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author:("windaus, Anne")
1.  Comparison of transformation frequencies among selected Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 
Although there are over 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, antimicrobial resistance is predominantly found in a limited number of serotypes/serogroups, namely 6, 9, 14, 19 and 23. There is no compelling mechanism to account for this restriction. We aimed to determine whether serotypes commonly associated with drug resistance have higher transformation frequencies than those that are susceptible to antimicrobial agents. An in vitro investigation of the genetic transformation frequency of drug-resistant serotypes compared with that of susceptible serotypes under the influence of synthetic competence-stimulating peptides was performed. The transforming DNA was genomic DNA carrying a Tn916-like transposon containing the mefE gene that confers resistance to erythromycin. It was observed that serotypes 6, 9, 14, 19 and 23, which are highly associated with drug resistance, do not exhibit a higher degree of transformation efficiency than other serotypes. These findings suggest that the association of serotype with drug resistance is likely due to prolonged exposure to transforming DNA resulting from longer nasopharyngeal carriage and to a greater selective pressure from antimicrobials, particularly in children. This is the first study to compare the transformation frequencies of pneumococcal clinical isolates using genomic DNA that carries the composite Tn916-like element.
PMCID: PMC2902549  PMID: 20472405
Streptococcus pneumoniae; Drug-resistant serotypes/serogroups; Transformation frequency; Tn916 transposon; mefE gene
2.  Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae across a hospital system: impact of post-acute care facilities on dissemination 
Resistance to carbapenems among Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae presents a serious therapeutic and infection control challenge. We describe the epidemiology and genetic basis of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae in a six-hospital healthcare system in Northeast Ohio.
Clinical isolates of A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae distributed across the healthcare system were collected from April 2007 to April 2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed followed by molecular analysis of carbapenemase genes. Genetic relatedness of isolates was established with repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), multilocus PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and PFGE. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients were reviewed.
Among 39 isolates of A. baumannii, two predominant genotypes related to European clone II were found. Eighteen isolates contained blaOXA-23, and four isolates possessed blaOXA-24/40. Among 29 K. pneumoniae isolates with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, two distinct genotypes containing blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 were found. Patients with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were elderly, possessed multiple co-morbidities, were frequently admitted from and discharged to post-acute care facilities, and experienced prolonged hospital stays (up to 25 days) with a high mortality rate (up to 35%).
In this outbreak of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae across a healthcare system, we illustrate the important role post-acute care facilities play in the dissemination of multidrug-resistant phenotypes.
PMCID: PMC2904665  PMID: 20513702
LTCF; LTACH; molecular epidemiology; MLST; PFGE; rep-PCR; KPC
3.  Evaluation of Updated Interpretative Criteria for Categorizing Klebsiella pneumoniae with Reduced Carbapenem Susceptibility ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(12):4417-4425.
We studied the accuracy of various susceptibility testing methods, including the 2009, 2010, and updated 2010 CLSI recommendations, to identify Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems associated with different mechanisms of resistance. Forty-three wild-type (WT) strains, 42 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, 18 ESBL producers with outer membrane porin protein loss (ESBL/Omp strains), and 42 blaKPC-possessing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) isolates were evaluated. Imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), ertapenem (ERT), and doripenem (DOR) were tested by broth microdilution (BMD), Etest, and disk diffusion (DD), and the modified Hodge test (MHT) was performed using IPM and MEM disks. Results were interpreted according to original as well as recently updated interpretative criteria. MHT was positive for all 42 KPC-Kp isolates and 10 of 18 ESBL/Omp strains and therefore had poor specificity in differentiating between KPC-Kp and ESBL/Omp isolates. Based on the updated CLSI standards, phenotypic susceptibility testing by BMD and DD differentiated most carbapenem-susceptible from carbapenem-nonsusceptible K. pneumoniae isolates without the need for MHT, while the Etest method characterized many KPC-Kp isolates as susceptible, and breakpoints may need to be lowered for this method. However, both the original and updated CLSI criteria do not adequately differentiate between isolates in the KPC-Kp group, which are unlikely to respond to carbapenem therapy, and those in the ESBL/Omp group, which are likely to respond to carbapenem therapy if MICs are within pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets. Further studies are required to determine if there is a clinical need to differentiate between KPC-Kp and ESBL/Omp groups.
PMCID: PMC3008460  PMID: 20881179
4.  Activity of Ceftaroline against Recent Emerging Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States▿  
The in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 891 pneumococci collected in 2008 from 22 centers in the United States was investigated. Ceftaroline was the most potent agent tested, with the MICs being <0.008 to 0.5 μg/ml and the MIC90s being <0.008 to 0.25 μg/ml against 11 prevailing serotypes. The overall rates of susceptibility were as follows: penicillin G, 86.2%; ceftriaxone, 90.7%; cefuroxime, 70.1%; erythromycin, 61.6%; clindamycin, 79.2%; levofloxacin, 99.4%; and vancomycin, 100%. Serotype 19A isolates were the least susceptible. These results support the use of ceftaroline for the treatment of pneumococcal infections, including those caused by pneumococci resistant to other agents.
PMCID: PMC2876371  PMID: 20308374
5.  Validation of Factor 6d Antiserum for Serotyping Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6C▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(4):1456-1457.
Factor 6d antiserum reacts with the new Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C. Serogroup 6 isolates, consisting of 49 6A, 42 6B and 98 6C strains from the United States and Israel, serotyped in parallel by PCR and capsular swelling methods, were all identified correctly. The new factor 6d antiserum accurately identifies serotype 6C.
PMCID: PMC2849593  PMID: 20164277
6.  Occurrence, Distribution, and Origins of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6C, a Recently Recognized Serotype▿  
The prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C, a recently recognized serotype that cross-reacts serologically with serotype 6A, was investigated. Isolates of serotype 6A in various collections were recovered, and serotype 6C was differentiated from 6A by multiplex PCR of DNA extracts by using appropriate primers. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution, and selected isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, repetitive sequence-based PCR typing, and rapid multilocus sequence typing (MLST) by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of PCR products. A total of 60 serotype 6C isolates were found: 30 of 122 Cleveland isolates collected from 1979 to 2007, 19 of 39 pediatric isolates collected nationwide in 2005 and 2006, and 11 pediatric isolates from Massachusetts collected in 2006 and 2007. Only four isolates were recovered prior to introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in 2000; the earliest isolate was recovered in 1989. The sources of the isolates included blood (n = 5), the lower respiratory tract (n = 27), the sinus (n = 5), the ear (n = 2), and the nasopharynx (n = 18); isolates were recovered from 49 children and 11 adults. Pediatric isolates were found in all six major U.S. geographic regions. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed that 22 isolates were nonsusceptible to penicillin, macrolides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 8 had other resistance patterns, and 30 were fully susceptible. The three typing methods used showed similar clusters of up to eight isolates per cluster. MLST showed five clusters related to serotype 6A, two clusters related to serotype 6B, one cluster related to serotype 3, and one cluster related to serotype 34. This study documents the occurrence, nationwide distribution, diversity, likely origins, and increasing incidence after 2001 of this recently recognized serotype. Serotype 6C warrants consideration for addition to future conjugate pneumococcal vaccines.
PMCID: PMC2620864  PMID: 18971356
7.  Changes in Serotypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains in Cleveland: a Quarter Century of Experience▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(3):982-990.
The serotypes and susceptibilities to penicillin, macrolides, and clindamycin of 1,655 invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered between 1979 and 2004 were determined. A precipitous decrease of 61% in the number of isolates was found following 2000, the year of 7-valent protein-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) introduction (139 versus 55 per 2-year period prior to versus after 2000; P < 0.001). This decrease was 84% in children <5 years old (80 versus 13 per 2-year period; P < 0.001) and 18 to 23% in other age groups (P, not significant). PCV7 serotypes decreased by 76% overall (103 versus 25 per 2-year period; P < 0.001) and by 92% in children <5 years old (65 versus 5 per 2-year period; P < 0.001), with significant decreases in six of the seven PCV serotypes. Other serotypes, except for type 19A, decreased from 32 to 22 per 2-year period, while type 19A increased from 4 to 8 per 2-year period, although none of these changes reached significance. Drug resistance emerged slowly, with the first penicillin-intermediate strain isolated in 1980 and the first macrolide/lincosamide-resistant strain isolated in 1984. The first penicillin-resistant strain was isolated in 1993. Resistance increased steadily thereafter until 2003-2004, when 51.1% of isolates were penicillin nonsusceptible and 53.3% were macrolide resistant. Clindamycin resistance remained low until 2003-2004, when 26.7% of strains were resistant; this was associated with the emergence of multidrug-resistant type 19A strains. This study documents the emergence of resistance over a quarter century among invasive pneumococci in the Cleveland area, as well as the reduction in disease caused by PCV7 serotypes following the introduction of PCV7 in 2000.
PMCID: PMC2268364  PMID: 18234877
8.  In Vitro Activity of the New Quinolone WCK 771 against Staphylococci 
The activity of WCK 771, an experimental quinolone developed to overcome quinolone resistance in staphylococci and other bacteria, was determined against quinolone-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. WCK 771 MICs for 50 and 90% of the strains tested (MIC50 and MIC90, respectively) were 0.008 and 0.015 μg/ml for S. aureus (n = 43) and 0.015 and 0.03 μg/ml for S. epidermidis (n = 44) for quinolone-susceptible isolates, compared to ciprofloxacin values of 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml and 0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. Values for levofloxacin were 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml and 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml, those for clinafloxacin were 0.015 and 0.03 μg/ml and 0.015 and 0.03 μg/ml, those for moxifloxacin were 0.03 and 0.06 μg/ml and 0.06 and 0.12 μg/ml, and those for gatifloxacin were 0.06 and 0.12 μg/ml and 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. The WCK 771 MIC50 and MIC90, respectively, were 0.5 and 1 μg/ml for both species of staphylococci (n = 73 for S. aureus, n = 70 for S. epidermidis) for isolates highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC50 and MIC90, >32 and >32 μg/ml, respectively). Values for levofloxacin were 8 and 32 μg/ml and 8 and 32 μg/ml, those for clinafloxacin were 1 and 2 μg/ml and 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, those for moxifloxacin 4 and >4 μg/ml and 4 and >4 μg/ml, and those for gatifloxacin were 4 and >4 μg/ml and 2 and >4 μg/ml, respectively. WCK 771 and clinafloxacin demonstrated MICs of 1 μg/ml against three vancomycin-intermediate strains. WCK 771 showed concentration-independent killing for up to 24 h at 2, 4, and 8 times the MICs against quinolone-resistant staphylococci and was also bactericidal after 8 h for high-density inocula (108 CFU/ml) of quinolone-resistant strains at 5 μg/ml, whereas moxifloxacin at 7.5 μg/ml was bacteriostatic. WCK 771 was not a substrate of the NorA efflux pump as evident from the similar MICs against both an efflux-positive and an efflux-negative strain. Overall, WCK 771 was the most potent quinolone tested against the staphylococci tested, regardless of quinolone susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC514757  PMID: 15328094
9.  Effects of Various Test Media on the Activities of 21 Antimicrobial Agents against Haemophilus influenzae 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(9):3269-3276.
As considerable variation in the antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae has been reported, the effects of various test media on the susceptibility of H. influenzae were studied. MICs were determined by three laboratories for 21 antimicrobial agents against a panel of 100 selected isolates. Testing was performed using a reference NCCLS frozen broth microdilution method with Haemophilus test medium (HTM) broth and dried commercial MIC trays rehydrated with the following media: in-house and commercially prepared HTM broth, Mueller-Hinton broth with 2% lysed horse blood and NAD, IsoSensitest broth with 2% lysed horse blood and NAD, and IsoSensitest broth-based HTM. Overall, all results were very reproducible, with the MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested are inhibited (MIC50), MIC90, and geometric mean MIC being within one doubling dilution by all six methods and at all three testing centers for 15 of the 21 agents tested. Interlaboratory differences were more marked than intralaboratory differences or differences among media. Cefprozil, cefaclor, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole results differed the most, while results for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefdinir, cefixime, ceftriaxone, and clarithromycin were the most reproducible. However, these variations in results caused considerable differences in susceptibility rates for agents for which NCCLS susceptible breakpoints were close to the geometric mean MIC, particularly for cefaclor and cefprozil. This was much less of a problem when pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic breakpoints were used. Reproducible susceptibility results were obtained for a wide range of agents against H. influenzae in three laboratories using a variety of media that support the growth of this fastidious species.
PMCID: PMC130805  PMID: 12202564

Results 1-9 (9)