Arsenic, a toxic metalloid widely existing in the environment, causes a variety of health problems. The ars operon encoded by Escherichia coli plasmid R773 has arsD and arsA genes, where ArsA is an ATPase that is the catalytic subunit of the ArsAB As(III) extrusion pump, and ArsD is an arsenic chaperone for ArsA. ArsD transfers As(III) to ArsA and increases the affinity of ArsA for As(III), allowing resistance to environmental concentrations of arsenic. Cys12, Cys13 and Cys18 in ArsD form a three sulfur-coordinated As(III) binding site that is essential for metallochaperone activity. ATP hydrolysis by ArsA is required for transfer of As(III) from ArsD to ArsA, suggesting that transfer occurs with a conformation of ArsA that transiently forms during the catalytic cycle. The 1.4 Å x-ray crystal structure of ArsD shows a core of four β-strands flanked by four α-helices in a thioredoxin fold. Docking of ArsD with ArsA was modeled in silico. Independently ArsD mutants exhibiting either weaker or stronger interaction with ArsA were selected. The locations of the mutations mapped on the surface of ArsD are consistent with the docking model. The results suggest that the interface with ArsA involves one surface of α1 helix and metalloid binding site of ArsD.
Arsenic; ArsD; Metallochaperone; ArsA; ATP-driven efflux pump
Microbial acquisition of iron from natural sources in aerobic environments is a little-studied process that may lead to mineral instability and trace metal mobilization. Pseudomonas mendocina ymp was isolated from the Yucca Mountain Site for long-term nuclear waste storage. Its ability to solubilize a variety of Fe-containing minerals under aerobic conditions has been previously investigated but its molecular and genetic potential remained uncharacterized. Here, we have shown that the organism produces a hydroxamate and not a catecholate-based siderophore that is synthesized via non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. Gene clustering patterns observed in other Pseudomonads suggested that hybridizing multiple probes to the same library could allow for the identification of one or more clusters of syntenic siderophore-associated genes. Using this approach, two independent clusters were identified. An unfinished draft genome sequence of P. mendocina ymp indicated that these mapped to two independent contigs. The sequenced clusters were investigated informatically and shown to contain respectively a potentially complete set of genes responsible for siderophore biosynthesis, uptake, and regulation, and an incomplete set of genes with low individual homology to siderophore-associated genes. A mutation in the cluster’s pvdA homolog (pmhA) resulted in a siderophore-null phenotype, which could be reversed by complementation. The organism likely produces one siderophore with possibly different isoforms and a peptide backbone structure containing seven residues (predicted sequence: Acyl-Asp-Dab-Ser-fOHOrn-Ser-fOHorn). A similar approach could be applied for discovery of Fe− and siderophore-associated genes in unsequenced or poorly annotated organisms.
Siderophore; Iron; Bacteria; Mineral
Iron is essential for the survival of most organisms. Microbial iron acquisition depends on multiple, sometimes complex steps, many of which are not shared by higher eukaryotes. Depriving pathogenic microbes of iron is therefore a potential antimicrobial strategy. The following minireview briefly describes general elements in microbial iron uptake pathways and summarizes some of the current work aiming at their medicinal inhibition.
Iron; Antibiotic; Siderophore
The mechanism(s) by which iron in blood is transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains controversial. Here we have examined the first step of this trans-cellular pathway, namely the mechanism(s) of iron uptake into human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMVEC). We show that hBMVEC actively reduce non-transferrin bound FeIII (NTBI) and transferrin-bound FeIII (TBI); this activity is associated with one or more ferrireductases. Efficient, exo-cytoplasmic ferri-reduction from TBI is dependent upon transferrin receptor (TfR), also. Blocking holo-Tf binding with an anti-TfR antibody significantly decreases the reduction of iron from transferrin by hBMVEC, suggesting that holo-Tf needs to bind to TfR in order for efficient reduction to occur. Ferri-reduction from TBI significantly decreases when hBMVEC are pre-treated with PtII, an inhibitor of cell surface reductase activity. Uptake of 59Fe from 59Fe-Tf by endothelial cells is inhibited by 50% when ferrozine is added to solution; in contrast, no inhibition occurs when cells are alkalinized with NH4Cl. This indicates that the iron reduced from holo-transferrin at the plasma membrane accounts for at least 50% of the iron uptake observed. hBMVEC-dependent reduction and uptake of NTBI utilizes a PtII-insensitive reductase. Reductase-independent uptake of FeII by hBMVEC is inhibited up to 50% by ZnII and/or MnII by a saturable process suggesting that redundant FeII transporters exist in the hBMVEC plasma membrane. These results are the first to demonstrate multiple mechanism(s) of TBI and NTBI reduction and uptake by endothelial cells (EC) of the BBB.
Blood-brain barrier; Iron; Neurodegeneration; Transferrin; Dcytb; STEAP2
Discovered over a decade ago, hephaestin (Heph) has been implicated as a ferroxidase (FOX) vital for intestinal iron absorption. Stringent structural or kinetic data derived from purified, native protein is however lacking, leading to the hypothesis that an alternate, undiscovered form of Heph could exist in mammalian enterocytes. This possibility was tested using laboratory rodent and cell culture models. Cytosolic and membrane fractions were obtained from rat enterocytes and purity of the fractions was assessed. Western blot analyses revealed Heph in cytosol obtained by three different methods, ruling out the possibility of a method-induced artifact being the major contributor to this observation. Absence of two different membrane-proteins, ferroportin 1 and Menke’s copper ATPase in cytosol, and the absence of lipids in representative cytosolic samples tested by thin layer chromatography, eliminated significant membrane contamination of cytosol. Further, immunohisto- and immunocyto-chemical analyses identified Heph in rat enterocytes and in two intestinal epithelial cell lines, IEC-6 and Caco-2, intracellularly. Additionally, cytosolic Heph increased upon iron-deprivation but more important, decreased significantly upon copper-deprivation, mimicking the response of membrane-bound Heph. Moreover, FOX activity was present in rat cytosol, and was partly inhibited by anti-Heph antibody. Finally, lack of immunodetectable ceruloplasmin (Cp) by western blot precluded Cp as an underlying cause of this activity. These data demonstrate that rat enterocytes contain a soluble/cytosolic form of Heph possibly contributing to the observed FOX activity.
Intestine; Iron; Copper; Absorption
The influence of two organic selenocompounds and sodium selenite on oxidant processes in rat brain tissue was investigated. The study was performed on male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: I—control; II—administered with sodium selenite; III—provided with selenoorganic compound A of chain structure 4-(o-tolyl-)-selenosemicarbazide of 2-chlorobenzoic acid and IV—provided with selenoorganic compound B of ring structure 3-(2-chlorobenzoylamino-)-2-(o-tolylimino-)-4-methyl-4-selenazoline. Rats were treated by stomach tube at a dose of 5 × 10−4 mg of selenium/g of b.w. once a day for a period of 10 days. In brain homogenates total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as concentration of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) were determined. TAS was insignificantly diminished in all selenium-supplemented groups versus control. SOD was not significantly influenced by administration of selenium. GPx was markedly decreased in group III versus control, whereas increased in group IV versus control and group III. Selenosemicarbazide depleted AA in well-marked way versus group II. GSH was significantly depressed in group III versus both control and group II and diminished in group IV versus group II. MDA was significantly decreased in group III versus both control and group II, whereas in group IV increased versus group III. As selenazoline A did not decrease elements of antioxidant barrier and increased GPx activity, it seems to be a promising agent for future studies concerning its possible application as a selenium supplement.
Selenium; Brain; Antioxidant defence; Lipid peroxidation; Male rats
Vibrio vulnificus, the cause of septicemia and serious wound infection in humans and fishes, require iron for its pathogenesis. Hemin uptake through the outer membrane receptor, HupA, is one of its many mechanisms by which it acquires iron. We report here the identification of an additional TonB-dependent hemin receptor HvtA, that is needed in conjunction with the HupA protein for optimal hemin utilization. The HvtA protein is significantly homologous to other outer membrane hemin receptors and its expression in trans restored the uptake of hemin and hemoglobin, the latter to a weaker extent, in a mutant strain that was defective in both receptors. Quantitative RT-PCR suggested that transcription of the hvtA gene was iron regulated. The operon containing the hvtA gene is homologous to the operon in V. cholerae containing the hemin receptor gene hutR suggesting a vertical transmission of the hvtA cluster from V. cholerae to V. vulnificus.
Iron; Hemin; Hemoglobin; Outer membrane protein
Transferrin is an abundant serum metal-binding protein best known for its role in iron delivery. The human disease congenital atransferrinemia and animal models of this disease highlight the essential role of transferrin in erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. Patients and mice deficient in transferrin exhibit anemia and a paradoxical iron overload attributed to deficiency in hepcidin, a peptide hormone synthesized largely by the liver that inhibits dietary iron absorption and macrophage iron efflux. Studies of inherited human disease and model organisms indicate that transferrin is an essential regulator of hepcidin expression. In this paper, we review current literature on transferrin deficiency and present our recent findings, including potential overlaps between transferrin, iron and manganese in the regulation of hepcidin expression.
Transferrin; iron; manganese; hepcidin; hypotransferrinemia; atransferrinemia; anemia
In this work we demonstrate the existence in Vibrio anguillarum 775 (pJM1) of two chromosomal genes encoding outer membrane proteins that operate in the transport of ferric enterobactin. One of them is a novel receptor that we named FetA and the other is the already characterized FvtA that functions in the uptake of iron complexes of both enterobactin and vanchrobactin. Ferric enterobactin transport proficiency was resumed in double mutants for these two genes when they were complemented with either fetA or fvtA, whereas only the cloned fvtA could complement for ferric vanchrobactin transport. Quantitative RT-PCR assays demonstrated that transcription of the fetA gene is regulated by FetR, that is encoded upstream and in reverse orientation from fetA. This gene as well as fetA, are up-regulated in iron limiting condition in a Fur-dependent manner. The two divergent promoters are located in the intergenic region between fetR and fetA that has a putative Fur binding site and an IrgB binding site in the overlapping promoters of fetR and fetA. FetA and FetR show high homology to V. cholerae IrgA and IrgB respectively and the intergenic regions fetA–fetR and irgA–irgB are also highly related suggesting a vertical transmission of the fetA–fetR cluster from V. cholerae to V. anguillarum.
Iron; Siderophore; Enterobactin; Outer membrane receptor
DMT1 is the major transporter for iron entrance into mammalian cells and iron exit from endosomes during the transferrin cycle. Four major mRNA isoforms correspond to 4 protein isoforms, differing at 5'/3' and N-/C- termini, respectively. Isoforms are designated 1A vs. 1B reflecting where transcription starts or +IRE vs. −IRE reflecting the presence / absence of an iron responsive element in the 3' end of the mRNA. These differences imply regulation at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.
Many proteins are degraded by a ubiquitination-dependent mechanism. Two different ubiquitin ligases (E3s) appear to be involved in DMT1 ubiquitination: Parkin or Nedd4 family E3s which often utilize Nedd4 family interacting protein-1 and -2 (Ndfip1 & 2) to ubiquitinate their substrate proteins. Prior data suggest that parkin ubiquitinates 1B DMT1 but not 1A DMT1 while Nedd4/Ndfips ligate ubiquitin to DMT1 in the duodenum where 1A/+IRE DMT1 predominates. Our assay for whether these systems target DMT1 depends on two HEK293 cell lines that express permanently transfected 1A/+IRE DMT1 or 1B/−IRE DMT1 after induction by doxycycline. Transient transfection with a parkin construct before induction diminishes 1B/−IRE DMT1 detected by immune-blots but not 1A/+IRE DMT1. Mutant parkin serves as a control that does not affect DMT1 levels. Thus DMT1 regulation in an isoform specific fashion can occur by ubiquitination and the events involved have implications for DMT1 function and disease processes.
ubiquitin; protein degradation; protein isoforms; iron; Parkin; Nedd4 family interacting proteins (Ndfips)
Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of yeast species that overproduce riboflavin (vitamin B2) in response to iron deprivation. P. guilliermondii YFH1 gene coding for frataxin homologue, eukaryotic mito-chondrial protein involved in iron trafficking and storage, was identified and deleted. Constructed P. guilliermondii Δyfh1 mutant grew very poorly in a sucrose-containing synthetic medium supplemented with sulfate or sulfite as a sole sulfur source. Addition of sodium sulfide, glutathione, cysteine, methionine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine partially restored growth rate of the mutant suggesting that it is impaired in sulfate assimilation. Cellular iron content in Δyfh1 mutant was ~3–3.5 times higher as compared to the parental strain. It produced 50–70 times more riboflavin in iron sufficient synthetic media relative to the parental wild-type strain. Biomass yield of the mutant in the synthetic glutathione containing medium supplemented with glycerol as a sole carbon source was 1.4- and 2.6-fold increased as compared to sucrose and succinate containing media, respectively. Oxygen uptake of the Δyfh1 mutant on sucrose, glycerol or succinate, when compared to the parental strain, was decreased 5.5-, 1.7- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Substitution of sucrose or glycerol in the synthetic iron sufficient medium with succinate completely abolished riboflavin overproduction by the mutants. Deletion of the YFH1 gene caused hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and exogenously added riboflavin and led to alterations in superoxide dismutase activities. Thus, deletion of the gene coding for yeast frataxin homologue has pleiotropic effect on metabolism in P. guilliermondii.
Frataxin; Iron; Riboflavin; Yeast; Sulfate; Respiration
Copper is one of the most interesting elements for various biomedical applications. Copper compounds show vast array of biological actions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, biocidal and other. It also offers a selection of radioisotopes, suitable for nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Quick progress in nanotechnology opened new possibilities for design of copper based drugs and medical materials. To date, copper has not found many uses in medicine, but number of ongoing research, as well as preclinical and clinical studies, will most likely lead to many novel applications of copper in the near future.
Copper; Nuclear medicine; Nanotechnology; Drug development
Escherichia coli topoisomerase I (TopA) cleaves and rejoins one strand of double-stranded DNA to relax the negatively supercoiled DNA. Structurally, TopA contains an N-terminal catalytic fragment and a C-terminal zinc-binding region that is required for relaxation of the negatively supercoiled DNA. Here we report that E. coli TopA is an iron and zinc binding protein. The UV–Vis absorption measurements and metal content analyses reveal that TopA purified from E. coli cells grown in the rich LB medium contains both iron and zinc. However, TopA purified from E. coli cells grown in the M9 minimal medium has negligible amounts of zinc or iron and no topoisomerase activity. Nevertheless, supplement of exogenous zinc or iron in E. coli cells grown in the M9 minimal medium produces the zinc- or iron-bound TopA, respectively. Whereas the zinc-bound TopA is fully active to relax the negatively super-coiled DNA, the iron-bound TopA has little or no enzyme activity. Furthermore, excess iron in the M9 minimal medium is able to compete with the zinc binding in TopA in E. coli cells and attenuate the topoisomerase activity, suggesting that E. coli TopA may be modulated by iron and zinc binding in vivo.
Topoisomerase I; Zinc; Iron; Metalloprotein
Anguibactin, the siderophore produced by Vibrio anguillarum 775 is synthesized from 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), cysteine and hydroxyhistamine via a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) mechanism. Most of the genes encoding anguibactin biosynthetic proteins are harbored by the pJM1 plasmid. In this work we report the identification of a homologue of the plasmid-encoded angB on the chromosome of strain 775. The product of both genes harbor an isochorismate lyase (ICL) domain that converts isochorismic acid to 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, one of the steps of DHBA synthesis. We show in this work that both ICL domains are functional in the production of DHBA in V. anguillarum as well as in E. coli. Substitution by alanine of the aspartic acid residue in the active site of both ICL domains completely abolishes their isochorismate lyase activity in vivo. The two proteins also carry an aryl carrier protein (ArCP) domain. In contrast with the ICL domains only the plasmid encoded ArCP can participate in anguibactin production as determined by complementation analyses and site-directed mutagenesis in the active site of the plasmid encoded protein, S248A. The site-directed mutants, D37A in the ICL domain and S248A in the ArCP domain of the plasmid encoded AngB were also tested in vitro and clearly show the importance of each residue for the domain function and that each domain operates independently.
Iron; Siderophore; Nonribosomal peptide synthetase; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid; Isochorismate lyase domain; Aryl carrier protein domain
Cu+-ATPases play a key role in bacterial Cu+ homeostasis by participating in Cu+ detoxification and cuproprotein assembly. Characterization of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA, a model protein within the subfamily of P1B-1 type ATPases, has provided structural and mechanistic details on this group of transporters. Atomic resolution structures of cytoplasmic regulatory metal binding domains (MBDs) and catalytic actuator, phosphorylation, and nucleotide binding domains are available. These, in combination with whole protein structures resulting from cryo-electron microscopy analyses, have enabled the initial modeling of these transporters. Invariant residues in helixes 6, 7 and 8 form two transmembrane metal binding sites (TM-MBSs). These bind Cu+ with high affinity in a trigonal planar geometry. The cytoplasmic Cu+ chaperone CopZ transfers the metal directly to the TM-MBSs; however, loading both of the TM-MBSs requires binding of nucleotides to the enzyme. In agreement with the classical transport mechanism of P-type ATPases, occupancy of both transmembrane sites by cytoplasmic Cu+ is a requirement for enzyme phosphorylation and subsequent transport into the periplasmic or extracellular milieus. Recent transport studies have shown that all Cu+-ATPases drive cytoplasmic Cu+ efflux, albeit with quite different transport rates in tune with their various physiological roles. Archetypical Cu+-efflux pumps responsible for Cu+ tolerance, like the Escherichia coli CopA, have turnover rates ten times higher than those involved in cuproprotein assembly (or alternative functions). This explains the incapability of the latter group to significantly contribute to the metal efflux required for survival in high copper environments.
Cu+-ATPases; Cu+ transport; Cu+ chaperone; Cu+ coordination; Homeostasis
The Vibrios are a unique group of bacteria inhabiting a vast array of aquatic environments. Many Vibrio species are capable of infecting a wide assortment of hosts. Some of these species include V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. anguillarum, and V. cholerae. The ability of these organisms to utilize iron is essential in establishing both an infection in their hosts as well as surviving in the environment. Bacteria are able to sequester iron through the secretion of low molecular weight iron chelators termed siderophores. The iron-siderophore complexes are bound by specific outer membrane receptors and are brought through both the outer and inner membranes of the cell. The energy needed to drive this active transport is achieved through the TonB energy transduction system. When first elucidated in E. coli, the TonB system was shown to be a three protein complex consisting of TonB, ExbB and ExbD. Most Vibrio species carry two TonB systems. The second TonB system includes a fourth protein; TtpC, which is essential for TonB2 mediated iron transport. Some Vibrio species have been shown to carry a third TonB system that also includes a TtpC protein.
Vibrio; Iron; TonB; TtpC
Wilson’s disease (WD) is a severe disorder of copper misbalance, which manifests with a wide spectrum of liver pathology and/or neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. WD is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a copper-transporting ATPase ATP7B and is accompanied by accumulation of copper in tissues, especially in the liver. Copper-chelation therapy is available for treatment of WD symptoms and is often successful, however, significant challenges remain with respect to timely diagnostics and treatment of the disease. The lack of genotype-phenotype correlation remains unexplained, the causes of fulminant liver failure are not known, and the treatment of neurologic symptoms is only partially successful, underscoring the need for better understanding of WD mechanisms and factors that influence disease manifestations. Recent gene and protein profiling studies in animal models of WD began to uncover cellular processes that are primarily affected by copper accumulation in the liver. The results of such studies, summarized in this review, revealed new molecular players and pathways (cell cycle and cholesterol metabolism, mRNA splicing and nuclear receptor signaling) linked to copper misbalance. A systems biology approach promises to generate a comprehensive view of WD onset and progression, thus helping with a more fine-tune treatment and monitoring of the disorder.
Wilson’s disease; Array; Copper; LEC rat; ATP7B; Proteomics
The current solution to iron-mediated damage in transfusional iron overload disorders is decorporation of excess unmanaged metal, chelation therapy. The clinical development of the tridentate chelator deferitrin (1, Table 1) was halted due to nephrotoxicity. It was then shown by replacing the 4′-(HO) of 1 with a 3,6,9-trioxadecyloxy group, the nephrotoxicity could be ameliorated. Further structure-activity relationship studies have established that the length and the position of the polyether backbone controlled: (1) the ligand’s iron clearing efficiency (ICE), (2) chelator tissue distribution, (3) biliary ferrokinetics, and (4) tissue iron reduction. The current investigation compares the ICE and tissue distribution of a series of (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-4-(polyether)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazole-carboxylic acids (Table 1, 3–5) and the (S)-4,5-dihydro-2-[2-hydroxy-3-(polyether)phenyl]-4-methyl-4-thiazolecarboxylic acids (Table 1, 8–10). The three most effective polyether analogues, in terms of performance ratio (PR), defined as mean ICEprimate/ICErodent, are 3 (PR 1.1), 8, (PR 1.5), and 9, now in human trials, (PR 2.2). At the onset of the clinical trial on 9, no data were available for ligand 3 or 8. This is unfortunate, as 3 has many advantages over 9, e.g., the ICE of 3 in rats is 2.5-fold greater than that of 9 and analogue 3 achieves very high levels in the liver, pancreas, and heart, the organs most affected by iron overload. Finally, the impact of 3 on the urinary excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), an early diagnostic biomarker for monitoring acute kidney toxicity, has been carried out in rats; no evidence of nephrotoxicity was found. Overall, the results suggest that 3 would be a far superior clinical candidate to 9.
iron chelator; desazadesferrithiocin polyether analogues; tissue distribution; nephrotoxicity; urinary biomarker; kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1)
Toxicity in Escherichia coli resulting from high concentrations of cobalt has been explained by competition of cobalt with iron in various metabolic processes including Fe–S cluster assembly, sulfur assimilation, production of free radicals and reduction of free thiol pool. Here we present another aspect of increased cobalt concentrations in the culture medium resulting in the production of cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX), which was incorporated into heme proteins including membrane-bound cytochromes and an expressed human cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS). The presence of CoPPIX in cytochromes inhibited their electron transport capacity and resulted in a substantially decreased respiration. Bacterial cells adapted to the increased cobalt concentration by inducing a modified mixed acid fermentative pathway under aerobiosis. We capitalized on the ability of E. coli to insert cobalt into PPIX to carry out an expression of CoPPIX-substituted heme proteins. The level of CoPPIX-substitution increased with the number of passages of cells in a cobalt-containing medium. This approach is an inexpensive method to prepare cobalt-substituted heme proteins compared to in vitro enzyme reconstitution or in vivo replacement using metalloporphyrin heme analogs and seems to be especially suitable for complex heme proteins with an additional coenzyme, such as human CBS.
Cobalt toxicity; Cobalt protoporphyrin IX; Protein expression; Heme replacement; Chelatase; Fe-S cluster; Cystathionine beta-synthase; Respiration
Shigella spp . have transport systems for both ferric and ferrous iron. The iron can be taken up as free iron or complexed to a variety of carriers. All Shigella species have both the Feo and Sit systems for acquisition of ferrous iron, and all have at least one siderophore-mediated system for transport of ferric iron. Several of the transport systems, including Sit, Iuc/IutA (aerobactin synthesis and transport), Fec (ferric di-citrate uptake), and Shu (heme transport) are encoded within pathogenicity islands. The presence and the genomic locations of these islands vary considerably among the Shigella species, and even between isolates of the same species. The expression of the iron transport systems is influenced by the concentration of iron and by environmental conditions including the level of oxygen. ArcA and FNR regulate iron transport gene expression as a function of oxygen tension, with the sit and iuc promoters being highly expressed in aerobic conditions, while the feo ferrous iron transporter promoter is most active under anaerobic conditions. The effects of oxygen are also seen in infection of cultured cells by Shigella flexneri; the Sit and Iuc systems support plaque formation under aerobic conditions, whereas Feo allows plaque formation anaerobically.
Zinc is an essential trace element in cells. However, its high level in cytoplasm promotes activation of stress signaling pathways and may lead to cell death. In the present study we used Drosophila melanogaster blood cells (haemocytes), obtained from the third instar larvae, to study the effects of high concentrations of Zn2+ on programmed cell death (PCD). We analyzed the activity of caspases, the level of caspase inhibitor protein DIAP1 and metallothioneins, as well as calcium concentrations and activity of mitochondria in haemocytes exposed to 0.35 and 1.7 mM concentrations of Zn. The obtained results showed that rapid increase of [Zn2+]i in the cytoplasm up-regulates metallothionein MtnB but not MtnA gene expression in cells treated with Zn2+ in both concentrations. Excess of Zn2+ also induced activation of the initiator caspase Dronc, associated with the mitochondrial pathway of PCD, and the effector caspase DrICE. In turn, the activity of receptor-regulated Dredd caspase was not changed. The level of DIAP1 decreased significantly in haemocytes in the presence of high Zn2+ concentration in comparison to untreated cells. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased after exposure to Zn ions. These results indicate that high concentration of Zn2+ in the cytoplasm of haemocytes induces PCD via a mitochondrial pathway and that caspases play a pivotal role in this process.
Apoptosis; Metallothioneins; Mitochondria; Haemolymph; Fruit fly
During the last decade, there have been concerted efforts to reduce beryllium (Be) exposure in the workplace and thereby reduce potential cases of this occupational lung disorder. Despite these efforts, it is estimated that there are at least one million Be-exposed individuals in the U.S. who are potentially at risk for developing chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Previously, we reviewed the current CBD literature and proposed that CBD represents a model interaction between innate and acquired immunity (Sawyer et al., Int Immunopharmacol 2:249–261, 2002). We closed this review with a section on “future directions” that identified key gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of CBD. In the intervening period, progress has been made to fill in some of these gaps, and the current review will provide an update on that progress. Based on recent findings, we provide a new hypothesis to explain how Be drives sustained chronic inflammation and granuloma formation in CBD leading to progressive compromised lung function in CBD patients. This paradigm has direct implications for our understanding of the development of an immune response to Be, but is also likely applicable to other immune-mediated lung diseases of known and unknown etiology.
Beryllium; Chronic beryllium disease; Granuloma; Innate immunity; Acquired immunity
Marine bacterial isolates Vibrio sp. HC0601C5 and Halomonas meridiana str. HC4321C1 were isolated off the coast of southern California and were found to produce an expanded suite of previously identified amphiphilic siderophores. Specifically two new members of the amphibactin family, amphibactins S and T, which have a C14:1 ω-7 fatty acid and a saturated C12 fatty acid, respectively, were produced by Vibrio sp. HC0601C5. These siderophores are produced in addition to a number of previously described amphibactins and are excreted into the culture supernatant. Two new members of the aquachelin family of siderophores, aquachelins I and J, which have an hydroxylated C12 fatty acid and a saturated C10 fatty acid, respectively, were produced by Halomonas meridiana str. HC4321C1. These four new siderophores are more hydrophilic than their previously reported relatives, aquachelins A–D and the amphibactin suite of siderophores.
Marine siderophores; Amphiphilic siderophores; Amphibactins; Aquachelins
Manganese is a trace element that is an essential co-factor in many enzymes critical to diverse biological pathways. However, excess Mn2+ leads to neurotoxicity, with psychiatric and motor dysfunction resembling parkinsonism. The liver is the main organ for Mn2+ detoxification by excretion into bile. Although many pathways of cellular Mn2+ uptake have been established, efflux mechanisms remain essentially undefined. In this study, we evaluated a potential role in Mn2+ detoxification by the Secretory Pathway Ca2+, Mn2+-ATPase in rat liver and a liver-derived cell model WIF-B that polarizes to distinct bile canalicular and sinusoidal domains in culture. Of two known isoforms, only secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase isoform 1 (SPCA1) was expressed in liver and WIF-B cells. As previously observed in non-polarized cells, SPCA1 showed overlapping distribution with TGN38, consistent with Golgi/TGN localization. However, a prominent novel localization of SPCA1 to an endosomal population close to, but not on the basolateral membrane was also observed. This was confirmed by fractionation of rat liver homogenates which revealed dual distribution of SPCA1 to the Golgi/TGN and a fraction that included the early endosomal marker, EEA1. We suggest that this novel pool of endosomes may serve to sequester Mn2+ as it enters from the sinusoidal/basolateral domains. Isoform-specific partial knockdown of SPCA1 delayed cell growth and formation of canalicular domain by about 30% and diminished viability upon exposure to Mn2+. Conversely, overexpression of SPCA1 in HEK 293T cells conferred tolerance to Mn2+ toxicity. Taken together, our findings suggest a role for SPCA1 in Mn2+ detoxification in liver.
Manganese; Ca2+-ATPase; Liver; Fractionation; Trans-Golgi network; SPCA1; ATP2C1
In fibroblasts, beryllium salt causes activation of the p53 transcription factor and induction of a senescence-like state. It is not known whether Be2+ can affect the proliferation of cancer cells, which are generally unsusceptible to senescence. A172 glioblastoma and RKO colon carcinoma cell lines each have wildtype p53, so these cell types have the potential to be responsive to agents that activate p53. In A172 cells, BeSO4 produced a G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest and increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, an enzymatic marker of senescence. BeSO4 caused phosphorylation of serine-15 of p53, accumulation of p53 protein, and expression of p21, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that is prominent during senescence. BeSO4 inhibited A172 growth with an IC50 = 4.7 µM in a 6-day proliferation assay. In contrast, BeSO4 had no effect on RKO cells, even though Be2+ uptake was similar for the two cell types. This differential responsiveness marks BeSO4 as a reagent capable of activating a separable branch of the p53 signaling network. A172 and RKO cells are known to exhibit p53-dependent upregulation of p21 in response to DNA damage. The RKO cells produced high levels of p21 when exposed to DNA damaging agents, yet failed to express p21 when treated with BeSO4. Conversely, BeSO4 did not cause DNA damage in A172 cells, yet it was a potent inducer of p21 expression. These observations indicate that the growth control pathway affected by BeSO4 is distinct from the DNA damage response pathway, even though both ultimately converge on p53 and p21.
Beryllium sulfate; Cell cycle arrest; Senescence; p53; Glioma