Proximal radioulnar translocation with radial neck fracture and elbow dislocation is extremely rare. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who was presented with elbow dislocation, and proximal radioulnar translocation was diagnosed a day after the injury. Mini-open technique was used to reduce the translocation and radial neck fracture. The patient finally regained full range of elbow motion and forearm rotation. This case had clinical importance in that the reverse instability of the elbow was observed compared with the previous reports.
Radioulnar translocation; Radial neck fracture; Elbow dislocation; Mini-open reduction; Child
Distinguishing grade 1 chondrosarcoma from grade 2 chondrosarcoma is critical both for planning the surgical procedure and for predicting the outcome. We aimed to review the preoperative radiographic and histologic findings, and to evaluate the reliability of preoperative grading.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 17 patients diagnosed with central chondrosarcoma at our institution between 1996 and 2011. In these cases, we compared the preoperative and postoperative histologic grades, and evaluated the reliability of the preoperative histologic grading. We also assessed the preoperative radiographic findings obtained using plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Preoperative histologic grade was 1 in 12 patients, 2 in 4 patients, and 3 in 1 patient. However, 6 of the 12 cases classified as grade 1 before surgery were re-classified as grade 2 postoperatively. In the radiographic evaluation, grade 1 was suspected by the presence of a ring-and-arc pattern of calcification on plain radiography and CT and entrapped fat and ring-and-arc enhancement on MRI. Grades 2 and 3 were suspected by the absence of calcification and the presence of cortical penetration and endosteal scalloping on plain radiography and CT, as well as soft-tissue mass formation on MRI.
Although the combination of radiographic interpretation and histologic findings may improve the accuracy of preoperative grading in chondrosarcoma, the establishment of a standard evaluation system with the histologic and radiographic findings and/or the development of new biologic markers are necessary for preoperative discrimination of low-grade chondrosarcoma from high-grade chondrosarcoma.
Chondrosarcoma; Imaging features; Histopathology; Surgical staging
Lateral ankle sprains are common musculoskeletal injuries.
The objective of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of the last 10 years regarding evidence for the treatment and prevention of lateral ankle sprains.
Pubmed central, Google scholar.
Study eligibility criteria
Meta-analysis, prospective randomized trials, English language articles.
Surgical and non-surgical treatment, immobilization versus functional treatment, different external supports, balance training for rehabilitation, balance training for prevention, braces for prevention.
A systematic search for articles about the treatment of lateral ankle sprains that were published between January 2002 and December 2012.
Three meta-analysis and 19 articles reporting 16 prospective randomized trials could be identified. The main advantage of surgical ankle ligament repair is that objective instability and recurrence rate is less common when compared with non-operative treatment. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of surgical and non-surgical treatment, we conclude that the majority of grades I, II and III lateral ankle ligament ruptures can be managed without surgery. For non-surgical treatment, long-term immobilization should be avoided. For grade III injuries, however, a short period of immobilization (max. 10 days) in a below knee cast was shown to be advantageous. After this phase, the ankle is most effectively protected against inversion by a semi-rigid ankle brace. Even grades I and II injuries are most effectively treated with a semi-rigid ankle brace. There is evidence that treatment of acute ankle sprains should be supported by a neuromuscular training. Balance training is also effective for the prevention of ankle sprains in athletes with the previous sprains. There is good evidence from high level randomized trials in the literature that the use of a brace is effective for the prevention of ankle sprains.
Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of surgical and non-surgical treatment, we conclude that the majority of grades I, II and III lateral ankle ligament ruptures can be managed without surgery. The indication for surgical repair should be always made on an individual basis. This systematic review supports a phase adapted non-surgical treatment of acute ankle sprains with a short-term immobilization for grade III injuries followed by a semi-rigid brace. More prospective randomized studies with a longer follow-up are needed to find out what type of non-surgical treatment has the lowest re-sprain rate.
Chronic ankle instability; Ankle brace; External support; Surgical treatment; Balance training
Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently have concomitant injuries; we aimed to investigate their impact on outcomes.
Between February 2002 and April 2010, 17 Austrian centers prospectively enrolled 863 patients with moderate and severe TBI into observational studies. Data on accident, treatment, and outcomes were collected. Patients who survived until intensive care unit (ICU) admission and had survivable TBI were selected, and were assigned to “isolated TBI” or “TBI + injury” groups. Six-month outcomes were classified as “favorable” if Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were five or four, and were classified as “unfavorable” if GOS scores were three or less. Univariate statistics (Fisher’s exact test, t test, χ2-test) and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with hospital mortality and unfavorable outcome.
Of the 767 patients, 403 (52.5 %) had isolated TBI, 364 (47.5 %) had concomitant injuries. Patients with isolated TBI had higher mean age (53 vs. 44 years, P = 0.001); hospital mortality (30.0 vs. 27.2 %, P = 0.42) and rate of unfavorable outcome (50.4 vs. 41.8 %, P = 0.02) were higher, too. There were no significant mortality differences for factors like age groups, trauma mechanisms, neurologic status, CT findings, or treatment factors. Concomitant injuries were associated with higher mortality (33.3 vs. 12.5 %, P = 0.05) in patients with moderate TBI, and were significantly associated with more ventilation, ICU, and hospitals days. Logistic regression revealed that age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, pupillary reactivity, severity of TBI and CT score were the main factors that influenced outcomes.
Concomitant injuries have a significant effect upon the mortality of patients with moderate TBI. They do not affect the mortality in patients with severe TBI.
Level of evidence and study type
Evidence level 2; prospective, observational prognostic study.
Traumatic brain injury; Outcome; Concomitant injuries
Surgery of meniscus tear results in limitation of function. The aim of study was functional assessment of knee 1 year after surgery with two techniques in cases of the medial meniscus tear followed by the same supervised rehabilitation.
Materials and methods
A total of 30 patients with good KOSS scores constituted two equal groups after partial meniscectomy or meniscus suture. Measurements of knee extensors and flexors muscles peak torques were performed with angular velocities 60, 180, 240 and 300 s−1 using Biodex IV system. One-leg-hop and one-leg-rising tests ascertained the function of operated knee. Results of examinations were compared with reference to healthy volunteers. Results of biomechanical and clinical studies were correlated to create complex and objective method evaluating treatment.
Extensors peak torque values at 60 s−1 angular velocity and H/Q coefficient were decreased after meniscectomy more than meniscus suture in comparison to healthy volunteers (P ≤ 0.001; P ≤ 0.05). Analysis of functional tests revealed that patients after meniscectomy showed difference between operated and non-operated knee (P ≤ 0.01) while patients with meniscus suture differed the least to controls (P ≤ 0.05). Extensors peak torque values at 60 s−1 angular velocity correlated with results of one-leg-rising test.
Results suggest worse functional effects when meniscectomy is applied which implies modification of the rehabilitative methods in a postoperative period.
Meniscectomy; Meniscus suture; Peak torque; One-leg-hop and one-leg-rising tests; H/Q coefficient; Supervised rehabilitation
This study reports if shortening reconstruction procedure through posterior approach only can be used in osteoporotic unstable fracture as well as post-traumatic burst fracture.
An 80-year-old female patient with unstable burst osteoporotic fracture of L1 underwent posterior approach corpectomy and shortening reconstruction of the spinal column by non-expandable cages.
The surgery was uneventful, with average blood loss. Using of small profile cages has helped us to avoid root injury. Augmentation of the screw with cement and the compressive force applied to the spine column aids in obtaining a rigid construct with good alignment without any neurological complication.
Shortening reconstruction procedure through only posterior approach is a viable option in treating unstable osteoporotic fracture as well as post-traumatic fractures. Using non-expandable cage is advocated to avoid cage subsidence.
Osteoporotic fracture; Posterior corpectomy; Shortening reconstruction; Unstable burst fracture; Thoracolumbar fracture
Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC) is an innovative treatment for localized full-thickness cartilage defects combining the well-known microfracturing with collagen I/III scaffold. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the medium-term results of this enhanced microfracture technique for the treatment of chondral lesions of the knee.
Methods and materials
Patients treated with AMIC (Chondro-Gide®, Geistlich Pharma, Switzerland) were followed using the AMIC Registry, an internet-based tool to longitudinally track changes in function and symptoms by the Lysholm score and VAS.
A series of 57 patients was enrolled. The average age of patients (19 females, 38 males) was 37.3 years (range 17–61 years). The mean defect size of the chondral lesions was 3.4 cm2 (range 1.0–12.0 cm2). All defects were classified as grade III (n = 20) or IV (n = 37) according to the Outerbridge classification. Defects were localized at the medial (n = 32) or lateral (n = 6) condyle, at the trochlea (n = 4) and at the patella (n = 15). The follow-up period was 2 years. The majority of patients were satisfied with the postoperative outcome, reporting a significant decrease of pain (mean VAS preop = 7.0; 1 year postop = 2.7; 2 years postop = 2.0). Significant improvement of the mean Lysholm score was observed as early as 1 year after AMIC and further increased values were noted up to 2 years postoperatively (preop. 50.1, 1 year postop. 79.9, 2 year postop. 85.2).
AMIC is an effective and safe method of treating symptomatic chondral defects of the knee. However, further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine if the grafted area will maintain structural and functional integrity over time.
Level of evidence
Prognostic study, Level IV.
AMIC; Cartilage; Knee; Surgery; Lysholm score
Malunited intra-articular fracture of the proximal inter-phalangeal (PIP) joint sometimes causes problems, such as range of motion (ROM) limitation in the joint or lack of digital dexterity; however, the treatment method has not yet been established. We report a juvenile case of osteochondral autograft tranplantation to treat a malunited intra-articular fracture of the middle finger.
A 14-year-old boy was injured at the right middle finger by a baseball impact and underwent conservative treatment. At 5 months after the injury, he complained of continuing pain and restricted ROM. Plain X-ray and CT images showed a bony defect in the articular surface of the PIP joint of the right middle finger. He was diagnosed with malunited intra-articular fracture of the PIP joint and underwent surgical treatment. First, through a palmar incision, a columnar-shaped drill hole was made at the recipient site of osteochondral defect. Then a cylindrical osteochondral plug, 4.5 mm in diameter, harvested from the knee, was inserted into the recipient hole and press-fitted. One year after surgery, the patient has neither pain nor ROM limitation of the finger and the knee joint. MRI showed smooth articular surface of the PIP joint.
The benefits of our method include use of articular cartilage as a reconstruction material, availability for a relatively large cartilage defect, and stability of the autograft for the press-fitting method, which enable early mobilization exercise after surgery.
Proximal interphalangeal joint; Knee; Malunion; Osteochondral autograft transplantation
To investigate fast-track rehabilitation concept in terms of a measurable effect on the early recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
This was an open, randomized, prospective clinical study, comparing the fast-track rehabilitation—a pathway-controlled early recovery program (Joint Care®)—with standard postoperative rehabilitation care, after TKA. Overall, 147 patients had TKA (N = 74 fast-track rehabilitation,N = 73 standardrehabilitation). The fast-track rehabilitation patients received a group therapy, early mobilization (same day as surgery) and 1:1 physiotherapy (2 h/day). Patient monitoring occurred over 3 months (1 pre- and 4 post-operative visits). The standard rehabilitation group received individual postoperative care according to the existing protocol, with 1:1 physiotherapy (1 h/day). The cumulative American Knee Society Score (AKSS) was the primary evaluation variable, used to detect changes in joint function and perception of pain. The secondary evaluation variables were WOMAC index score, analgesic drug consumption, length of stay (LOS), and safety.
After TKA, patients in the fast-track rehabilitation group showed enhanced recovery compared with the standardrehabilitation group, as based on the differences between the groups for the cumulative AKSS (p = 0.0003), WOMAC index score (<0.0001), reduced intake of concomitant analgesic drugs, reduced LOS (6.75 vs. 13.20 days, p < 0001), and lower number of adverse events.
For TKA, implementation of pathway-controlled fast-track rehabilitation is achievable and beneficial as based on the AKSS and WOMAC score, reduced intake of analgesic drugs, and reduced LOS.
AKSS score; Fast-track rehabilitation; Controlled pathway; Total knee arthroplasty; TKA; WOMAC score
Ligament balancing is considered a prerequisite for good function and survival in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there is no consensus on how to measure ligament balance intra-operatively and the degree of stability obtained after different balancing techniques is not clarified.
This study presents a new method to measure ligament balancing in TKA and reports on the results of a try-out of this method and its inter-observer reliability.
After the implantation of the prosthesis, spatulas of different thickness were used to measure medial and lateral condylar lift-off in flexion and extension in 70 ligament-balanced knees and in 30 knees were ligament balancing was considered unnecessary. Inter-observer reliability for the new method was estimated and the degree of medial–lateral symmetry in extension and in flexion, and the equality of the extension gaps and flexion gaps were calculated.
The method was feasible in all operated knees, and found to be very reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.88). We found no statistically significant difference in condylar lift-off between the ligament-balanced and the non ligament-balanced group, however, there was a tendency to more outliers in flexion in the ligament-balanced group.
Our method for measuring ligament balance is reliable and provides valuable information in assessing laxity intra-operatively. This method may be a useful tool in further research on the relationship between ligament balance, function and survival of TKA.
Total knee arthroplasty; Ligament balance; Soft tissue balance; Flexion–extension gap; Surgical technique; Equipment design
To report risk factors, 1-year and overall risk for a contralateral hip and other osteoporosis-related fractures in a hip fracture population.
An observational study on 1,229 consecutive patients of 50 years and older, who sustained a hip fracture between January 2005 and June 2009. Fractures were scored retrospectively for 2005–2008 and prospectively for 2008–2009. Rates of a contralateral hip and other osteoporosis-related fractures were compared between patients with and without a history of a fracture. Previous fractures, gender, age and ASA classification were analysed as possible risk factors.
The absolute risk for a contralateral hip fracture was 13.8 %, for one or more osteoporosis-related fracture(s) 28.6 %. First-, second- and third-year risk for a second hip fracture was 2, 1 and 0 %. Median (IQR) interval between both hip fractures was 18.5 (26.6) months. One-year incidence of other fractures was 6 %. Only age was a risk factor for a contralateral hip fracture, hazard ratio (HR) 1.02 (1.006–1.042, p = 0.008). Patients with a history of a fracture (33.1 %) did not have a higher incidence of fractures during follow-up (16.7 %) than patients without fractures in their history (14 %). HR for a contralateral hip fracture for the fracture versus the non-fracture group was 1.29 (0.75–2.23, p = 0.360).
The absolute risk of a contralateral hip fracture after a hip fracture is 13.8 %, the 1-year risk was 2 %, with a short interval between the 2 hip fractures. Age was a risk factor for sustaining a contralateral hip fracture; a fracture in history was not.
Hip fracture; Contralateral; Bilateral; Osteoporosis; Risk factors
To examine the outcome of cervical lateral mass screw fixation focusing on analysis of the risk factors for screw-related complications.
Ninety-four patients who underwent posterior cervical fixation with a total of 457 lateral mass screws were included in the study. The lateral mass screws were placed using a modified Magerl method. Computed tomographic (CT) images were taken in the early postoperative period in all patients, and the screw trajectory angle was measured on both axial and sagittal plane images.
In the postoperative CT analysis for the screw trajectory, 56.5 % of the screws were directed within the acceptable range (within 21–40° on both axial and sagittal planes). As intraoperative screw-associated complications, 9.6 % of the screws were found to contact with or breach the vertebral artery foramen. In this group, the screw trajectory angle on axial plane was significantly lower than in the group without contact. Facet violation was observed in 13 screws (2.8 %). This complication was associated with a significantly lower trajectory angles in the sagittal plane, predominantly at C6 level (69.2 %). In the patient chart review, no serious neurovascular injuries were documented.
In the analysis of potential risk factors for violation of the VA foramen as well as FV during screw insertion, the former incidence was significantly related to the screw trajectory angle (lack of lateral angulation) in the axial plane, while the latter incidence was related to a poor screw trajectory angle in the sagittal plane.
Lateral mass; Cervical spine; Posterior fixation; Complications
We describe a simple technique for closure of the intra-articular opening after the removal of a retrograde femur nail. With the use of a gelatine bioabsorbable bone plug the medullary canal is closed, reducing leakage of blood and cancellous bone particles from the bone into the knee joint.
Implant removal; Retrograde nail; Hemarthrosis knee; Bone plug
Long-term place of residence after hip fracture is not often described in literature. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors, known at admission, for failure to return to the pre-fracture place of residence of hip fracture patients in the first year after a hip fracture.
This is a prospective longitudinal study of 444 consecutive admissions of hip fracture patients aged ≥65 years. Place of residence prior to admission, at discharge, after 3 and 12 months was registered. Patients admitted from a nursing home (n = 49) were excluded from statistical analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed, using age, gender, presence of a partner, ASA-score, dementia, anaemia at admission, type of fracture, pre-fracture level of mobility and level of activities of daily living (ADL) as possible risk factors.
Two hundred eighty-nine patients lived in their own home, 31.8% returned at discharge, 72.9% at 3 months and 72.8% at 12 months. Age, absence of a partner, dementia, and a lower pre-fracture level of ADL or mobility were independent contributors to failure to return to their own home at discharge, 3 or 12 months. 106 patients lived in a residential home; 33.3% returned at discharge, 68.4% at 3 months and 64.4% at 12 months. Age was an independent contributor to failure to return to a residential home.
Age, dementia and a lower pre-fracture level of ADL were the main significant risk factors for failure to return to the pre-fracture residence. As the 3- and 12-month return-rates were similar, 3-month follow-up might be used as an endpoint in future research.
Hip fracture; Place of residence; Risk factors; Longitudinal
The number of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures treated surgically is increasing and plate fixation is often the treatment modality of choice. The study quality and scientific levels of evidence at which possible complications of this treatment are presented vary greatly in literature.
The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the prevalence of complications concerning plate fixation of dislocated midshaft clavicle fractures.
A computer-based search was carried out using EMBASE and PUBMED/MEDLINE. Studies included for review reported complications after plate fixation alone or in comparison to either treatment with intramedullary pin fixation and/or nonoperative treatment. Two quality assessment tools were used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Included studies were ranked according to their levels of evidence.
After study selection and reading of the full texts, 11 studies were eligible for final quality assessment. Nonunion and malunion rates were less than 10% in all analysed studies but one. The vast majority of complications seem to be implant related, with irritation or failure of the plate being consistently reported on in almost every study, on average ranging from 9 to 64%.
The quantity of relevant high evidence studies is low. With low nonunion and malunion rates, plate fixation can be a safe treatment option for acute dislocated midshaft clavicle fractures, but complications related to the implant material requiring a second operation are frequent. Future prospective trials are needed to analyse the influence of various plate types and plate position on implant-related complications.
Review; Plate fixation; Midshaft dislocated clavicle fractures; Complications; Medicine & Public Health; Orthopedics
To study the association between potential prognostic factors and functional outcome at 1 and 5 year follow-up in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with an arthroplasty. To analyze the reliability of the Harris hip score (HHS).
Materials and methods
A multicenter analysis which included 252 patients who sustained a femoral neck fracture treated with an arthroplasty. Functional outcome after surgery was assessed using a modified HHS and was evaluated after 1 (HHS1) and 5 (HHS5) years. Several prognostic factors were analyzed and reliability of the HHS was assessed.
After 1 year the presence of co-morbidities was a significant (p = 0.002) predictor for a poor functional outcome (mean HHS1 71.8 with co-morbidities, and 80.6 without co-morbidities). After 5 years none of the potential prognostic factors had significant influence on functional outcome. Internal consistency testing of the HHS showed that when pain and function of the HHS were analyzed together, the internal consistency was poor (HHS1 0.38 and HHS5 0.20). The internal consistency of the HHS solely in function (without pain) improved to 0.68 (HHS1) and 0.46 (HHS5). Analyzing the functional aspect exclusively, age and the existence of co-morbidities could be defined as predictors for functional outcome of femoral neck fractures after 1 and 5 years.
After using the HHS in a modification, age and the existence of pre-operative co-morbidities appeared to be predictors of the functional outcome after 1 and 5 years. The HHS, omitting pain, is a more reliable score to estimate the functional outcome, than HHS analyzing pain and function in one scoring system.
Femoral neck fracture; Arthroplasty; Functional outcome; Predictors; Harris hip score
Compromised rheumatic bone is a potential risk factor for mechanical complications in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) in cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increased rates of intra-operative fractures, component migration and (early) aseptic loosening are to be expected. Despite this, cementless THA is performed in cases of RA.
A literature search on cementless THA in RA was performed in EMBASE (1993–2011), Medline (1966–2011) and the Cochrane Library. A systematic review was conducted with a special emphasis on mechanical complications.
Twenty-three case series and five studies of implant registries were included. Acetabular fractures and/or migration of the cup were reported in 9 out of 22 studies of the cup. Proximal femoral fractures and/or subsidence of the stem were reported in 14 out of 20 studies of the stem. Six studies compared failure rates of uncemented and cemented components due to aseptic loosening. The overall failure rate ratio (uncemented/cemented) for the cup was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.14–2.60) and for the stem 0.71 (95% CI: 0.06–8.55), both favoring uncemented fixation. The failure rates in case series without a control group were compared to the NICE criteria (failure rate/1). The overall failure rate for the cup was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.50–1.88) and for the stem 0.79 (95% CI: 0.44–1.41). Failure rates of aseptic loosening of higher than 1 (favoring cemented fixation) were reported in 6 out of 26 studies of the cup and in 2 out of 25 studies of the stem. In all these studies, the inferior implant designs were blamed, and not the type of fixation or the quality of the bone.
Despite substantial rates of mechanical stem complications, no evidence was found to establish that cementless components perform less well than cemented components. The results justify the use of cementless THA in RA patients.
Rheumatoid arthritis; Total hip arthroplasty; Cementless; Uncemented; Review
Treatment of ankle fractures is often based on fracture type and surgeon’s individual judgment. Literature concerning the treatment options and outcome are dated and frequently contradicting. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and functional outcome after AO-Weber B-type ankle fractures in operatively and conservatively treated patients and to determine which factors influenced outcome.
Patients and methods
A retrospective cohort study in patients with a AO-Weber B-type ankle fracture. Patient, fracture and treatment characteristics were recorded. Clinical and functional outcome was measured using the Olerud–Molander Ankle Score (OMAS), the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score (AOFAS) and a Visual Analog Score (VAS) for overall satisfaction (range 0–10).
Eighty-two patients were treated conservatively and 103 underwent operative treatment. The majority was female. Most conservatively treated fractures were AO-Weber B1.1 type fractures. Fractures with fibular displacement (mainly AO type B1.2 and Lauge-Hansen type SER-4) were predominantly treated operatively. The outcome scores in the non-operative group were OMAS 93, AOFAS 98, and VAS 8. Outcome in this group was independently negatively affected by age, affected side, BMI, fibular displacement, and duration of plaster immobilization. In the surgically treated group, the OMAS, AOFAS, and VAS scores were 90, 97, and 8, respectively, with outcome negatively influenced by duration of plaster immobilization.
Treatment selection based upon stability and surgeon’s judgment led to overall good clinical outcome in both treatment groups. Reducing the cast immobilization period may further improve outcome.
Ankle; Fracture; Outcome; Operative; Non-operative
Differences between radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons in the interpretation of MR images of the shoulder joint are experienced in daily clinical practice. This study set out to evaluate the inter-observer agreement between radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons in assessing pathology on MR imaging of the shoulder joint. Also, we determined the accuracy of the observers with arthroscopy as the standard of reference.
Materials and methods
Two radiologists and one orthopaedic surgeon reviewed 50 MR studies—25 conventional MR examinations and 25 MR arthrographies—of patients with shoulder complaints who had undergone MR imaging and subsequently arthroscopic surgery. The assessment was independent and blinded. All observers evaluated the MR examinations twice. Standard evaluation forms were used to score for pathology of rotator cuff, glenoid labrum, tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii and glenohumeral ligaments. The presence or absence of osteoarthritis, SLAP lesions, Bankart lesions, Hill-Sachs lesions or impingement was also noted. Intra- and inter-observer agreement, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Differences in percentages of correctly diagnosed lesions were tested for significance using McNemar’s test.
There was a poor inter-observer agreement between the orthopaedic surgeon and the radiologists in assessing Bankart lesions and ligamentous lesions. We found significant differences between the radiologists and the orthopaedic surgeon in the assessment of osteoarthritis, Hill-Sachs lesions and impingement.
The orthopaedic surgeon and radiologists differed in their interpretation of what defines a Bankart lesion and what defines a ligamentous lesion. The orthopaedic surgeon was significantly more accurate in assessing impingement.
Inter-observer agreement; Accuracy; Orthopaedic surgeons; Radiologists; Shoulder joint; MR imaging
Fractures of the ankle are fairly common injuries. Open ankle fractures are much less common and associated with severe injuries to surrounding tissues. We have performed a systematic review of the literature concerning the clinical results and complication rates in the treatment of open ankle fractures. We conducted a search limited to the following databases: Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Clinical Trial Register and Embase. These were searched from 1968 to April 2010 to identify studies relating to the treatment of open ankle fractures. Fifteen articles concerning 498 patients with treatment of an open ankle fracture were identified. The number of included patients varied from 11 to 64. There were 2 prospective and 13 retrospective studies. All articles were case series and classified as Level IV evidence. In 373 cases, open ankle fractures were treated by immediate internal fixation. In 125 cases, a conservative treatment or delayed/other fixation treatment was followed. Of those patients treated by immediate internal fixation, 81% had satisfactory result. Poor results (15%) were most commonly due to non-anatomic reductions, articular surface damage or deep infection. When conservative treatment was followed, 76% had satisfactory results. The most reported complications after immediate internal fixation were deep infection (8%) and skin necrosis (14%). There is a lack of high quality literature concerning the (operative) treatment of patients with open ankle fractures. Remarkable is that most authors reported satisfactory results after performance of their treatment protocol. Based on the available literature, we formulated guidelines regarding: timing of operative treatment, wound irrigation, the role of internal fixation, wound coverage and closure, the use of antibiotics and additional therapies.
Ankle fractures; Open/complex/compound; Treatment; Osteosynthesis; Operative procedures; Antibiotics
Malalignment of the hindfoot can be corrected with a calcaneal osteotomy (CO). A well-selected osteotomy angle in the sagittal plane will reduce the shear force in the osteotomy plane while walking. The purpose was to determine the presence of a relationship between the foot geometry and loading of the calcaneus, which influences the choice of the preferred CO angle.
A static free body force analysis was made of the posterior calcaneal fragment in the second half of the stance phase to determine the main loads: the plantar apeunorosis (PA) and Achilles tendon (AT). The third load is on the osteotomy surface which should be oriented such that the shear component of the force is zero. The force direction of the PA and AT was measured on 58 MRIs of the foot, and the force ratio between both structures was taken from the literature. In addition the PA-to-AT force ratio was estimated for different foot geometries to identify the relationship.
Based on the wish to minimize the shear force during walking, a mean CO angle was determined to be 33° (SD8) relative to the foot sole. In pes planus foot geometry, the angle should be higher than the mean. In pes cavus foot geometry, the angle should be smaller.
Foot geometry, in particular the relative foot heights is a determinant for the individual angle in performing the sliding calcaneal osteotomy. It is recommended to take into account the foot geometry (arch) when deciding on the CO angle for hindfoot correction.
Calcaneal osteotomy; Achilles tendon; Plantar apeunorosis; Force analysis; Foot model
The anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) is a only motor nerve innervating the deep muscles of the forearm. Its compression is rare. We present a retrospective analysis of 14 patients with an AIN syndrome with a variety of clinical manifestations who underwent operative and conservative treatment.
Patients and methods
Fourteen patients (six female, eight male, mean age 48 ± 9 years) were included. In six patients, the right limb was affected, and in eight patients the left limb. Conservative treatment was started for every patient. If no signs of recovery appeared within 3 months, operative exploration was performed. Final assessment was performed between 2 and 9 years after the onset of paralysis (mean duration of follow-up 46 ± 11 months). Patients were examined clinically for return of power, range of motion, pinch and grip strengths. Also the disability of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score was calculated.
Seven of our 14 patients had incomplete AIN palsy with isolated total loss of function of flexor pollicis longus (FPL), five of FPL and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)1 simultaneously, and two of FDP1. Weakness of FDP2 could be seen in four patients. Pronator teres was paralysed in two patients. Pain in the forearm was present in nine patients. Four patients had predisposing factors. Eight patients treated conservatively exhibited spontaneous recovery from their paralysis during 3–12 months after the onset. In six patients, the AIN was explored 12 weeks after the initial symptoms and released from compressing structures. Thirteen patients showed good limb function. In one patient with poor result a tendon transfer was necessary. The DASH score of patients treated conservatively and operatively presented no significant difference.
AIN syndrome can have different clinical manifestations. If no signs of spontaneous recovery appear within 12 weeks, operative treatment should be performed.
Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome; Upper extremity; Decompression; Conservative treatment
The use of antibiotic-coated implants may reduce the rate of infection and facilitate fracture healing after surgical treatment of tibial shaft fractures. A new biodegradable gentamicin-loaded coating of an implant (UTN PROtect®) was CE-certified in August 2005. In this prospective, non-randomized case series, we investigated the clinical, laboratory and radiological outcomes of 21 patients who underwent surgical treatment in closed or open tibial fractures, as well as revisions with the UTN PROtect® gentamicin-coated intramedullary nail.
Of 21 patients (13 men, 8 women), 19 completed the 6-month follow-up. The study population included patients with complex tibial fractures and late revision cases. Clinical outcomes comprised adverse events, including infections and the SF-36 physical score. Laboratory outcomes, including C-reactive protein and leukocyte count as inflammatory markers, haemoglobin and serum gentamicin, were measured at baseline and up to 6 months post operatively. Radiographic assessments of fracture healing and weight-bearing capacity were determined at 5 weeks, 3 and 6 months after surgery.
No implant-related infections occurred; one patient had superficial wound healing problems. Mean C-reactive protein levels remained below 5 mg/L throughout the study, with a peak at 4–7 days after surgery (4.4 mg/L; range 0.5–16.1 mg/L). Leukocyte counts and haemoglobin levels did not vary over time during the study. The mean SF-36 physical score at 6 months was 42.6 (range 19.4–56.7). Radiographic union defined as three or four bridged cortices was achieved in 11 patients (58%) after 6 months. The remaining eight patients showed partial fracture healing with one or two bridged cortices. Additionally, 13 patients (68%) demonstrated full weight-bearing capacity after 6 months.
The use of the UTN PROtect® intramedullary nail was associated with good clinical, laboratory and radiological outcomes after 6 months. These preliminary results support the use of gentamicin-coated implants as a new potential treatment option for the prevention of infection in trauma patients and in revision cases.
Level of Evidence
Open fracture; Intramedullary nailing; Bone infection; Antibiotic coating; Osteomyelitis; Tibia; Soft tissue management
A medial malleolar osteotomy is often indicated for operative exposure of posteromedial osteochondral defects and fractures of the talus. To obtain a congruent joint surface after refixation, the oblique osteotomy should be directed perpendicularly to the articular surface of the tibia at the intersection between the tibial plafond and medial malleolus. The purpose of this study was to determine this perpendicular direction in relation to the longitudinal tibial axis for use during surgery.
Materials and methods
Using anteroposterior mortise radiographs and coronal computed tomography (CT) scans of 46 ankles (45 patients) with an osteochondral lesion of the talus, two observers independently measured the intersection angle between the tibial plafond and medial malleolus. The bisector of this angle indicated the osteotomy perpendicular to the tibial articular surface. This osteotomy was measured relative to the longitudinal tibial axis on radiographs. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess reliability.
The mean osteotomy was 57.2 ± 3.2° relative to the tibial plafond on radiographs and 56.5 ± 2.8 on CT scans. This osteotomy corresponded to 30.4 ± 3.7° relative to the longitudinal tibial axis. The intraobserver (ICC, 0.90–0.93) and interobserver (ICC, 0.65–0.91) reliability of these measurements were good to excellent.
A medial malleolar osteotomy directed at a mean 30° relative to the tibial axis enters the joint perpendicularly to the tibial cartilage, and will likely result in a congruent joint surface after reduction.
Medial malleolus; Osteotomy; Ankle; Radiography; Preoperative planning; Surgical approach
Electron beam melting (E-beam) is a new technology to produce 3-dimensional surface topographies for cementless orthopedic implants.
The friction coefficients of two newly developed E-beam produced surface topographies were in vitro compared with sandblasted E-beam and titanium plasma sprayed controls. Bone ingrowth (direct bone–implant contact) was determined by implanting the samples in the femoral condyles of 6 goats for a period of 6 weeks.
Friction coefficients of the new structures were comparable to the titanium plasma sprayed control. The direct bone–implant contact was 23.9 and 24.5% for the new surface structures. Bone–implant contact of the sandblasted and titanium plasma sprayed control was 18.2 and 25.5%, respectively.
The frictional and bone ingrowth properties of the E-beam produced surface structures are similar to the plasma-sprayed control. However, since the maximal bone ingrowth had not been reached for the E-beam structures during the relatively short-term period, longer-term follow-up studies are needed to assess whether the E-beam structures lead to a better long-term performance than surfaces currently in use, such as titanium plasma spray coating.
Electron beam melting; Bone ingrowth; Friction; Surface characteristics; Prosthesis