Given the implications for smoking among HIV-positive individuals and high smoking and HIV rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, we examined sociodemographic, smoking-related, psychosocial, and substance use factors in relation to HIV status; receiving some sort of healthcare provider intervention regarding smoking; and having made a quit attempt in the past year in a sample of MSM smokers in Chengdu. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 381 MSM smokers recruited by a nongovernmental organization in Chengdu in 2012–2013. Of these, 350 disclosed their HIV status and 344 (188 HIV-positive and 156 HIV-negative) provided completed data. Half (50.0%) reported at least one quit attempt in their lifetime; 30.5% reported a quit attempt in the past year. The majority (59.4%) reported that a healthcare provider had intervened in some way (assessed smoking, advised quitting, provided assistance), most commonly by assessing smoking status (50.0%). HIV-positive individuals were more likely to report a healthcare provider intervening on their smoking (p < .001). Those who received provider intervention were more likely to have attempted to quit ever (p = .009) and in the past year (p < .001). Those HIV-positive were more likely to have attempted to quit since diagnosis if a provider had intervened (p = .001). Multivariate regression documented that being HIV-positive (p < .001), greater cigarette consumption (p = .02), less frequent drinking (p = .03), and greater depressive symptoms (p = .003) were significant correlates of healthcare provider intervention. Multivariate regression also found that healthcare provider intervention (p = .003), older age (p = .01), and higher autonomous motivation (p = .007) were significant correlates of attempting to quit in the past year. Given the impact of healthcare provider intervention regarding smoking on quit attempts among MSM, greater training and support is needed to promote consistent intervention on smoking in the clinical setting among HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM smokers.
HIV; men who have sex with men; smoking; smoking cessation; healthcare provider
Since the arrival of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, HIV has become better characterized as a chronic disease rather than a terminal illness, depending in part on one’s ability to maintain relatively high levels of adherence. Despite research concerning barriers and facilitators of ARV adherence behavior, relatively little is known about specific challenges faced by HIV-positive persons who report “taking a break” from their ARV medications. The present study employed the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model of ARV Adherence as a framework for understanding adherence-related barriers that may differentiate between non-adherent patients who report “taking a break” versus those who do not report “taking a break” from their ARV medications. A sample of 327 HIV-positive patients who reported less than 100% adherence at study baseline provided data for this research. Participants who reported “taking a break” from their HIV medications without first talking to their healthcare provider were classified as intentionally non-adherent, while those who did not report “taking a break” without first talking with their healthcare provider were classified as unintentionally non-adherent. Analyses examined differences between intentionally versus unintentionally non-adherent patients with respect to demographic characteristics and responses to the adherence-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills questionnaire items. Few differences were observed between the groups on demographics, adherence-related information or adherence-related motivation; however, significant differences were observed on about half of the adherence-related behavioral skills items. Implications for future research, as well as the design of specific intervention components to reduce intentionally non-adherent behavior, are discussed.
ARV; ART; adherence; HIV; HIV-positive; intentional
The objective of the study was to explore HIV-testing practices among MSM in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in light of current international health guidelines that recommend frequent HIV testing for MSM who engage in high-risk behavior. Participants, who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), were 500 mostly young, non-gay-identified MSM of low socioeconomic status, high levels of unemployment, living mainly in the less affluent areas surrounding Buenos Aires, and lacking health insurance. They provided blood samples for HIV testing and responded to a Computer Assisted Self Interview. Fifty-two percent had never been tested for HIV, and 20% had been tested only once; 17% were found to be HIV infected, of whom almost half were unaware of their status. Main reasons for never having tested previously were: not feeling at risk, fear of finding out results, and not knowing where to get tested. Among those previously tested, men had been tested a median of 2 times with their most recent test having occurred a median of 2.7 years prior to study enrollment. Of those who had not tested positive before entering the study, only 41% returned for their results. HIV testing was infrequent and insufficient for early detection of infection, entry into treatment, and protection of sexual partners. This was particularly the case among non-gay-identified MSM. Testing campaigns should aim to help MSM become aware of their risk behavior, decrease fear of testing by explaining available treatment resources and decreasing the stigma associated with HIV, and by publicizing information about free and confidential testing locations. Rapid HIV testing should be made available to eliminate the need for a return visit and make results immediately available to individuals who are tested.
HIV prevalence; gay; respondent-driven sampling; MSM
An increasing number of adolescents born with HIV in South Africa are on antiretroviral treatment and have to confront complex issues related to coping with a chronic, stigmatizing and transmittable illness. Very few evidence-based mental health and health promotion programs for this population exist in South Africa. This study builds on a previous collaboratively designed and developmentally-timed family-based intervention for early adolescents (CHAMP). The study uses community-based participatory approach as part of formative research to evaluate a pilot randomized control trial at two hospitals. The paper reports on the development, feasibility and acceptability of the VUKA family-based program and its short-term impact on a range of psychosocial variables for HIV+ pre-adolescents and their caregivers. A ten session intervention of approximately 3 months duration was delivered to 65 pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years and their families. VUKA participants were noted to improve on all dimensions, including mental health, youth behaviour, HIV treatment knowledge, stigma, communication and adherence to medication. VUKA shows promise as a family-based mental and HIV prevention program for HIV+ pre-adolescents and which could be delivered by trained lay staff.
Family-based; Psychosocial intervention; Mental health; HIV+ adolescents
The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in preventing disease progression can be negatively influenced by the high prevalence of substance use among patients. Here, we quantify the effect of history of injection drug use and alcoholism on virologic and immunologic response to HAART. Clinical and survey data, collected at the start of HAART and at the interview date, were based on the study Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) in British Columbia, Canada. Substance use was a three-level categorical variable, combining information on history of alcohol dependence and of injection drug use, defined as: no history of alcohol and injection drug use, history of alcohol or injection drug use and history of both alcohol and injection drug use. Virologic response (pVL) was defined by ≥2 log10 copy/mL drop in viral load. Immunologic response was defined as an increase in CD4 cell count percent of ≥100%. We used cumulative logit modeling for ordinal responses to address our objective. Of the 537 HIV-infected patients, 112 (21%) were characterized as having history of both alcohol and injection drug use, 173 (32%) were non adherent (<95%), 196 (36%) had CD4+/pVL+ (Best) response, 180 (34%) a CD4+/pVL− or a CD4−/pVL+ (Incomplete) response, and 161 (30%) a CD4−/pVL− (Worst) response. For individuals with history of both alcohol and injection drug use, the estimated probability of of Best, Incomplete and Worse responses, respectively. Screening and detection of substance dependence will identify individuals at high-risk for non-adherence and ideally prevent their HIV disease from progressing to advanced stages where HIV disease can become difficult to manage.
Alcohol; Injection drug use; Adherence; HAART; HIV; Disease progression
In 2010, the CAPRISA 004 and iPrEx trials (microbicide gel containing tenofovir and oral pill containing tenofovir-emtricitabine, respectively) demonstrated that antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduced the risk of HIV acquisition among high-risk individuals. To determine facilitators and barriers to PrEP provision by healthcare providers, we conducted an online, quantitative survey of Massachusetts-area physicians following the publication of the CAPRISA and iPrEx results. We assessed awareness and comprehension of efficacy data, prescribing experience, and anticipated provision of oral and topical PrEP among physicians, as well as demographic and behavioral factors associated with PrEP awareness and prescribing intentions. The majority of HIV specialists and generalist physicians were aware of data from these PrEP trials and able to correctly interpret the results, however, correct interpretation of findings tended to vary according to specialty (i.e., HIV specialists had greater awareness than generalists). Additionally provider concerns regarding PrEP efficacy and safety, as well its ability to divert funds from other HIV prevention resources, were associated with decreased intentions to prescribe both oral and topical PrEP. Findings suggest that a substantial proportion of physicians who may have contact with at-risk individuals may benefit from interventions that provide accurate data on the risks and benefits of PrEP in order to facilitate effective PrEP discussions with their patients. Future studies to develop and test interventions aimed at healthcare providers should be prioritized to optimize implementation of PrEP in clinical settings.
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis; PrEP; Physicians; HIV; Prevention
Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) contributes to disease progression and emergence of drug-resistant HIV in youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PHIV+), necessitating reliable measures of adherence. Although electronic monitoring devices have often been considered the gold standard assessment in HIV research, they are costly, can overestimate non-adherence and are not practical for routine care. Thus, development of valid, easily administered self-report adherence measures is crucial for adherence monitoring. PHIV+ youth aged 7–16 (n=289) and their caregivers, enrolled in a multisite cohort study, were interviewed to assess several reported indicators of adherence. HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) was dichotomized into >/≤400 copies/ml. Lower adherence was significantly associated with VL >400 copies/ml across most indicators, including ≥ 1 missed dose in past 7 days [youth report OR=2.78 (95% CI 1.46–5.27)]. Caregiver and combined youth/caregiver reports yielded similar results. Within-rater agreement between various adherence indicators was high for both youth and caregivers. Inter-rater agreement on adherence was moderate across most indicators. Age ≥13 years and living with biological mother or relative were associated with VL > 400 copies/ml. Findings support the validity of caregiver and youth adherence reports and identify youth at risk of poor adherence.
HIV; adherence; antiretroviral; pediatric
In recent years efforts to reduce HIV transmission have begun to incorporate a structural interventions approach, whereby the social, political, and economic environment in which people live is considered an important determinant of individual behaviors. This approach to HIV prevention is reflected in the growing number of programs designed to address insecure or nonexistent property rights for women living in developing countries. Qualitative and anecdotal evidence suggests that property ownership may allow women to mitigate social, economic, and biological effects of HIV for themselves and others through increased food security and income generation. Even so, the relationship between women’s property and inheritance rights (WPIR) and HIV transmission behaviors is not well understood. We explored sources of data that could be used to establish quantitative links between WPIR and HIV. Our search for quantitative evidence included (1) a review of peer-reviewed and “grey” literature reporting on quantitative associations between WPIR and HIV, (2) identification and assessment of existing data sets for their utility in exploring this relationship, and (3) interviews with organizations addressing women’s property rights in Kenya and Uganda about the data they collect. We found no quantitative studies linking insecure WPIR to HIV transmission behaviors. Data sets with relevant variables were scarce, and those with both WPIR and HIV variables could only provide superficial evidence of associations. Organizations addressing WPIR in Kenya and Uganda did not collect data that could shed light on the connection between WPIR and HIV, but two had data and community networks that could provide a good foundation for a future study that would include the collection of additional information. Collaboration between groups addressing WPIR and HIV transmission could provide the quantitative evidence needed to determine whether and how a WPIR structural intervention could decrease HIV transmission.
ownership; socioeconomic factors; sexism; HIV infections/prevention and control; intervention studies; transmission; widowhood; condoms/utilization; wills; prostitution; food supply; income
The social-structural challenges experienced by people living with HIV (PHA) have been shown to contribute to increased use of the Emergency Department (ED). This study identified factors associated with frequent and non-urgent ED use within a cohort of people accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a Canadian setting. Interviewer-administered surveys collected socio-demographic information; clinical variables were obtained through linkages with the provincial drug treatment registry; and ED admission data were abstracted from the Department of Emergency Medicine database. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute odds of frequent and non-urgent ED use. Unstable housing was independently associated with ED use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–3.04]), having three or more ED visits within 6 months of interview date [AOR: 2.03 (95% CI: 1.07–3.83)] and being triaged as non-urgent (AOR=2.71, 95% CI: 1.19–6.17). Frequent and non-urgent use of the ED in this setting is associated with conditions requiring interventions at the social-structural level. Supportive housing may contribute to decreased healthcare costs and improved health outcomes amongst marginalized PHA.
HIV; Emergency Department; Antiretroviral Therapy; marginalized Populations; housing
South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV in the world. Because living with HIV is stressful and because alcohol consumption is often used to cope with stress, we examined whether stress mediates the association between HIV status and alcohol use among adults residing in South African townships. Field workers approached pedestrians or patrons of informal alcohol-serving venues (i.e., shebeens) and invited their participation in a survey. Of the 1,717 participants (98% Black, 34% women, mean age = 31), 82% were HIV-negative, 9% were HIV-positive, and 9% did not know their test result. Participants living with HIV reported greater perceived life stress compared to participants whose HIV status was negative or unknown. Perceived stress was associated with increased alcohol use (frequency of drinking days, frequency of intoxication, and frequency of drinking in shebeens/taverns). Subsequent analyses showed that stress mediated the association between HIV status and alcohol use. These findings indicate that greater frequency of drinking days, perceived intoxication, and drinking at shebeens was associated with elevated stress levels among participants who were HIV-positive. Perceived life stress mediates the association between HIV status and alcohol use. Programs to enhance stress management among HIV-positive South Africans may help to reduce alcohol consumption which may, in turn, lead to reduced rates of HIV transmission.
alcohol; stress; HIV; South Africa; mediation
Housing for people living with HIV/AIDS has been linked to a number of positive physical and mental health outcomes, in addition to decreased sexual and drug-related risk behavior. The current study identified service priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS, services provided by HIV/AIDS housing agencies, and unmet service needs for people living with HIV/AIDS through a nationwide telephone survey of HIV/AIDS housing agencies in the United States. Housing, alcohol/drug treatment, and mental health services were identified as the three highest priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS and assistance finding employment, dental care, vocational assistance, and mental health services were the top needs not being met. Differences by geographical region were also examined. Findings indicate that while housing affords people living with HIV/AIDS access to services, there are still areas (e.g., mental health services) where gaps in linkages to care exist.
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are severely affected by the HIV epidemic, yet research on the relationship between HIV stigma and status disclosure is relatively limited among this population. Within this epidemic, internalized HIV stigma, the extent to which people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) endorse the negative beliefs associated with HIV as true of themselves, can negatively shape interpersonal outcomes and have important implications for psychological and physical health. In a sample of HIV-positive BMSM (N = 156), the current study examined the effect of internalized stigma on HIV status disclosure to sexual partners, which can inform sexual decision-making in serodiscordant couples, and HIV status disclosure to family members, which can be beneficial in minimizing the psychological distress associated with HIV. Results revealed that greater internalized stigma was associated with less HIV status disclosure to participants’ last sexual partner and to family members. Findings from this study provide evidence that internalized negative beliefs about one’s HIV status are linked to adverse interpersonal consequences. Implications of these findings are discussed with regard to prevention and intervention efforts to reduce HIV stigmatization.
HIV; internalized stigma; Black; men who have sex with men; disclosure
Clinically depressed and non-depressed African American adolescent females aged 13-19 (N = 131) were interviewed and surveyed to determine the relationship between depression and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors. Narratives indicate that the psychopathology of depression may create situations where the target population could become exposed to HIV. Specifically, depressed participants described feelings of loneliness, isolation and wanting somebody to “comfort them” as aspects of depression that affect the decisions they make about sex and relationships. In essence, sex was viewed as a stress reliever, an anti-depressant and a way to increase self-esteem. They shared that even if they didn't feel like having sex, they might just “git it over wit” so they're partners would stop asking. Some also discussed financial and emotional stability offered by older, more sexually experienced partners. These age-discordant relationships often translated into trusting that their partners knew what was best for their sexual relationships (i.e. having unprotected sex). Sixty-nine percent (n = 88) of the sample reported engaging in sexual activity. Given their mean age (16 ± 1.9) participants had been sexually active for 2 ± 1.8 years. The adolescents reported an average of 2 ± 1.8 sexual partners within the past three months. Depressed participants reported a higher frequency of having ever had sex (78% vs. 59%, X2= 5.236, p = .022), and had a higher mean number of sexual partners (2 vs. 1, t= −2.023, p= .048) and sexual encounters under the influence of drugs and alcohol (8 vs. 2, t= −3.078, p = .005) in the past three months. The results of this study can guide the modification and/or development of tailored HIV/STI prevention programs. The findings provide explicit, psychologically and culturally relevant information regarding the interaction between depression, self-medicating behaviors and risk for HIV/STIs among clinically depressed African American adolescent females.
HIV/AIDS; depression; adolescents; African American; mixed methods
Malawi is facing a severe HIV and AIDS epidemic with an estimated 12% of its population living with the virus. Health workers are on the front lines of the HIV epidemic and they face the risk of HIV infection in both their personal and professional lives. This mixed method study aimed to explore the enablers and barriers to HIV counselling and testing and antiretroviral therapy by health workers in Malawi. After qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with health workers in the Mchinji and Nsanje districts, a survey questionnaire was constructed and administered to 906 health workers in eight districts in Malawi.
A majority (76%) of health workers surveyed reported having undergone HIV testing and counselling, of whom 74% reported repeat testing. A striking result of the study is that 22% of health workers reported testing after occupational exposure to HIV. The proportions of respondents reporting that they tested after experiencing symptoms, or self-testing for HIV were 11% each. The in-depth interviews and the survey revealed multiple challenges that health workers face to accessing HIV testing, counselling and treatment, including fear of a positive result, fear of stigma and lack of confidentiality. Additional barriers included health workers’ personal acquaintance with those conducting testing, along with their perception of being “role models” which could exacerbate their fears about confidentiality. Given health workers’ critical role in HIV delivery in Malawi, there is need to develop solutions to help health workers overcome these barriers.
health workers; Malawi; access; ART; counselling and testing
Low BMI at time of enrollment into HIV care has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality independent of CD4 count. This study investigated socio-demographic associations with underweight (BMI<18.5) among adults in Nyanza Province, Kenya upon enrollment into HIV care. BMI, socio-demographic, and health data from a cross-sectional sample of 8,254 women and 3,533 men were gathered upon enrollment in the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) program in Nyanza Province, Kenya between January 2005 and March 2010. Overall, 27.4% of adults were underweight upon enrollment in HIV care. Among both women [W] and men [M], being underweight was associated with younger age (W: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.85-4.55; M: AOR, 5.87; 95% CI, 2.80-12.32 for age 15-19 compared to ≥50 years old), less education (W: AOR 2.92; 95% CI, 1.83-4.65; M: AOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04-2.31 for primary education compared to some college/university), low CD4 count (W: AOR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.50-3.03; M: AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.76-2.70 for 0-250 compared to ≥750 cells/mm3), and poor self-reported health status (W: AOR 1.72; 95% CI, 0.89-3.33; M: AOR, 9.78; 95% CI, 1.26-75.73 for poor compared to excellent). Male gender, lower educational attainment, younger age, and poor self-reported health are associated with low BMI at enrollment into HIV care in Nyanza Province. HIV care and treatment programs should consider using socio-demographic and health risk factors associated with low BMI to target and recruit patients with the goal of preventing late enrollment into care.
HIV/AIDS; socio-economic status; anthropometry; body mass index; Kenya; Africa
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (Standardized beta [B] = −0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B = 0.48, p = 0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B = −0.30, p = 0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B = 0.12, p = 0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B = 0.66, p = 0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand.
Emotional Intelligence; Parenting Styles; HIV-affected Children; Thailand
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States represent a vulnerable population with lower rates of HIV testing. There are various specific attributes of HIV testing that may impact willingness to test (WTT) for HIV. Identifying specific attributes influencing patients’ decisions around WTT for HIV is critical to ensure improved HIV testing uptake. This study examined WTT for HIV by using conjoint analysis, an innovative method for systematically estimating consumer preferences across discrete attributes. WTT for HIV was assessed across eight hypothetical HIV testing scenarios varying across seven dichotomous attributes: location (home vs. clinic), price (free vs. $50), sample collection (finger prick vs. blood), timeliness of results (immediate vs. 1–2 weeks), privacy (anonymous vs. confidential), results given (by phone vs. in-person), and type of counseling (brochure vs. in-person). Seventy-five MSM were recruited from a community based organization providing HIV testing services in Los Angeles to participate in conjoint analysis. WTT for HIV score was based on a 100-point scale. Scores ranged from 32.2 to 80.3 for eight hypothetical HIV testing scenarios. Price of HIV testing (free vs. $50) had the highest impact on WTT (impact score=31.4, SD=29.2, p<.0001), followed by timeliness of results (immediate vs. 1–2 weeks) (impact score=13.9, SD=19.9, p=<.0001) and testing location (home vs. clinic) (impact score=10.3, SD=22.8, p=.0002). Impacts of other HIV testing attributes were not significant. Conjoint analysis method enabled direct assessment of HIV testing preferences and identified specific attributes that significantly impact WTT for HIV among MSM. This method provided empirical evidence to support the potential uptake of the newly FDA-approved over-the-counter HIV home-test kit with immediate results, with cautionary note on the cost of the kit.
HIV home test; MSM; testing preferences
Body fat changes are of concern to HIV-seropositive adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Studies examining the association of body fat changes and quality of life (QOL) in the setting of HIV infection have been conducted predominately in men. We examined the relationship of self-perceived body fat change with QOL among 1,671 HAART-using HIV-seropositive women (mean age 40 ± 8 years; 54% African American, 24% reporting ≤ 95% HAART adherence) from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Self-perception of any fat loss was associated with lower overall QOL. Report of any peripheral fat loss was strongly associated with nearly all QOL domains (i.e., physical functioning, role functioning, energy/fatigue, social functioning, pain, emotional well-being, health perception, and perceived health index) except cognitive functioning, whereas report of any central fat loss was significantly associated with lower social and cognitive functioning. Report of any central fat gain was associated with lower overall QOL, but only physical functioning, energy/fatigue, and cognitive functioning were significantly affected. A significant association of report of any peripheral fat gain with overall QOL was not observed, however peripheral fat gain was significantly associated with lower physical functioning and pain. We found that any report of fat loss, especially in peripheral body sites is associated with lower QOL, as was any report of central fat gain. Ultimately health providers and patients need to be informed of these associations so as to better support HIV-seropositive women who live with these effects.
body image perception; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; Quality of life; HIV-seropositive women; HAART
The objective of this study was to extend the psychometric evaluation of a brief version of the Self Compassion Scale (SCS). A secondary analysis of data from an international sample of 1,967 English-speaking persons living with HIV disease was used to examine the factor structure, and reliability of the 12-item Brief Version Self Compassion Inventory (BVSCI). A Maximum Likelihood factor analysis and Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization confirmed a two-factor solution, accounting for 42.58% of the variance. The BVSCI supported acceptable internal consistencies, with .714 for the total scale and .822 for Factor I and .774 for Factor II. Factor I (lower self compassion) demonstrated strongly positive correlations with measures of anxiety and depression while Factor II (high self compassion) was inversely correlated with the measures. No significant differences were found in the BVSCI scores for gender, age, or having children. Levels of self-compassion were significantly higher in persons with HIV disease and other physical and psychological health conditions. The scale shows promise for the assessment of self-compassion in persons with HIV without taxing participants, and may prove essential in investigating future research aimed at examining correlates of self-compassion, as well as providing data for tailoring self-compassion interventions for persons with HIV.
Brief self-compassion inventory; HIV; psychometrics; factor analysis
Despite the increased interest in HIV/AIDS stigma and its negative effects on the health and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), little attention has been given to its assessment among Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) living with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to develop a multidimensional assessment of HIV/AIDS stigma for Latino GBT living with HIV/AIDS, and to test whether such stigma is related to self-esteem, safe sex self-efficacy, social support, and alcohol and drug use. The sample included 170 HIV+ Latino GBT persons. The results revealed three dimensions of stigma: internalized, perceived, and enacted HIV/AIDS stigma. Enacted HIV/AIDS stigma comprised two domains: generalized and romantic and sexual. Generalized enacted HIV/AIDS stigma was related to most outcomes. Internalized HIV/AIDS stigma mediated the associations between generalized enacted HIV/AIDS stigma and self-esteem and safe sex self-efficacy. In addition, romantic and sexual enacted HIV/AIDS stigma significantly predicted drug use. Perceived HIV/AIDS stigma was not associated with any outcome. These findings expand the understanding of the multi-dimensionality of stigma and the manner in which various features impact marginalized PLWHA.
HIV/AIDS; gay; Latino; stigma; sexual minority; racial/ethnic minority