The neuroendocrinology of menopause is reviewed from a comparative perspective, with emphasis on laboratory rodent models. These changes are compared by the 2011 STRAW Criteria (Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop). Ovarian cell loss begins prenatally in all mammals studied, with exponential depletion of primary follicles and oocytes in association with loss of fecundity by midlife. Rodents and humans also share progressively increasing irregularity in ovulatory cycles and increasing fetal aneuploidy as oocyte depletion become imminent. Hypothalamic impairments of the estrogen-induced surge of pituitary gonadotrophins (luteinizing hormone, LH; follicle stimulating hormone, FSH) are prominent in middle-aged rodents, but sporadic in peri-menopausal women. In aging rodents, hypothalamic impairments of the LH surge have been experimentally associated with prolonged phases of sustained estradiol (E2) and very low progesterone (P4) (‘unopposed estradiol’). Although peri-menopausal women also show hyper-estrogenic cycles, there is no indication for irreversible hypothalamic desensitization by E2. Ongoing cognitive assessments in clinical trials of estrogen therapy with and without P4 or other progestins may further inform about possible persisting effects of unopposed estrogens.
oocyte loss; hypothalamic impairments; STRAW criteria
Endometrial cancer is clearly a hormonally-responsive tumor, with a critical role played by estrogens unopposed by progestins. Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown substantial risk increases associated with use of unopposed estrogens, especially among thin women. This risk, however, can be reduced if progestins are added to the therapy. The manner in which progestins are prescribed is a critical determinant of risk. Most studies show that women who have ever used progestins continuously (>25 days/months) are at somewhat reduced risk relative to non-users (meta-analysis relative risk, RR, based on observational studies=0.78, 95 confidence intervals, CI, 0.72–0.86). The reduced risk in greatest among heavy women. In contrast, women who have ever used progestins sequentially for <10 days each month are at increased risk, with meta-analysis results showing on overall RR of 1.76 (1.51–2.05); in contrast, progestins given for 10–24 days/month appear unrelated to risk (RR=1.07, 0.92–1.24). These risks were based on varying patterns of usage, with little information available regarding how endometrial cancer risk is affected by duration of use, type and/or dose of estrogen or progestin, or mode of administration. Effects may also vary by clinical characteristics (e.g., differences for type I vs. II tumors). Further resolution of many of these relationships may be dependent on pooling data from multiple studies to derive sufficient power for subgroups of users. With changing clinical practices, it will be important for future studies to monitor a wide range of exposures and to account for divergent effects of different usage patterns.
Hormonal changes associated with the menopausal transition and postmenopause have the potential to influence processes linked to Alzheimer’s disease symptoms and pathogenesis, but effects of menopause on Alzheimer risk can be addressed only indirectly. Nine randomized clinical trials of estrogen-containing hormone therapy in Alzheimer’s disease patients were identified by a systematic literature search. Findings suggest that hormone therapy does not improve cognitive symptoms of women with Alzheimer’s disease. No clinical trials of hormone therapy address Alzheimer prevention, but one clinical trial provides moderate evidence that continuous, combined estrogen plus progestogen initiated at age 65 years or older increases the risk of dementia. The timing, or critical window, hypothesis suggests that hormone therapy initiated at a younger age in closer temporal proximity to menopause may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. This hypothesis is supported by observational research but is not addressed by clinical trial data. Unrecognized confounding is of concern in interpreting observational results, and research that helps resolve this issue will have important public health implications. Well-designed cohort studies, convergent evidence from appropriate laboratory models, and long-term clinical trials using surrogate biomarkers of brain function and neural pathology could provide relevant answers. Other estrogenic compounds are of theoretical interest with respect to Alzheimer treatment and risk. Effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators such as raloxifene may differ from those of estrogens; potential effects of phytoestrogens are not well studied.
Alzheimer’s disease; estrogen; hormone therapy; menopause; selective estrogen receptor modulator
It is suggested that declines in estrogen around menopause are associated with declines in cognitive functioning as well as increased risk of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders. Existing studies of objective cognitive function and mood have differed in the criteria used to stage the menopausal transition and in the outcome measures used. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the existing studies of the relationship between menopausal stage and neuropsychological performance and depression.
A search of the literature of observational studies was performed using PubMed. Four cross-sectional studies on menopausal transition stage and cognitive function and four longitudinal studies on menopausal transition stage and risk of depression, as measured by symptom inventories and structured clinical interviews, were selected. For the cognitive outcomes, fixed effects models were used to estimate overall standardized effect sizes. For the depression outcomes, the results of group comparisons were summarized using the log odds ratio and its estimated standard error.
Postmenopausal women performed significantly worse than pre- and perimenopausal women on delayed verbal memory tasks, and significantly worse than perimenopausal women on phonemic verbal fluency tasks. Peri- and postmenopausal women were at significantly increased risk of depression, as measured by standard symptom inventories and structured clinical interviews, than premenopausal women.
The menopausal transition is a time of increased vulnerability to cognitive declines and increased risk of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders. However, these results cannot necessarily be generalized beyond the studies included in this review.
Perimenopause; menopausal transition; cognition; memory; depression
With aging, a general decline in immune function is observed leading to immune-senescence. Several of these changes are gender specific affecting postmenopausal women. Menopause is a normal part of a woman’s lifecycle and consists of a series of body changes that can last from one to ten years. It is known that loss of sex hormones due to aging results in a reduction of immune functions. However, there remains a major gap in our understanding regarding the loss of immune functions particularly in the female reproductive tract (FRT) following menopause and the role of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in protecting against immune senescence. The current review presents an overview of changes in the immune system due to aging, focusing on genital tract immunity in menopausal women and the risks and benefits of using MHT.
female reproductive tract; menopause; menopausal hormone therapy; estrogen; progesterone; HIV; immunity
In the beginning, that is from the 1960's, when a link between menopause and osteoporosis was first identified; estrogen treatment was the standard for preventing bone loss, however there was no fracture data, even though it was thought to be effective. This continued until the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study in 2001 that published data on 6 years of treatment with hormone therapy that showed an increase in heart attacks and breast cancer. Even though the risks were small, 1 per 1500 users annually, patients were worried and there was a large drop off in estrogen use. In later analyses the WHI study showed that estrogen reduced fractures and actually prevented heart attacks in the 50-60 year age group. Estrogen alone appeared to be safer to use than estrogen + the progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate and actually reduced breast cancer.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of gynecological cancer death in women, mainly because it has spread to intraperitoneal tissues such as the omentum in the peritoneal cavity by the time of diagnosis. In the present study, we established in vitro assays, ex vivo omental organ culture system and syngeneic animal tumor models using wild type (WT) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) null mice to investigate the effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and VDR on EOC invasion. Treatment of human EOC cells with 1,25D3 suppressed their migration and invasion in monolayer scratch and transwell assays and ability to colonize the omentum in the ex vivo system, supporting a role for epithelial VDR in interfering with EOC invasion. Furthermore, VDR knockdown in OVCAR3 cells increased their ability to colonize the omentum in the ex vivo system in the absence of 1,25D3, showing a potential ligand-independent suppression of EOC invasion by epithelial VDR. In syngeneic models, ID8 tumors exhibited an increased ability to colonize omenta of VDR null over that of WT mice; pre-treatment of WT, not VDR null, mice with EB1089 reduced ID8 colonization, revealing a role for stromal VDR in suppressing EOC invasion. These studies are the first to demonstrate a role for epithelial and stromal VDR in mediating the activity of 1,25D3 as well as a 1,25D3-independent action of the VDR in suppressing EOC invasion. The data suggest that VDR-based drug discovery may lead to the development of new intervention strategies to improve the survival of patients with EOC at advanced stages.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Vitamin D Workshop”.
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3; Omentum; Vitamin D receptor; Ovarian cancer; Tumor invasion
•Human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells have the capacity for local metabolism of estrogen.•Estrogen is differentially metabolized in OSE and EOC cells, with E2 formation from conjugated estrogen predominating in cancer cells.•Inflammatory cytokines augment the local production of E2 by stimulating steroid sulfatase and suppressing estrogen sulfotransferase.•STS inhibition and/or EST augmentation (local estrogen metabolism) show promise as a target for EOC treatment.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) accounts for about 90% of malignant ovarian tumors, and estrogen is often implicated in disease progression. We therefore compared the potential for gating of estrogen action via pre-receptor metabolism in normal human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), EOC and selected EOC cell lines (SKOV3 and PEO1). Steroid sulphatase (STS), estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 2 (17BHSD2) and 5 (17BHSD5) mRNAs, proteins and enzymatic activities were all detectable in primary cell cultures of OSE and EOC, whereas aromatase and 17BHSD1 expression was negligible. qRT-PCR assay on total mRNA revealed significantly higher EST mRNA expression in OSE compared to EOC (P < 0.05). Radioenzymatic measurements confirmed reduced sulfoconjugation (neutralization) of free estrogen in EOC relative to OSE. OSE cells were more effective at converting free [3H]-E1 to [3H]-E1S or [3H]-E2S, while EOC cell lines mainly converted [3H]-E1 to [3H]-E2 with minimal formation of [3H]-E1S or [3H]-E2S. IL1α treatment suppressed EST (P < 0.01) and 17BHSD2 (P < 0.001) mRNA levels in OSE and stimulated STS mRNA levels (P < 0.001) in cancer (SKOV3) cells. These results show that estrogen is differentially metabolized in OSE and EOC cells, with E2 ‘activation’ from conjugated estrogen predominating in EOC. Inflammatory cytokines may further augment the local production of E2 by stimulating STS and suppressing EST. We conclude that local estrogen metabolism may be a target for EOC treatment.
Estrogen; Steroid sulfatase; Estrogen sulfotransferase; Epithelial ovarian cancer; Ovarian surface epithelium
The current study aimed to examine the gene specific mechanisms by which the actions of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are distorted in prostate cancer. Transcriptional responses toward the VDR ligand, 1α,25(OH)2D3, were examined in non-malignant prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and compared to the 1α,25(OH)2D3-recalcitrant prostate cancer cells (PC-3). Time resolved transcriptional studies for two VDR target genes revealed selective attenuation and repression of VDR transcriptional responses in PC-3 cells. For example, responses in PC-3 cells revealed suppressed responsiveness of IGFBP3 and G0S2. Furthermore, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that suppressed transcriptional responses in PC-3 cells of IGFBP3 and G0S2 were associated with selective VDR-induced NCOR1 enrichment at VDR-binding regions on target-gene promoter regions. We propose that VDR inappropriately recruits co-repressors in prostate cancer cells. Subsequent direct and indirect mechanisms may induce local DNA methylation and stable transcriptional silencing. Thus a transient epigenetic process mediated by co-repressor binding, namely, the control of H3K9 acetylation, is distorted to favor a more stable epigenetic event, namely DNA methylation.
NCOR1; Prostate cancer; Epigenetics; VDR
Estrogens (estrone, E1; estradiol, E2) are oxidized in the breast first to catechols and then to form two ortho-quinones (E1/2-3,4-Q) that react with DNA to form depurinating adducts, which lead to mutations associated with breast cancer. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) reduces these quinones back to catechols, and thus may protect against this mechanism. We examined whether the inheritance of two polymorphic variants of NQO1 (Pro187Ser or Arg139Trp) would result in poor reduction of E1/2-3,4-Q in normal human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10F) and increased depurinating adduct formation. An isogenic set of stably transfected normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10F) that express a truncated (135Stop), the wild-type, the 139Trp variant or the 187Ser variant of human NQO1 cDNA was constructed. MCF-10F cells showed a low endogenous NQO1 activity. NQO1 expression was examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and catalytic activity of reducing E2-3,4-Q to 4-hydroxyE1/2 and associated changes in the levels of quinone conjugates (4-methoxyE1/2, 4-OHE1/2-2-glutathione, 4-OHE1/2-2-Cys and 4-OHE1/2-2-N-acetylcysteine) and depurinating DNA adducts (4-OHE1/2-1-N3Ade and 4-OHE1/2-1-N7Gua) were examined by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as well as by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The polymorphic variants transcribed comparably to the wild-type NQO1, but produced ~2-fold lower levels of the protein, suggesting that the variant proteins may become degraded. E1/2-3,4-Q toxicity to MCF-10F cells (IC50 = 24.74 µM) was increased (IC50 = 3.7 µM) by Ro41-0960 (3 µM), a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor. Cells expressing polymorphic NQO1 treated with E2-3,4-Q with or without added Ro41-0960, showed lower ability to reduce the quinone (~50% lower levels of the free catechols and ~3-fold lower levels of methylated catechols) compared to the wild-type enzyme. The increased availability of the quinones in these cells did not result in greater glutathione conjugation. Instead, there was increased (2.5-fold) formation of the depurinating DNA adducts. Addition of Ro41-0960 increased the amounts of free catechols, quinone conjugates and depurinating DNA adducts. NQO1 polymorphic variants (Arg139Trp and Pro187Ser) were poor reducers of estrogen-3,4-quinones, which caused increased formation of estrogen-DNA adduct formation in MCF-10F cells. Therefore, the inheritance of these NQO1 polymorphisms may favor the estrogen genotoxic mechanism of breast cancer.
NQO1; Polymorphism; Estrogen; Metabolism; DNA adduct
Among the numerous small molecules in the body, the very few aromatic ones include the estrogens and dopamine. In relation to cancer initiation, the estrogens should be considered as chemicals, not as hormones. Metabolism of estrogens is characterized by two major pathways. One is hydroxylation to form the 2- and 4-catechol estrogens, and the second is hydroxylation at the 16α position. In the catechol pathway, the metabolism involves further oxidation to semiquinones and quinones, including formation of the catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones, the major carcinogenic metabolites of estrogens. These electrophilic compounds react with DNA to form the depurinating adducts 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N3Ade and 4-OHE1(E2)-1-N7Gua. The apurinic sites obtained by this reaction generate the mutations that may lead to the initiation of cancer. Oxidation of catechol estrogens to their quinones is normally in homeostasis, which minimizes formation of the quinones and their reaction with DNA. When the homeostasis is disrupted, excessive amounts of catechol estrogen quinones are formed and the resulting increase in depurinating DNA adducts can lead to initiation of cancer. Substantial evidence demonstrates the mutagenicity of the estrogen metabolites and their ability to induce transformation of mouse and human breast epithelial cells, and tumors in laboratory animals. Furthermore, women at high risk for breast cancer or diagnosed with the disease, men with prostate cancer, and men with non-Hodgkin lymphoma all have relatively high levels of estrogen–DNA adducts, compared to matched control subjects. Specific antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine and resveratrol, can block the oxidation of catechol estrogens to their quinones and their reaction with DNA. As a result, the initiation of cancer can be prevented.
Cancer etiology; Cancer prevention; Catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones; Depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts; Estrogen genotoxicity; Estrogen mutagenicity
Extensive evidence exists that the reaction of estrogen metabolites with DNA produces depurinating adducts that, in turn, induce mutations and cellular transformation. While it is clear that these estrogen metabolites result in a neoplastic phenotype in vitro, further evidence supporting the link between estrogen–DNA adduct formation and its role in neoplasia induction in vivo would strengthen the evidence for a genotoxic mechanism.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen analogue known to increase the risk of breast cancer in women exposed in utero, is hypothesized to induce neoplasia through a similar genotoxic mechanism. Cultured MCF-10F human breast epithelial cells were treated with DES at varying concentrations and for various times to determine whether the addition of DES to MCF-10F cells resulted in the formation of depurinating adducts. This is the first demonstration of the formation of DES–DNA adducts in human breast cells. A dose-dependent increase in DES–DNA adducts was observed. Demonstrating that treatment of MCF-10F cells with DES, a known human carcinogen, yields depurinating adducts provides further support for the involvement of these adducts in the induction of breast neoplasia.
Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of antioxidants such as resveratrol to prevent the formation of estrogen–DNA adducts, thus preventing a key carcinogenic event. In this study, when MCF-10F cells were treated with a combination of resveratrol and DES, a dose-dependent reduction in the level of DES–DNA adducts was also observed.
DES–DNA adducts; Catechol estrogen quinones; Resveratrol; MCF-10F cells
Antisense transcript, long non-coding RNA HOTAIR is a key player in gene silencing and breast cancer and is transcriptionally regulated by estradiol. Here, we have investigated if HOTAIR expression is misregulated by bisphenol-A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Our findings demonstrate BPA and DES induce HOTAIR expression in cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF7) as well as in vivo in the mammary glands of rat. Luciferase assay showed that HOTAIR promoter estrogen-response-elements (EREs) are induced by BPA and DES. Estrogen-receptors (ERs) and ER-coregulators such as MLL-histone methylases (MLL1 and MLL3) bind to the HOTAIR promoter EREs in the presence of BPA and DES, modify chromatin (histone methylation and acetylation) and lead to gene activation. Knockdown of ERs down-regulated the BPA and DES induced expression of HOTAIR. In summary, our results demonstrate that BPA and DES exposure alters the epigenetic programming of the HOTAIR promoters leading to its endocrine disruption in vitro and in vivo.
To assess the safety and health effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.
Methods and Design
Datasets from two randomized clinical trials were first analyzed separately then combined for this analysis using a common data dictionary. In the NICHD trial, women were randomized to 400, 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day, stratified by race. In the Thrasher Research Fund trial, participants were randomized to 2000 or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day. Study drugs were from the same manufacturing lot for both trials. Identical questionnaires were given for comparable sociodemographics & clinical characteristics. Outcome measures were: (1) maternal and neonatal 25(OH)D achieved, and (2) maternal comorbidities of pregnancy (COP). SAS 9.3 was used for all analyses.
In the combined cohort, there were 110 controls, 201 in the 2000 IU group, and 193 in the 4000 IU group. No differences between groups in baseline 25(OH)D were found; however, delivery and cord blood values were greater in the 4000 IU group (p<0.0001), an effect that persisted even after controlling for race and study. A greater percent were vitamin D replete in the 4000 IU group (p<0.0001). There was a trend where the 4000 IU group had decreased rates of comorbidities of pregnancy. There was a strong association between COP and final maternal 25(OH)D; an effect that persisted even after controlling for race and study (p=0.006).
Supplementation with 4000 IU/day was associated with lower risk of hypovitaminosis D than Control and 2000 IU groups. While not statistically significant, there was a trend toward lower rates of COP as supplementation dose increased. Maternal delivery 25(OH)D was inversely associated with any comorbidity of pregnancy, with fewer events as 25(OH)D increased. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the mechanisms of action of such effects.
vitamin D; cholecalciferol; pregnancy; health outcomes
Endothelial dysfunction associated with vitamin D deficiency has been linked to many chronic vascular diseases. Vitamin D elicits its bioactive actions by binding to its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR), on target cells and organs. In the present study, we investigated the role of VDR in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation and oxidative stress challenge in endothelial cells. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 not only induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in VDR expression, but also induced up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (Flt-1 and KDR), as well as antioxidant CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) expression in endothelial cells. We demonstrated that inhibition of VDR by VDR siRNA blocked 1,25(OH)2D3 induced increased VEGF and KDR expression and prevented 1,25(OH)2D3 induced endothelial proliferation/migration. Using CoCl2, a hypoxic mimicking agent, we found that hypoxia/oxidative stress not only reduced CuZn-SOD expression, but also down-regulated VDR expression in endothelial cells, which could be prevented by addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 in culture. These findings are important indicating that VDR expression is inducible in endothelial cells and oxidative stress down-regulates VDR expression in endothelial cells. We conclude that sufficient vitamin D levels and proper VDR expression are fundamental for angiogenic and oxidative defense function in endothelial cells.
VDR; angiogenic property; CuZn-SOD; oxidative stress; endothelial cells
Progesterone plays a key role in the development, differentiation and maintenance of female reproductive tissues and has multiple non-reproductive neural functions. Depending on the cell and tissue, the hormonal environment, growth conditions and the developmental stage, progesterone can either stimulate cell growth or inhibit it while promoting differentiation. Progesterone receptors (PRs) belong to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. PR proteins are subject to extensive post-translational modifications that include phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination and SUMOylation. The interplay among these modifications is complex with alteration of the receptors by one factor influencing the impact of another. Control over these modifications is species-, tissue- and cell-specific. They in turn regulate multiple functions including PR stability, their subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions and transcriptional activity. These complexities may explain how tissue- and gene-specific differences in regulation are achieved in the same organism, by the same receptor protein and hormone. Here we review current knowledge of PR post-translational modifications and discuss how these may influence receptor function focusing on human breast cancer cells. There is much left to be learned. However, our understanding of this may help to identify therapeutic agents that target PR activity in tissue-specific, even gene-specific ways.
Progesterone receptor; Post-translational Modification; SUMOylation; Phosphorylation; transcriptional activity; Breast cancer
Soy isoflavones are dietary components for which an association has been demonstrated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in Asian populations. However, the exact mechanism by which these isoflavones may prevent the development or progression of PCa is not completely understood. There are a growing number of animal and in vitro studies that have attempted to elucidate these mechanisms. The predominant and most biologically active isoflavones in soy products, genistein, daidzein, equol, and glycetin, inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in some animal models. Cell-based studies show that soy isoflavones regulate genes that control cell cycle and apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the literature relevant to the molecular events that may account for the benefit of soy isoflavones in PCa prevention or treatment. These reports show that although soy isoflavone-induced growth arrest and apoptosis of PCa cells are plausible mechanisms, other chemo protective mechanisms are also worthy of consideration. These possible mechanisms include antioxidant defense, DNA repair, inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis, potentiation of radio- and chemotherapeutic agents, and antagonism of estrogen- and androgen-mediated signaling pathways. Moreover, other cells in the cancer milieu, such as the fibroblastic stromal cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells, may be targeted by soy isoflavones, which may contribute to soy-mediated prostate cancer prevention. In this review, these mechanisms are discussed along with considerations about the doses and the preclinical models that have been used.
Isoflavone; Genistein; Prostate Cancer; Chemoprevention
Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called “Hill criteria” (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause–effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects.
Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis – demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals – represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the “Hill criteria”.
Atrazine; Gonads; Endocrine disruptor
Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the androgen receptor (AR) represents an essential step in androgen action. To determine whether the amino-terminal domain (NTD) contains potential nuclear import and/or export signals, deletion mutants of the NTD tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were generated and tested for their intracellular localization in both AR-negative and AR-positive cell lines. Subcellular localization analysis suggested a role of the NTD in regulating AR subcellular localization and revealed that the region of a.a. 50-250 of the NTD of AR (AR50-250) could promote cytoplasmic localization. Leptomycin B inhibited the activity of AR50-250, suggesting that AR50-250 export is mediated through exportin 1, either directly or indirectly. These observations argue for an important role of the NTD in regulating AR nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and will facilitate further investigation of interactions among different signals in regulating AR nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, which may lead to new approaches to inhibit AR nuclear localization.
Androgen receptor; NTD; subcellular localization; AR50-250; Leptomycin B
Vitamin D production is critical not only for rickets prevention but for its role in several chronic diseases of adulthood. Maternal vitamin D status also has consequences for the developing fetus. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]<20 ng/ml) and insufficiency [25(OH)D = 20–29 ng/ml] in spring, among reproductive age Mongolian women.
Blood was drawn in March and April, 2009 from 420 Mongolian women, 18–44 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, anthropometric measurements were performed and information was collected by interview on lifestyle, dietary and reproductive factors. Logarithm-transformed 25(OH)D levels were compared across risk factor categories by analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the independent associations of factors with vitamin D status. Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis was assessed between December and July using a standard 7-dehydrocholesterol ampoule model.
The vast majority of women 415 (98.8%) had serum 25(OH)D <20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) with an additional 4 women (<1%) in the insufficient range (20–29 ng/ml); only one women (0.2%) had sufficient levels (>30 ng/ml or 75 nmol/l). 25(OH)D concentrations were positively and independently associated with educational status and use of vitamin D supplements, but not with other demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, or anthropometric factors. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with dietary factors in this population, as there is little access to foods containing vitamin D in Mongolia. No production of previtamin D3 was observed until March and was maximally effective in April and was sustained through July.
These data suggest that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in spring among reproductive age women in Mongolia is high. Given the lack of naturally vitamin D-rich food in the diet and limited use of vitamin D supplements, food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D should be considered among these women.
25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; healthy women; reproductive age
One of the most important environmental factors to promote epigenetic alterations in an individual is nutrition and exposure to plant compounds. Phytoestrogens and other phytochemicals have dramatic effects on cellular signaling events, so have the capacity to dramatically alter developmental and physiological events. Epigenetics provides one of the more critical molecular mechanisms for environmental factors such as phytoestrogens/phytochemicals to influence biology. In the event these epigenetic mechanisms become heritable through epigenetic transgenerational mechanisms the impacts on the health of future generations and areas such as evolutionary biology need to be considered. The current review focuses on available information on the environmental epigenetics of phytoestrogen/phytochemical exposures, with impacts on health, disease and evolutionary biology considered.
Epigenetics; Phytoestrogens; Phytochemicals; Transgenerational; Environmental Exposures; Review
Emerging studies implicate the signalling of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a number of reproductive functions. To this date, there are no data regarding the expression of mTOR signalling components in the human myometrium during pregnancy. We hypothesized that mTOR-related genes might be differentially expressed in term or preterm labour as well as in labour or non-labour myometria during pregnancy. Using quantitative RT-PCR we demonstrate for first time that there is a significant downregulation of mTOR, DEPTOR, and Raptor in preterm labouring myometria when compared to non-pregnant tissues taken from the same area (lower segment). We used an immortalised myometrial cell line (ULTR) as an in vitro model to dissect further mTOR signalling. In ULTR cells DEPTOR and Rictor had a cytoplasmic distribution, whereas mTOR and Raptor were detected in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, indicative of mTORC1 shuttling. Treatment with inflammatory cytokines caused only minor changes in gene expression of these components, whereas progesterone caused significant down-regulation. We performed a non-biased gene expression analysis of ULTR cells using Nimblegen human gene expression microarray (n=3), and selected genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR in progesterone treated myometrial cells. Progesterone significantly down-regulated key components of the mTOR pathway. We conclude that the human myometrium differentially expresses mTOR signalling components and they can be regulated by progesterone.
mTOR; myometrium; progesterone; preterm labour
Androstenedione is one of several weak androgens produced in the human adrenal gland. 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) are both required for androstenedione production. However, previous studies demonstrated the expression of HSD3B2 within the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and fasciculata (ZF) but low levels in the zona reticularis. In contrast, CYB5A expression increases in the zona reticularis (ZR) in human adrenal glands. Although their colocalization has been reported in gonadal theca and Leydig cells this has not been studied in the human adrenal. Therefore, we immonolocalized HSD3B2 and CYB5A in normal human adrenal glands and first demonstrated their co-expression in the cortical cells located at the border between the ZF and ZR in normal human adrenal. Results of in vitro studies using the human adrenal H295R cells treated with the HSD3B2 inhibitor, trilostane, also demonstrated a markedly decreased androstenedione production. Decreasing CYB5A mRNA using its corresponding siRNA also resulted in significant inhibition of androstenedione production in the H295R cells. These findings together indicate that there are a group of cells co-expressing HSD3B2 and CYB5A with hybrid features of both ZF and ZR in human adrenal cortex, and these hybrid cortical cells may play an important role in androstenedione production in human adrenal gland.
HSD3B2; CYB5A; androstenedione; adrenal gland
This study was designed to investigate the impact of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on glucose metabolism during early cancer progression. Untransformed and ras-oncogene transfected (ras) MCF10A human breast epithelial cells were employed to model early breast cancer progression. 1,25(OH)2D modified the response of the ras cells to glucose restriction, suggesting 1,25(OH)2D may reduce the ras cell glucose addiction noted in cancer cells. To understand the 1,25(OH)2D regulation of glucose metabolism, following four-day 1,25(OH)2D treatment, metabolite fluxes at the cell membrane were measured by a nanoprobe biosensor, [13C6]glucose flux by 13C-mass isotopomer distribution analysis of media metabolites, intracellular metabolite levels by NMR, and gene expression of related enzymes assessed. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D reduced glycolysis as flux of glucose to 3-phosphoglycerate was reduced by 15% (P = 0.017) and 32% (P < 0.003) in MCF10A and ras cells respectively. In the ras cells, 1,25(OH)2D reduced lactate dehydrogenase activity by 15% (P < 0.05) with a concomitant 10% reduction in the flux of glucose to lactate (P = 0.006), and reduction in the level of intracellular lactate by 55% (P = 0.029). Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D reduced flux of glucose to acetyl-coA 24% (P = 0.002) and 41% (P < 0.001), and flux to oxaloacetate 34% (P = 0.003) and 33% (P = 0.027) in the MCF10A and ras cells, respectively, suggesting a reduction in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity. The results suggest a novel mechanism involving the regulation of glucose metabolism by which 1,25(OH)2D may prevent breast cancer progression.
vitamin D; cancer prevention; breast cancer; glucose; energy metabolism; ras; 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D
The inflammatory tissue microenvironment can be an active promoter in preneoplastic cancer lesions. Altered steroid hormone metabolism as induced by the inflammatory microenvironment may contribute to epithelial cancer progression. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is the most abundant endogenous steroid hormone present in human serum and can be metabolized to DHEA, androgens and/or estrogens in peripheral tissues. We have previously reported that TGFβ1-induced reactive prostate stromal cells increase DHEA metabolism to active androgens and alter prostate cancer cell gene expression. While much of the focus on mechanisms of prostate cancer and steroid metabolism is in the epithelial cancer cells, this study focuses on TGFβ1-induced effects on DHEA metabolic pathways and enzymes in human prostate stromal cells. In DHEA-treated primary prostate stromal cells, TGFβ1 produced time- and dose-dependent increases in metabolism of DHEA to androstenedione and testosterone. Also TGFβ1-treated prostate stromal cells exhibited changes in the gene expression of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism including up-regulation of 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), and down-regulation of 17βHSD5, and 17βHSD2. These studies suggest that reactive prostate stroma and the inflammatory microenvironment may contribute to altered steroid metabolism and increased intratumoral androgens.
TGFβ1; Reactive prostate stroma; Androstenedione; Testosterone; DHEA; Steroid metabolism