The rate of long-term remissions after treatment of peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) with standard CHOP-like protocols is unsatisfactory. A prospective multicenter phase II trial was initiated in untreated patients with PTCL of all International Prognostic Index-risk groups, evaluating alemtuzumab consolidation in patients with complete or good partial remission after CHO(E)P-14 induction. Twenty-nine (70.7 %) of the 41 enrolled patients received alemtuzumab consolidation (133 mg in total). The main grades 3–4 toxicities during alemtuzumab therapy were infections and neutropenia with one potentially treatment-related death. Complete responses were seen in 58.5 %, partial responses in 2.4 % and 29.3 % had progressive disease. After a median observation time of 46 months, 19 patients have died, 16 of them due to lymphoma and/or salvage therapy complications. Event-free and overall survival at 3 years in the whole intent to treat population are 32.3 and 62.5 %, respectively, and 42.4 and 75.1 % in the patients who received alemtuzumab. In conclusion, application of a short course of alemtuzumab after CHO(E)P-14 induction is feasible although complicated by severe infections. A current phase III trial, applying alemtuzumab as part of the initial chemotherapy protocol to avoid early progression, will further clarify its significance for the therapeutic outcome.
Alemtuzumab; Phase II trial; T cell lymphoma
Patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) often develop iron overload that requires chelation to levels below the threshold associated with complications. This can take several years in patients with high iron burden, highlighting the value of long-term chelation data. Here, we report the 1-year extension of the THALASSA trial assessing deferasirox in NTDT; patients continued with deferasirox or crossed from placebo to deferasirox. Of 133 patients entering extension, 130 completed. Liver iron concentration (LIC) continued to decrease with deferasirox over 2 years; mean change was −7.14 mg Fe/g dry weight (dw) (mean dose 9.8 ± 3.6 mg/kg/day). In patients originally randomized to placebo, whose LIC had increased by the end of the core study, LIC decreased in the extension with deferasirox with a mean change of −6.66 mg Fe/g dw (baseline to month 24; mean dose in extension 13.7 ± 4.6 mg/kg/day). Of 166 patients enrolled, 64 (38.6 %) and 24 (14.5 %) patients achieved LIC <5 and <3 mg Fe/g dw by the end of the study, respectively. Mean LIC reduction was greatest in patients with the highest pretreatment LIC. Deferasirox progressively decreases iron overload over 2 years in NTDT patients with both low and high LIC. Safety profile of deferasirox over 2 years was consistent with that in the core study.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00277-013-1808-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Iron overload; Iron chelation; Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia; Deferasirox
Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) depends on HSC self-renewing proliferation and functional maintenance, which can be negatively affected by HSC differentiation, apoptosis, and senescence. Therefore, inhibition of HSC senescence may promote HSC expansion. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) on the expansion of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD133+ cells because activation of p38 has been implicated in the induction of HSC senescence under various physiological and pathological conditions. Our results showed that ex vivo expansion of hUCB CD133+ cells activated p38, which was abrogated by the p38 specific inhibitor SB203580 (SB). Inhibition of p38 activity with SB promoted the expansion of CD133+ cells and CD133+CD38− cells. In addition, hUCB CD133+ cells expanded in the presence of SB for 7 days showed about threefold increase in the clonogenic function of HSCs and engraftment in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice after transplantation compared to the input cells. In contrast, the cells expanded without SB exhibited a significant reduction in these HSC functions. The enhancement of ex vivo expansion of hUCB HSCs is primarily attributable to SB-mediated inhibition of HSC senescence. In addition, inhibition of HSC apoptosis and upregulation of CXCR4 may also contribute to the enhancement. However, p38 inhibition had no significant effect on HSC differentiation and proliferation. These findings suggest that inhibition of p38 activation may represent a novel strategy to promote ex vivo expansion of hUCB HSCs.
Human umbilical cord blood; Hematopoietic stem cells; Ex vivo expansion; p38; Senescence
Despite substantial progress in the management and outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) during the last decades, older age remains a prominent negative prognostic factor. The improvement of long-term stabilization and cure of older APL patients is therefore a particular challenge. Data of unselected population-based studies suggest a high rate of exclusion from clinical trials in older age. The comparison of registry and study data indicates that study patients represent a positive selection. Older APL patients seem as sensitive to therapy as younger patients. With conventional therapy, based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy, over 50 % of older APL patients can probably be cured. Special problems of advanced age are the high rate of early death before or during induction therapy and the high frequency of death in remission with negative influence on the outcome. Both may be related in part to a higher vulnerability against the common treatment with ATRA and chemotherapy. Alternative less toxic approaches including arsenic trioxide (ATO) with or without ATRA and combinations with gemtuzumab ozogamicin or with reduced chemotherapy can induce long-lasting remission in all stages of APL. Considering the high curative potential and the excellent tolerance of ATO in newly diagnosed and relapsed APL, older patients are probably a particular target group for a chemotherapy-free approach with ATO.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia; Elderly patients; Incidence; Early death; Treatment; Prognosis
Relapse occurs frequently after treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation. The availability of immunologic biomarkers to predict patients at high risk could allow clinicians to accelerate alternative treatments such as stem cell transplantation, immunotherapy, or novel drugs. We have previously reported that first diagnostic (FD) ITD+ AML showed immunophenotypic and functional characteristics of arrested dendritic cell (DC) precursors. In this study, we show that the high frequency of precursor DCs in 16 FD ITD+ AML samples (Lin−/HLA-DR+/CD11c+/CD123+) was associated with a lack of terminal DCs (myeloid DCs: BDCA-1+ or BDCA-3+; plasmacytoid DC: BDCA-2+). We further evaluated prospectively the peripheral blood complete remission (CR) samples obtained from 11 ITD+ AML patients after chemotherapy regarding the frequency of DCs and their pattern of cytokine production. Whereas the aberrant frequencies of precursor and terminal plasmacytoid DCs resolved during remission, the myeloid DC compartment did not fully recover. For an available cohort of patients (n = 4) who could be monitored over a period of >15 months after FD, we identified IL-10, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β as cytokines produced by the CR samples at high levels a few months prior to relapse. Cell-free supernatant of an FD ITD+ AML sample stimulated monocytes obtained from two healthy donors to secrete IL-10, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Thus, we hypothesize that ITD+ AML minimal residual disease can act directly as dysfunctional antigen-presenting cells or indirectly by production of factors that convert monocytes into myeloid-derived suppressor cells secreting cytokines that promote immune evasion. Monitoring these immunologic biomarkers could improve prediction of relapse.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00277-013-1744-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Leukemia; Dendritic cell; Immune monitoring; Myeloid-derived suppressor cells; Risk of relapse; Inflammatory cytokines
Descriptive epidemiology of the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is always interesting and may reveal time-dependent and geographical variations, as well as occupational exposure. Epidemiological data in Greece are not available by now. We have collected and analyzed medical records of all patients with a documented diagnosis of MDS, performed by an expert hematologist and/or hematopathologist, in the geographical area of Western Greece, during the 20-year period, defined between 1990 and 2009. We have then calculated and described demographic and clinical features of the diagnosed MDS patient population, and assessed the incidence and prevalence rates of MDS in Western Greece, during the above-mentioned period. A total of 855 patients with newly diagnosed MDS have been identified. Refractory anemia was the most common subtype in both FAB and WHO classification systems and in both genders. Del-5q and RARS were more commonly encountered among females, and the dysplastic subtype of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia among males. Trisomy 8 was the most common single cytogenetic abnormality. The crude mean annual incidence rate of MDS was 6.0 per 100,000 inhabitants aged ≥15 years old (all subtypes according to FAB), and it was 4.8 per 100,000 when CMML and RAEB-T were excluded. Crude incidence rate was higher in rural than in urban areas, but this finding was not confirmed after age standardization. Age-standardized mean annual incidence rate in men was 7.9/100,000 and in women 3.4/100,000. A continuously increasing incidence rate of MDS has been observed throughout the study period.
Myelodysplastic syndromes; Epidemiology; Incidence; Classification; Western Greece
This report is a retrospective analysis of 65 patients with peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL), who underwent high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHCT) as a consolidation of first response achieved with either induction or salvage chemotherapy. We intended to determine the prognostic factors that influenced outcome after autoHCT and to define the predictive value of the scoring systems most often applied for transplant outcomes. Nineteen patients in either complete or partial remission underwent autoHCT after induction chemotherapy. Forty-six patients received second-line chemotherapy as a consolidation of partial response after induction chemotherapy (n = 34) or as a salvage therapy after primary induction failure (n = 12), and thereafter proceeded to autoHCT. Finally, the 36 patients were in complete remission, and 29 in partial remission at autoHCT. The median follow-up of survivors was 53 months (range 7–157 months). The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival for all patients were 61.5 % (95 % CI 47.0–74.2 %) and 59.4 % (95 % CI 46.1–71.5 %), respectively. In multivariate analysis, bone marrow involvement at diagnosis and less than partial remission after induction chemotherapy were factors independently predictive for overall survival and progression-free survival. The prognostic index for PTCL could reliably stratify the prognosis of PTCL in this analysis.
Peripheral T cell lymphoma; Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Prognostic factors; Clinical outcomes; Scoring systems
Bacterial infections are the most common cause for treatment-related mortality in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy. Here, we discuss the use of antibacterial prophylaxis against bacteria and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in neutropenic cancer patients and offer guidance towards the choice of drug. A literature search was performed to screen all articles published between September 2000 and January 2012 on antibiotic prophylaxis in neutropenic cancer patients. The authors assembled original reports and meta-analysis from the literature and drew conclusions, which were discussed and approved in a consensus conference of the Infectious Disease Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (AGIHO). Antibacterial prophylaxis has led to a reduction of febrile events and infections. A significant reduction of overall mortality could only be shown in a meta-analysis. Fluoroquinolones are preferred for antibacterial and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole for PCP prophylaxis. Due to serious concerns about an increase of resistant pathogens, only patients at high risk of severe infections should be considered for antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk factors of individual patients and local resistance patterns must be taken into account. Risk factors, choice of drug for antibacterial and PCP prophylaxis and concerns regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics are discussed in the review.
Prophylaxis; Bacterial infection; Pneumocystis; Neutropenia
The inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) can induce differentiation, growth arrest, and apoptosis in cancer cells. This phase II multicenter study was undertaken to estimate the efficacy of belinostat, a potent inhibitor of both class I and class II HDAC enzymes, for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Adults with MDS and ≤2 prior therapies were treated with belinostat 1,000 mg/m2 IV on days 1–5 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoint was a proportion of confirmed responses during the first 12 weeks of treatment. Responding patients could receive additional cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Twenty-one patients were enrolled, and all were evaluable. Patients were a median 13.4 months from diagnosis, and 14 patients (67%) had less than 5% bone marrow blasts. Seventeen patients (81%) were transfusion dependent. Prior therapy included azacytidine (n=7) and chemotherapy (n=8). The patients were treated with a median of four cycles (range, 1–8) of belinostat. There was one confirmed response—hematologic improvement in neutrophils—for an overall response rate of 5% (95% CI, 0.2–23). Median overall survival was 17.9 months. Grades 3–4 toxicities considered at least to be possibly related to belinostat were: neutropenia (n=10), thrombocytopenia (n=9), anemia (n=5), fatigue (n=2), febrile neutropenia (n=1), headache (n=1), and QTc prolongation (n=1). Because the study met the stopping rule in the first stage of enrollment, it was closed to further accrual.
Belinostat; PXD101; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Histone deacetylase inhibitor
This study aims to retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics, treatments, and prognosis of aggressive peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) patients with a lymphoma-associated hemophagocytosis syndrome (LAHS). We compared the clinical features and the overall survival (OS) rates of 159 PTCL patients with and without LAHS as well as the treatment outcomes of these patients with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or intensive chemotherapy regimens. We observed that in 23 % (36/159) patients PTCL was associated with LAHS. Different subtypes of PTCL in LAHS patients were diagnosed and peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) was the main subtype (78 %). The median survival rates of the LAHS and non-LAHS groups were 3 and 16 months, respectively. The elevated rates of serum β2-microglobulin, ferritin, fasting triglycerides, and hypofibrinogen levels were higher in the LAHS group, so were bone marrow involvement, liver dysfunction, hepatosplenomegaly, and B symptoms. Three patients who were treated with a plasma exchange had a longer survival time. There was no statistically significant difference in the OS rates between the intensive chemotherapy and CHOP regimen groups (P > 0.05). PTCL patients with LAHS had a poorer prognosis. Awareness of the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings are crucial in order to diagnose LAHS in an early stage and repeated biopsies of multiple bone marrows from different locations in those patients without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes are necessary to improve the diagnosis. Intensive chemotherapy due to its severe toxicity was not obviously advantageous for the OS rate compared to the CHOP regimen.
Aggressive peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL); Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytosis syndrome (LAHS); Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH); Intensive chemotherapy
Examination of the bone marrow biopsy and aspirate allows diagnosis and assessment of various conditions such as primary hematologic and metastatic neoplasms, as well as nonmalignant disorders. Despite being performed for many years, according to many different protocols, the procedure still remains painful for the majority of patients. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of pain reduction measures in the bone marrow biopsy and aspiration.
Pain; Bone marrow; Biopsy; Aspiration; Hematology
Despite improvement of prognosis, older age remains a negative prognostic factor in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Reports on disease characteristics and outcome of older patients are conflicting. We therefore analyzed 91 newly diagnosed APL patients aged 60 years or older (30 % of 305 adults with APL) registered by the German AML Cooperative Group (AMLCG) since 1994; 68 patients (75 %) were treated in studies, 23 (25 %) were non-eligible, and 31 % had high-risk APL. Fifty-six patients received induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid and TAD (6-thioguanine, cytarabine, daunorubicin), and consolidation and maintenance therapy. Treatment intensification with a second induction cycle (high dose cytarabine, mitoxantrone; HAM) was optional (n = 14). Twelve patients were randomized to another therapy not considered in this report. The early death rate was 48 % in non-eligible and 19 % in study patients. With the AMLCG regimen, 7-year overall, event-free and relapse-free survival (RFS) and cumulative incidence of relapse were 45 %, 40 %, 48 %, and 24 %, respectively. In patients treated with TAD–HAM induction, 7-year RFS was superior (83 %; p = 0.006) compared to TAD only, and no relapse was observed. In our registered elderly patients, we see a high rate of non-eligibility for treatment in studies and of high-risk APL. In patients who can undergo a curative approach, intensified chemotherapy is highly effective, but is restricted to a selection of patients. Therefore, new less toxic treatment approaches with broader applicability are needed. Elderly patients might be a particular target group for concepts with arsenic trioxide.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia; Elderly patients; Early death; Treatment
The effect of deferasirox dosing tailored for iron burden and iron loading based on liver iron concentration (LIC) was assessed over 1 year in less versus more heavily iron-overloaded patients in a substudy of the Evaluation of Patients’ Iron Chelation with Exjade®. Deferasirox starting dose was 10–30 mg/kg/day, depending on blood transfusion frequency, with recommended dose adjustments every 3 months. Therapeutic goals were LIC maintenance or reduction in patients with baseline LIC <7 or ≥7 mg Fe/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Changes in LIC (R2-magnetic resonance imaging) and serum ferritin after 1 year were assessed. Adverse events (AEs) and laboratory parameters were monitored throughout. Of 374 patients, 71 and 303 had baseline LIC <7 and ≥7 mg Fe/g dw, respectively; mean deferasirox doses were 20.7 and 27.1 mg/kg/day (overall average time to dose increase, 24 weeks). At 1 year, mean LIC and median serum ferritin levels were maintained in the low-iron cohort (−0.02 ± 2.4 mg Fe/g dw, −57 ng/mL; P = not significant) and significantly decreased in the high-iron cohort (−6.1 ± 9.1 mg Fe/g dw, −830 ng/mL; P < 0.0001). Drug-related gastrointestinal AEs, mostly mild to moderate, were more frequently reported in the <7 versus ≥7 mg Fe/g dw cohort (39.4 versus 20.8 %; P = 0.001) and were not confounded by diagnosis, dosing, ethnicity, or hepatitis B and/or C history. Reported serum creatinine increases did not increase in low- versus high-iron cohort patients. Deferasirox doses of 20 mg/kg/day maintained LIC <7 mg Fe/g dw and doses of 30 mg/kg/day were required for net iron reduction in the high-iron cohort, with clinically manageable safety profiles. The higher incidence of gastrointestinal AEs at lower iron burdens requires further investigation.
Iron overload; Iron chelation therapy; Deferasirox; Liver iron concentration
The treatment of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) would be greatly facilitated with a rapid method for determining prognosis that can be performed more easily and earlier than cytological or specific pathological examinations. It has been suggested that newly diagnosed patients with DLBCL who have low maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are more likely to be successfully treated and remain in remission compared with patients with high SUVmax, but this concept has been poorly studied. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients with de novo DLBCL to evaluate the relationship between the SUVmax and disease progression. For patients with low SUVmax (n = 10) and high SUVmax (n = 40) (P = 0.255), respectively, the 3-year overall survival rates were 90 and 72 %, and the progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 90 and 39 % (P = 0.012). By multivariate analysis, the revised International Prognostics Index (R-IPI) and SUVmax at diagnosis were shown to predict longer PFS. The 3-year PFS for patients with low SUVmax classified into the good prognosis group by R-IPI was 100 vs. 62 % for those with high SUVmax (P = 0.161), and patients with low SUVmax classified into the poor prognosis group by R-IPI was 80 vs. 18 % for those with high SUVmax (P = 0.050). We conclude that the SUVmax on FDG-PET for newly diagnosed patients with DLBCL is an important predictor of disease progression, especially for patients with poor prognosis by R-IPI.
SUVmax; FDG-PET; Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Progression; Revised IPI
Sideroblastic anemia is characterized by anemia with the emergence of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow. There are two forms of sideroblastic anemia, i.e., congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) and acquired sideroblastic anemia. In order to clarify the pathophysiology of sideroblastic anemia, a nationwide survey consisting of clinical and molecular genetic analysis was performed in Japan. As of January 31, 2012, data of 137 cases of sideroblastic anemia, including 72 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)–refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD), 47 cases of MDS–refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS), and 18 cases of CSA, have been collected. Hemoglobin and MCV level in CSA are significantly lower than those of MDS, whereas serum iron level in CSA is significantly higher than those of MDS. Of 14 CSA for which DNA was available for genetic analysis, 10 cases were diagnosed as X-linked sideroblastic anemia due to ALAS2 gene mutation. The mutation of SF3B1 gene, which was frequently mutated in MDS-RS, was not detected in CSA patients. Together with the difference of clinical data, it is suggested that genetic background, which is responsible for the development of CSA, is different from that of MDS-RS.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00277-012-1564-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Congenital sideroblastic anemia; Myelodysplastic syndrome; ALAS2
Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare disease with a complex pathogenesis. In most cases, T-cell mediated immune destruction of hematopoietic cells results in peripheral blood pancytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia. Asubset of the heterodimeric interleukin-23 receptor gene (IL-23R) is significantly associated with autoimmune-mediated diseases. To examine whether IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might contribute to AA, we selected three IL-23R SNPs with amino-acid changes (rs11209026: p.Arg381Gln; rs41313262: p.Val362Ile; rs11465797: p.Thr175Asn), and compared their frequencies in279 AA patients and 184 ethnicallymatched healthy controls. The three SNP prevalences were similar between the AApatients and controls. The Arg381Gln variant, which has a strong protective effect against inflammatory bowel disease, showed no association with AA. Further, IL-23 levels in sera were measured in the AA patients and in controls, and there were no significant differences among them. Our results indicatethat these three IL-23R SNPs and serum IL-23 level have no apparent impact onsusceptibility to AA.
aplastic anemia; IL-23R; autoimmune disease; polymorphism
Abnormal fat deposition in the epidural space or spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) due to corticosteroid treatment or obesity may cause obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow. Little is known about SEL in patients with hematologic malignancies who require frequent lumbar punctures and corticosteroid treatment that places them at risk.
Patients and methods
Records and radiologic images of patients with SEL and leukemia or non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated at a single institution from 1999–2009 were reviewed. Risk factors were compared with 405 control patients with leukemia.
Fourteen patients with leukemia or NHL were diagnosed with SEL. The majority of patients underwent diagnostic imaging after unsuccessful lumbar punctures within one month of their primary diagnosis. Prior to SEL diagnosis, all patients received systemic and/or intrathecal corticosteroids. SEL diagnosis led to modification of intrathecal administration in 8 patients, including Ommaya reservoir placement in 4 patients. All patients completed protocol-specified chemotherapy without neurologic symptoms or surgical intervention. Risk factors for developing SEL include older age and high body mass index.
Investigation for SEL in leukemia or lymphoma patients with difficult lumbar punctures is warranted. Placement of an Ommaya reservoir may facilitate safe CNS-directed therapy in severely affected patients.
spinal epidural lipomatosis; lumbar canal obstruction; difficult lumbar puncture; leukemia; lymphoma
To improve posttreatment care for (long-term) lymphoma survivors in the Netherlands, survivorship clinics are being developed. As information provision is an important aspect of survivorship care, our aim was to evaluate the current perceived level of and satisfaction with information received by non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and multiple myeloma (MM) survivors, and to identify associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry was used to select all patients diagnosed with NHL, HL and MM from 1999 to 2009. In total, 1,448 survivors received a questionnaire, and 1,135 of them responded (78.4 %). The EORTC QLQ-INFO25 was used to evaluate the perceived level of and satisfaction with information. Two thirds of survivors were satisfied with the amount of received information, with HL survivors being most satisfied (74 %). At least 25 % of survivors wanted more information. Young age, having had chemotherapy, having been diagnosed more recently, using internet for information and having no comorbidities were the most important factors associated with higher perceived levels of information provision. Although information provision and satisfaction with information seems relatively good in lymphoma and MM survivors, one third expressed unmet needs. Furthermore, variations between subgroups were observed. Good information provision is known to be associated with better quality of life. Survivorship care plans could be a way to achieve this.
Information provision; Patient satisfaction; Lymphoma; Multiple myeloma; Cancer survivors; Population-based