7.5% (n=7) respectively. This clearly demonstrates that these compounds functionally antagonize native neuronal sodium channel currents. In summary, we have shown that CoMFA can be effectively used to discover new classes of sodium channel antagonists.
amides; alcohols; sodium channels; hippocampal neurons; propofol
The sigma-1 receptor is a unique non-opioid, non-PCP binding site that has been implicated in many different pathophysiological conditions including psychosis, drug addiction, retinal degeneration and cancer. Based on the structure of fenpropimorph, a high affinity (Ki= 0.005nM) 1 sigma-1 receptor ligand and strong inhibitor of the yeast sterol isomerase (ERG2), we previously deduced a basic sigma-1 receptor pharmacophore or chemical backbone composed of a phenyl ring attached to a di-substituted nitrogen atom via an alkyl chain 2. Here, we report the design and synthesis of various N, N-dialkyl or N-alkyl-N-aralkyl derivatives based on this pharmacophore as well as their binding affinities to the sigma-1 receptor. We introduce three high affinity sigma-1 receptor compounds, N, N-Dibutyl-3-(4- fluorophenyl)propylamine (9), N.N-Dibutyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl)propylamine (3), and NPropyl- N’-4-aminophenylethyl-3-(4-nitrophenyl)propylamine (20) with Ki values of 17.7 nM, 0.36 nM, and 6 nM, respectively. In addition to sigma receptor affinity, we show through cytotoxicity assays that growth inhibition of various tumor cell lines occurs with our high affinity N, N-dialkyl or N-alkyl-N-aralkyl derivatives.
Sigma receptor; cancer; tumor cell lines; fenpropimorph
Photochemistry provides a unique mechanism that enables the active control of drug release in cancer-targeting drug delivery. This study investigates the light-mediated release of methotrexate, an anticancer drug, using a photocleavable linker strategy based on o-nitrobenzyl protection. We evaluated two types of the o-nitrobenzyl-linked methotrexate for the drug release study and further extended the study to a fifth-generation poly(amidoamine) dendrimer carrier covalently conjugated with methotrexate via the o-nitrobenzyl linker. We performed the drug release studies by using a combination of three standard analytical methods that include UV/vis spectrometry, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and anal. HPLC. This article reports that methotrexate is released by the photochemical mechanism in an actively controlled manner. The rate of the drug release varies in response to multiple control parameters, including linker design, light wavelength, exposure time, and the pH of the medium where the drug release occurs.
o-Nitrobenzyl Linker; Photocleavage; Methotrexate; Dendrimer; Controlled Release; Drug Delivery
Using haloperidol as a scaffold, new agents were designed to investigate the structural contributions of various groups to binding at CNS receptors associated with atypical antipsychotic pharmacology. It is clear that each pharmacophoric group, the butyrophenone, the piperidine and the 4-chlorophenyl moieties contributes to changes in binding to the receptors of interest. This strategy has resulted in the identification of several new agents, compounds 16, 18, 19, 23, 24 and 25, with binding profiles which satisfy our stated criteria for agents to act as potential atypical antipsychotics. This research demonstrates that haloperidol can serve as a useful lead in the identification and design of new agents that target multiple receptors associated with antipsychotic pharmacology.
Haloperidol; CNS receptor ligands; antipsychotics; atypical antipsychotics; dopaminergic and serotonergic agents
Two click chemistry-derived focused libraries based on the benz[d]isothiazol-3(2H)-one scaffold were synthesized and screened against Dengue virus and West Nile virus NS2B-NS3 proteases. Several compounds (4l, 7j-n) displayed noteworthy inhibitory activity toward Dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease in the absence and presence of added detergent. These compounds could potentially serve as a launching pad for a hit-to-lead optimization campaign.
SRX246 is a potent, highly selective human vasopressin V1a antagonist that crosses the blood–brain barrier in rats. CNS penetration makes SRX246 an ideal candidate for potential radiolabeling and use in visualization and characterization of the role of the V1a receptor in multiple stress-related disorders. Before radiolabeling studies, cold reference analogs of SRX246 were prepared. This study describes the synthesis and in vitro screening for human V1a receptor binding and permeability of fluoro, iodo, and methyl reference compounds for SRX246 and the preparation of a tin precursor. For each compound, the potential utility of corresponding radiolabeled analogs for PET and SPECT imaging is discussed.
Arginine vasopressin; Vasopressin V1a antagonist; Radiolabeling; PET; SPECT
While the constitutive, 26S proteasome plays an important role in regulating many important cellular processes, a variant form known as the immunoproteasome is thought to primarily function in adaptive immune responses. However, recent studies indicate an association of immunoproteasomes with many physiological disorders such as cancer, neurodegenerative, and inflammatory diseases. Despite this, the detailed functions of the immunoproteasome remain poorly understood. Immunoproteasome-specific probes are essential to gain insight into immunoproteasome function. Here, we describe for the first time the development of the cell-permeable, activity-based fluorescent probes, UK101-Fluor and UK101-B660, which selectively target the catalytically active LMP2/β1i subunit of the immunoproteasome. These probes will facilitate rapid detection of the cellular localization of catalytically active immunoproteasomes in living cells, providing a valuable tool to analyze immunoproteasome functions. Additionally, as LMP2/β1i may serve as a potential tumor biomarker, an LMP2/β1i-targeting fluorescent imaging probe may be applicable to a rapid readout assay to determine tumor LMP2/β1i levels.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Currently, there is only one FDA-approved treatment for ALS (riluzole), and that drug only extends life, on average, by 2–3 months. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are found in familial forms of the disease and have played an important role in the study of ALS pathophysiology. On the basis of their activity in a PC12-G93A-YFP high-throughput screening assay, several bioactive compounds have been identified and classified as cyclohexane-1,3-dione (CHD) derivatives. A concise and efficient synthetic route has been developed to provide diverse CHD analogs. The structural modification of the CHD scaffold led to the discovery of a more potent analog (26) with an EC50 of 700 nM having good pharmacokinetic properties, such as high solubility, low human and mouse metabolic potential, and relatively good plasma stability. It was also found to efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier. However, compound 26 did not exhibit any significant life span extension in the ALS mouse model. It was found that, although 26 was active in PC12 cells, it had poor activity in other cell types, including primary cortical neurons, indicating that it can penetrate into the brain, but is not active in neuronal cells, potentially due to poor selective cell penetration. Further structural modification of the CHD scaffold was aimed at improving global cell activity as well as maintaining potency. Two new analogs (71 and 73) were synthesized, which had significantly enhanced cortical neuronal cell permeability, as well as similar potency to that of 26 in the PC12-G93A assay. These CHD analogs are being investigated further as novel therapeutic candidates for ALS.
Cyclohexane-1,3-dione; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; mutant G93A SOD1; blood-brain barrier penetration
Six novel N4-substitutedphenyl-6-substitutedphenylmethyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4-diamines were synthesized as multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors and antitumor agents. An improvement in the inhibitory potency against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) assays and in the A431 cellular proliferation assay was observed for compounds 8–13 over the previously reported 5–7. Three compounds (8, 9, and 13) demonstrated potent, multiple RTK inhibition and were more potent or equipotent compared to the lead compounds 5 and 7 and the standard compounds. Compounds 10 and 12 showed potent inhibition of VEGFR-2 over EGFR, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) and VEGFR-1. The results indicate that the RTK inhibitory profile could be modulated with slight variations to the N4-aryl-6-substitutedphenylmethyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4-diamino scaffold.
Pyrrolo[2; 3-d]pyrimidines; Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors
Sulfatases hydrolytically cleave sulfate esters through a unique catalytic aldehyde, which is introduced by a posttranslational oxidation. To profile active sulfatases in health and disease, activity-based proteomic tools are needed. Herein, quinone methide (QM) traps directed against sulfatases are evaluated as activity-based proteomic probes (ABPPs). Starting from a p-fluoromethylphenyl sulfate scaffold, enzymatically generated QM traps can inactivate bacterial aryl sulfatases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia and human steroid sulfatase. However, multiple enzyme-generated QMs form, diffuse, and non-specifically label purified enzyme. In complex proteomes, QM labelling is sulfatase-dependent but also non-specific. Thus, fluoromethylphenyl sulfates are poor ABPPs for sulfatases.
Quinone methide; Enzyme inhibitor; Suicide inhibitor; Sulfatase probe; Activity-based proteomics
The 18-nor (7), 21-nor (8) and 18,21-dinor (9) analogs of (20S)-1α,25-dihydroxy-2-methylene-19-norvitamin D3 (6, 2MD) were prepared by convergent syntheses. The known phosphine oxide 10 was coupled by the Wittig–Horner process with the corresponding C,D-fragments (13–15), obtained by a multi-step procedure from commercial vitamin D2. The goal of our studies was to examine the influence of removal of the methyl groups located at carbons 13 and 20 on the biological potency of 2MD in the hope of finding analogs with improved therapeutic profiles.
Replacement of the 20-methyl with hydrogen in 2-methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (2MD) did not affect binding to the rat vitamin D receptor and had little effect on transcription activity and on HL-60 differentiation. However, the mobilization of calcium from bone was largely eliminated while intestinal calcium transport remained strong. Curiously, removal of both the C-13-methyl and 20-methyl restored slightly the bone calcium mobilizing activity. Thus, the 21-nor analog of 2MD may provide a potent analog with a greater margin of safety than 2MD.
Vitamin D analogs; 19-Norvitamin D; Vitamin D receptor; Calcemic activity
Chemoprevention is an approach to decrease cancer morbidity and mortality through inhibition of carcinogenesis and prevention of disease progression. Although the trans stilbene derivative resveratrol has chemopreventive properties, its action is compromised by weak non-specific effects on many biological targets. Replacement of the stilbene ethylenic bridge of resveratrol with a 1,2,4-thiadiazole heterocycle and modification of the substituents on the two aromatic rings afforded potential chemopreventive agents with enhanced potencies and selectivities when evaluated as inhibitors of aromatase and NF-κB and inducers of quinone reductase 1 (QR1).
Thiadiazole; Cancer Chemoprevention; Aromatase; QR1; NF-κB
Dipyrone is a common antipyretic drug and the most popular non-opioid analgesic in many countries. In spite of its long and widespread use, molecular details of its fate in the body are not fully known. We administered dipyrone orally to mice. Two unknown metabolites were found, viz. the arachidonoyl amides of the known major dipyrone metabolites, 4-methylaminoantipyrine (2) and 4-aminoantipyrine (3). They were identified by ESI-LC-MS/MS after extraction from the CNS, and comparison with reference substances prepared synthetically. The arachidonoyl amides were positively tested for cannabis receptor binding (CB1 and CB2) and cyclooxygenase inhibition (COX-1 and COX-2 in tissues and as isolated enzymes), suggesting that the endogenous cannabinoid system may play a role in the effects of dipyrone against pain.
Dipyrone; analgesia; cyclooxygenase; arachidonic acid amides; cannabinoid receptors
Edema Factor toxin (EF) of Bacillus anthracis (NIAID category A), and several other toxins from NIAID category B Biodefense target bacteria are adenylyl cyclases or adenylyl cyclase agonists that catalyze the conversion of ATP to 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). We previously identified compound 1 (3-[(9-Oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carbonyl)-amino]-benzoic acid), that inhibits EF activity in cultured mammalian cells, and reduces diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) at an oral dosage of 15 μg/mouse. Here, molecular docking was used to predict improvements in potency and solubility of new derivatives of compound 1 in inhibiting edema toxin-(ET) catalyzed stimulation of cyclic AMP production in murine monocyte-macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of the bioassay results for 22 compounds indicated positions important for activity. Several derivatives demonstrated superior pharmacological properties compared to our initial lead compound, and are promising candidates to treat anthrax infections and diarrheal diseases induced by toxin-producing bacteria.
Adenylyl cyclase toxin inhibitor; non-nucleotide inhibitors; toxicity profiling; computer aided design; cell based assay