Comprehensive information on the effects of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) polymorphisms, clinical factors, and drug-drug interactions on efavirenz concentrations in HIV/tuberculosis-coinfected (HIV/TB) patients is unavailable. A total of 139 HIV/TB adults, 101 of whom received a rifampin-containing anti-TB regimen, were prospectively enrolled to receive efavirenz (600 mg)/tenofovir/lamivudine. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP2B6 were genotyped. Plasma efavirenz concentrations were measured at 12 weeks. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) efavirenz concentration was 2.3 (1.4 to 3.9) mg/liter. The SNPs (frequencies of heterozygous and homozygous mutants) were 64C>T (10% and 1%), 499C>G (0% and 0%), 516G>T (47% and 8%), 785A>G (54% and 10%), 1375A>G (0% and 0%), 1459C>T (3% and 0%), 3003C>T (44% and 27%), 18492T>C (39% and 6%), and 21563C>T (57% and 5%). The four most frequent CYP2B6 haplotypes identified were *1/*6 (41%), *1/*1 (35%), *1/*2 (7%), and *6/*6 (7%). The heterozygous/homozygous mutation associated with low efavirenz concentrations was 18492T>C (P < 0.001), and those associated with high efavirenz concentrations were 516G>T, 785A>G, and 21563C>T (all P < 0.05). Haplotype *1/*1 was associated with low efavirenz concentrations, and *6/*6, *1/*6, and *5/6 were associated with high efavirenz concentrations. As shown by multivariate analysis, low efavirenz concentrations were significantly associated with the *1/*1 haplotype (beta = −1.084, P = 0.027) and high body weight (beta = −0.076, P = 0.002). In conclusion, pharmacogenetic markers of CYP2B6 have the greatest impact with respect to inducing low plasma efavirenz concentrations in HIV/TB Thai patients.
The emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) has raised concerns after rapid global antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are limited data on the epidemiology of primary HIVDR in resource-limited settings in Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and compare the distribution of HIVDR in a cohort of ART-naïve Asian patients with recent and chronic HIV-1 infection.
Multicenter prospective study was conducted in ART-naïve patients between 2007 and 2010. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were assessed using the World Health Organization 2009 list for surveillance of primary HIVDR.
A total of 458 patients with recent and 1,340 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of primary HIVDR was 4.6%. Recently infected patients had a higher prevalence of primary HIVDR (6.1% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.065) and frequencies of RAMs to protease inhibitors (PIs; 3.9% vs. 1.0%, p<0.001). Among those with recent infection, the most common RAMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were M184I/V and T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (1.1%), to non-NRTIs was Y181C (1.3%), and to PIs was M46I (1.5%). Of patients with chronic infection, T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (0.8%; NRTI), Y181C (0.5%; non-NRTI), and M46I (0.4%; PI) were the most common RAMs. K70R (p = 0.016) and M46I (p = 0.026) were found more frequently among recently infected patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with chronic infection, heterosexual contact as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection was less likely to be associated with primary HIVDR compared to other risk categories (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20–0.59, p<0.001).
The prevalence of primary HIVDR was higher among patients with recent than chronic HIV-1 infection in our cohort, but of borderline statistical significance. Chronically infected patients with non-heterosexual risks for HIV were more likely to have primary HIVDR.
Accurate interpretation of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing is challenging, yet important for patient care. We compared genotyping interpretation, based on the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database (Stanford HIVdb), and virtual phenotyping, based on the Janssen Diagnostics BVBA’s vircoTYPE™ HIV-1, and investigated their level of agreement in antiretroviral (ARV) naive patients in Asia, where non-B subtypes predominate.
Sequences from 1301 ARV-naive patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance – Monitoring Study (TASER-M) were analysed by both interpreting systems. Interpretations from both Stanford HIVdb and vircoTYPE™ HIV-1 were initially grouped into 2 levels: susceptible and non-susceptible. Discrepancy was defined as a discordant result between the susceptible and non-susceptible interpretations from the two systems for the same ARV. Further analysis was performed when interpretations from both systems were categorised into 3 levels: susceptible, intermediate and resistant; whereby discrepancies could be categorised as major discrepancies and minor discrepancies. Major discrepancy was defined as having a susceptible result from one system and resistant from the other. Minor discrepancy corresponded to having an intermediate interpretation in one system, with a susceptible or resistant result in the other. The level of agreement was analysed using the prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK).
Overall, the agreement was high, with each ARV being in “almost perfect agreement”, using Landis and Koch’s categorisation. Highest discordance was observed for efavirenz (75/1301, 5.8%), all arising from susceptible Stanford HIVdb versus non-susceptible vircoTYPE™ HIV-1 predictions. Protease Inhibitors had highest level of concordance with PABAKs all above 0.99, followed by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors with PABAKs above 0.97 and non-NRTIs with the lowest PABAK of 0.88. The 68/75 patients with discordant efavirenz results harboured the V179D/E mutations compared to 7/1226 with no efavirenz discrepancy (p-value <0.001). In the 3-level comparison, all but one of the discrepancies was minor.
The two systems agreed well with lowest concordance observed for efavirenz. When interpreting HIVDR, especially in non-B subtypes, clinical correlation is crucial, in particular when efavirenz resistance is interpreted based on V179D/E.
Asia; HIV; Resistance; Interpretation; Algorithm
The aim of the present study was to assess fluconazole pharmacokinetic measures in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); and the correlation of these measures with clinical outcomes of invasive fungal infections.
A randomized trial was conducted in HIV-infected patients receiving 3 different regimens of fluconazole plus amphotericin B (AmB) for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. Regimens included fluconazole 400 mg/day+AmB (AmB+Fluc400) or fluconazole 800 mg/day+AmB (AmB+Fluc800) (14 days followed by fluconazole alone at the randomized dose for 56 days); or AmB alone for 14 days followed by fluconazole 400 mg/day for 56 days. Serum (at 24 hours after dosing) and CSF samples were taken at Baseline and days 14 and 70 (serum only) for fluconazole measurement, using gas-liquid chromatography.
Sixty-four treated patients had fluconazole measurements; 11 in AmB group, 12 in AmB+Fluc400 group and 41 in AmB+Fluc800 group. Day 14 serum concentration geometric means were 24.7 mg/L for AmB+Fluc400 and 37.0 mg/L for AmB+Fluc800. Correspondingly, CSF concentration geometric means were 25.1 mg/L and 32.7 mg/L. Day 14 Serum and CSF concentrations were highly correlated for AmB+Fluc800 (p<0.001, r=0.873) and for AmB+Fluc400 (p=0.005, r=0.943). Increased Serum AUC appears associated with decreased mortality at day 70 (p=0.061, odds-ratio=2.19) as well as with increased study composite endpoint success at Days 42 and 70 (p=0.081, odds-ratio=2.25 and 0.058, 4.08; respectively).
High fluconazole dosage (800 mg/day) for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis was associated with high serum and CSF fluconazole concentration. Overall, high serum and CSF concentration appear associated with increased survival and primary composite endpoint success.
The prevalence of and risk factors for lipodystrophy (LD) among patients receiving combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) in the Asia-Pacific region are largely unknown. LD diagnosis was based on the adverse event definition from the US NIH Division of AIDS (2004 version), and only cases with a severity grade of ≥ 3 were included. TAHOD patients who had recently commenced cART with ≥ 3 drugs after 1996 from sites which had ever reported LD were included in the analysis. Covariates for the forward multivariate logistic regression model included demographic variables, CDC disease classification, baseline CD4 and viral load, hepatitis B/C virus co-infection, and regimen and duration of cART. LD was diagnosed in 217 (10.5%) of 2072 patients. The median duration of cART was 3.8 (interquartile range, 2.2–5.3) years (stavudine, 2.0 (1.0–3.5) years; zidovudine, 1.8 (0.6–3.9) years; and protease inhibitors (PI), 2.6 (1.3–4.5) years). In the multivariate model, factors independently associated with LD included use of stavudine (≤ 2 years vs. no experience: OR 25.46, p<0.001, > 2 years vs. no experience: OR 14.92, p<0.001), use of PI (> 2.6 years vs. no experience: OR 0.26, p<0.001), and total duration of cART (> vs. ≤ 3.8 years: OR 4.84, p<0.001). The use of stavudine was strongly associated with LD in our cohort. Stavudine-sparing cART strategies are warranted to prevent the occurrence of LD in the Asia-Pacific region.
Lipodystrophy; HIV; Adverse effects; Combined antiretroviral therapy; Asia-Pacific
Of 682 antiretroviral-na_ve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in a prospective, multicenter HIV-1 drug resistance monitoring study involving eight sites in Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand, the prevalence of patients with ≥1 drug resistance mutation(s) was 13.8%. Primary HIV drug resistance is emerging after rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy in Asia.
(See editorial commentary by Jordan on pages 1058–1060.)
Of 682 antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in a prospective, multicenter human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance monitoring study involving 8 sites in Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand, the prevalence of patients with ≥1 drug resistance mutation was 13.8%. Primary HIV drug resistance is emerging after rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy use in Asia.
We continue the previously described prospective cohort study of ritonovir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) monotherapy for second-line therapy in HIV-infected patients with prior failure and extensive resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), with the objective being to determine the three-year treatment responses.
There were 40 patients with a mean ± SD age of 37 ± 8 years. Median (IQR) baseline CD4 was 123 (37-245) cells/mm3 and median (IQR) HIV-1 RNA was 55,800 (9,670-100,000) copies/mL. All patients received twice daily LPV/r 400/100 mg and recycled lamivudine 150 mg. By intend-to-treat analysis at 144 weeks, 26 (65%) and 22 (56%) patients achieved HIV-1 RNA at < 400 and < 50 copies/mL, respectively. In as-treated analysis, the corresponding rates were 26 of 28 (93%) and 22 of 28 (78%), respectively. Low-level viral rebound (HIV-1 RNA 50-400 copies/mL) was found in 6 (15%), 6 (15%), and 4 (10%) patients at week 48, 96 and week 144, respectively. Medians CD4 at week 48, 96, and 144 were 351, 481, and 584 cells/mm3 and significantly changed from baseline (all, P < 0.05). There were increments of mean triglycerides at 48 weeks and 144 weeks from baseline (P < 0.05). No major protease resistance-associated mutations emerged after virologic failure.
LPV/r monotherapy with recycled lamivudine can maintain long-term virologic suppression in a relatively small proportion of patients failing NNRTI-based regimen and having limit option for active NRTI. More antiretroviral classes are needed be accessible in resource-limited countries.
HIV; Lopinavir; Monotherapy; Lamivudine; Resistance; Thailand
After rapid scaling up of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients, the data of primary HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand is still limited. This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated factors of primary HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand.
A prospective observational study was conducted among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected Thai patients from 2007 to 2010. HIV-1 subtypes and mutations were assayed by sequencing a region of HIV-1 pol gene. Surveillance drug resistance mutations recommended by the World Health Organization for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in 2009 were used in all analyses. Primary HIV-1 drug resistance was defined as the presence of one or more surveillance drug resistance mutations.
Of 466 patients with a mean age of 38.8 years, 58.6% were males. Risks of HIV-1 infection included heterosexual (77.7%), homosexual (16.7%), and intravenous drug use (5.6%). Median (IQR) CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA were 176 (42-317) cells/mm3 and 68,600 (19,515-220,330) copies/mL, respectively. HIV-1 subtypes were CRF01_AE (86.9%), B (8.6) and other recombinants (4.5%). The prevalence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance was 4.9%; most of these (73.9%) had surveillance drug resistance mutations to only one class of antiretroviral drugs. The prevalence of patients with NRTI, NNRTI, and PI surveillance drug resistance mutations was 1.9%, 2.8% and 1.7%, respectively. From logistic regression analysis, there was no factor significantly associated with primary HIV-1 drug resistance. There was a trend toward higher prevalence in females [odds ratio 2.18; 95% confidence interval 0.896-5.304; p = 0.086].
There is a significant emergence of primary HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand after rapid scaling up of antiretroviral therapy. Although HIV-1 genotyping prior to antiretroviral therapy initiation is not routinely recommended in Thailand, our results raise concerns about the risk of early treatment failure in patients with primary HIV-1 drug resistance. Interventions to prevent the transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance and continuation of surveillance for primary HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand are indicated.
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis is recommended for patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3. This study examines the proportion of patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) receiving PCP prophylaxis, and its effect on PCP and mortality.
TAHOD patients with prospective follow up had data extracted for prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole, dapsone or pentamidine. The proportion of patients on prophylaxis was calculated for each calendar year since 2003 among patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3. The effect of prophylaxis on PCP and survival were assessed using random-effect Poisson regression models.
There were a total of 4050 patients on prospective follow up, and 90% of them were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Of those with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3, 58% to 72% in any given year received PCP prophylaxis, predominantly co-trimoxazole. During follow up, 62 patients developed PCP (0.5 per 100 person-years) and 169 died from all causes (1.36/100 person-years). After stratifying by site and adjusting for age, CD4 count, CDC stage and antiretroviral treatment, those without prophylaxis had no higher risk of PCP, but had a significantly higher risk of death (incident rate ratio 10.8, p < 0.001). PCP prophylaxis had greatest absolute benefit in patients with CD4 counts of less than 50 cells/mm3, lowering mortality rates from 33.5 to 6.3 per 100 person-years.
Approximately two-thirds of TAHOD patients with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 received PCP prophylaxis. Patients without prophylaxis had significantly higher mortality, even in the era of combination ART. Although PCP may be under-diagnosed, these data suggest that prophylaxis is associated with important survival benefits.
Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS) may present as a clinical deterioration or new presentation of cryptococcal disease following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is believed to be caused by recovery of cryptococcus-specific immune responses. We have reviewed the existing literature on C-IRIS to inform the development of a consensus case definition specific for paradoxical cryptococcal IRIS in patients with known cryptococcal disease prior to ART, and a second definition for incident cases of cryptococcosis developing during ART (here termed ART-associated cryptococcosis), a proportion of which are likely to be “unmasking” C-IRIS. These structured case definitions are intended for use in future clinical, epidemiologic and immunopathologic studies of C-IRIS, harmonizing diagnostic criteria, and facilitating comparisons between studies. As with tuberculosis-associated IRIS, these proposed definitions should be regarded as preliminary until further insights into the immunopathology of IRIS permit their refinement.
HIV; cryptococcosis; diagnosis; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; HAART
Hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination is an important preventive intervention for HIV-infected population. Data regarding booster HBV vaccine for persons with low HBV surface antibody (sAb) titers after vaccination in this immunocompromised population is lacking.
We randomized 60 HIV-infected subjects lacking HBV protection after completion of 3 doses of HBV vaccine to receive a booster dose of HBV vaccine with 250mcg GM-CSF as an adjuvant or booster vaccine alone.
GM-CSF was safe with expected side effects. However, only 35% of persons receiving GM-CSF developed protective sAb while 50% in vaccine only arm developed protection (P = 0.47). Overall, only 28% of subjects maintained protective sAb 1 year after vaccination.
GM-CSF failed to improve responses to the booster HBV vaccination. Overall, response was poor with only 42% of persons responding at one month post-vaccination confirming booster vaccination with the current HBV vaccine has poor immunogenicity among HIV-infected persons. Further research is needed to develop optimal vaccination strategies in HIV-infected persons.
HIV; HBV vaccination; GM-CSF; adjuvant.
This retrospective survey describes types of cancers diagnosed in HIV-infected subjects in Asia, and assesses risk factors for cancer in HIV-infected subjects using contemporaneous HIV-infected controls without cancer.
TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) sites retrospectively reviewed clinic medical records to determine cancer diagnoses since 2000. For each diagnosis, the following data were recorded: date, type, stage, method of diagnosis, demographic data, medical history, and HIV-related information. For risk factor analyses, two HIV-infected control subjects without cancer diagnoses were also selected. Cancers were grouped as AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), and non-ADCs. Non-ADCs were further categorized as being infection related (NADC-IR) and unrelated (NADC-IUR).
A total of 617 patients were included in this study: 215 cancer cases and 402 controls from 13 sites. The majority of cancer cases were male (71%). The mean age (SD) for cases was 39 (10.6), 46 (11.5) and 44 (13.7) for ADCs, NADC-IURs and NADCs-IR, respectively. The majority (66%) of cancers were ADCs (16% Kaposi sarcoma, 40% non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 9% cervical cancer). The most common NADCs were lung (6%), breast (5%) and hepatocellular carcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma (2% each). There were also three (1.4%) cases of leiomyosarcoma reported in this study. In multivariate analyses, individuals with CD4 counts above 200 cells/mm3 were approximately 80% less likely to be diagnosed with an ADC (p < 0.001). Older age (OR: 1.39, p = 0.001) and currently not receiving antiretroviral treatment (OR: 0.29, p = 0.006) were independent predictors of NADCs overall, and similarly for NADCs-IUR. Lower CD4 cell count and higher CDC stage (p = 0.041) were the only independent predictors of NADCs-IR.
The spectrum of cancer diagnoses in the Asia region currently does not appear dissimilar to that observed in non-Asian HIV populations. One interesting finding was the cases of leiomyosarcoma, a smooth-muscle tumour, usually seen in children and young adults with AIDS, yet overall quite rare. Further detailed studies are required to better describe the range of cancers in this region, and to help guide the development of screening programmes.
During stavudine phase-out plan in developing countries, tenofovir is used to substitute stavudine. However, knowledge regarding whether there is any difference of the frequency of renal injury between tenofovir/lamivudine/efavirenz and tenofovir/lamivudine/nevirapine is lacking.
This prospective study was conducted among HIV-infected patients who were switched NRTI from stavudine/lamivudine to tenofovir/lamivudine in efavirenz-based (EFV group) and nevirapine-based regimen (NVP group) after two years of an ongoing randomized trial. All patients were assessed for serum phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinalysis at time of switching, 12 and 24 weeks.
Of 62 patients, 28 were in EFV group and 34 were in NVP group. Baseline characteristics and eGFR were not different between two groups. At 12 weeks, comparing mean ± SD measures between EFV group and NVP group were: phosphorus of 3.16 ± 0.53 vs. 2.81 ± 0.42 mg/dL (P = 0.005), %patients with proteinuria were 15% vs. 38% (P = 0.050). At 24 weeks, mean ± SD phosphorus and median (IQR) eGFR between the corresponding groups were 3.26 ± 0.78 vs. 2.84 ± 0.47 mg/dL (P = 0.011) and 110 (99-121) vs. 98 (83-112) mL/min (P = 0.008). In NVP group, comparing week 12 to time of switching, there was a decrement of phosphorus (P = 0.007) and eGFR (P = 0.034). By multivariate analysis, 'receiving nevirapine', 'old age' and 'low baseline serum phosphorus' were associated with hypophosphatemia at 24 weeks (P < 0.05). Receiving nevirapine and low baseline eGFR were associated with lower eGFR at 24 weeks (P < 0.05).
The frequency of tenofovir-associated renal impairment was higher in patients receiving tenofovir/lamivudine/nevirapine compared to tenofovir/lamivudine/efavirenz. Further studies regarding patho-physiology are warranted.
Regimens containing protease inhibitors (PI) are less commonly used in developing countries due to high cost and less availability. We evaluated characteristics of patients initiating PI-based therapy according to previous antiretroviral (ARV) exposure; factors associated with initiating a PI-containing regimen using newer versus older PIs, and proportion of patients with detectable viral loads (VL) after initiating a PI-based regimen.
This analysis includes all patients who have initiated a PI-based regimen. ARV exposure was categorised: naïve (no previous ARV), 1st, 2nd, ≥ 3rd switches; a switch was defined as starting or stopping any drug in a regimen. Newer PIs were defined as those approved by the US FDA after 1 January 2000. Detectable VL at 12 months was defined as VL ≥ 400 copies/mL. Characteristics at PI initiation were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with initiating a newer PI and detectable VL at 12 months after PI initiation.
1106 patients initiated PI-based therapy; of these, 618 (56%) were naïve patients. Overall, 22% (176) of patients had detectable VL at 12 months following the PI initiation. Being from a high income country (vs. mid/low income, OR = 1.80, p = 0.034) were more likely to be associated with detectable VL.
The use of PIs in this cohort is dictated by accessibility and affordability issues particularly for the newer PIs. Short-term virological outcomes following PI-therapy in our cohort were good, and were associated with CD4 count at time of initiation.
HIV; HAART; Disease progression; Protease inhibitor
Random effects models were used to explore how the shape of CD4 cell count responses after commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) develop over time, and in particular the role of baseline and follow-up covariates.
Patients in APHOD who first commenced cART after January 1, 1997, and who had a baseline CD4 cell count and viral load measure and at least one follow-up measure between 6 and 24 months, were included. CD4 cell counts were determined at every 6-month period following the commencement of cART for up to 6 years.
1638 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria with a median follow up time of 58 months. Lower post-cART mean CD4 cell counts were found to be associated with increasing age (p<0.001), pre-cART hepatitis C co-infection (p=0.038), prior AIDS (p=0.019), baseline viral load ≤ 100,000 copies/ml (p<0.001), and the Asia-Pacific region compared with Australia (p=0.005). A highly significant 3-way interaction between the effects of time, baseline CD4 cell count and post-cART viral burden (p<0.0001) was demonstrated. Higher long-term mean CD4 cell counts were associated with lower baseline CD4 cell count and consistently undetectable viral loads. Among patients with consistently detectable viral load CD4 cell counts appeared to converge for all baseline CD4 levels.
Our analyses suggest that the long-term shape of post-cART CD4 cell count changes depends only on a 3-way interaction between baseline CD4 cell count, viral load response and time.
antiretroviral therapy; long-term CD4 response; viral load response
Seventy-one human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with tuberculosis who were receiving a rifampin (rifampicin)-containing regimen were initiated on treatment with efavirenz at 600 mg/day plus stavudine-lamivudine. Fasting efavirenz concentrations at 12 h after dosing (C12) were monitored. The mean ± standard deviation efavirenz C12 at weeks 6 and 12 and after rifampin discontinuation were 4.5 ± 4.3, 3.8 ± 3.5, and 3.5 ± 2.7 mg/liter, respectively. High body weight was associated with a low efavirenz C12 at weeks 6 and 12 (P = 0.003, r = −0.255). The efavirenz C12 regression prediction line at 1 mg/liter intercepted a mean body weight of 57.5 kg.
Different strategies of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir monotherapy have been explored; however, data regarding salvage therapy among HIV-infected patients who failed nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is still limited.
A prospective study was conducted among HIV-infected patients who failed NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy with M184V, TAMs, and NNRTI mutations, and were naïve to protease inhibitor. LPV/r at 400/100 mg and lamivudine 150 mg were given twice daily. CD4 and HIV-1 RNA were monitored at week 0, 12, 24, and 48. LPV Cmin was assayed for the first 14 patients using HPLC.
There were 40 patients with a mean age of 37 years and 70% were male. Median (IQR) baseline CD4 was 123 (37-245) cells/mm3 and median (IQR) HIV-1 RNA was 55,800 (9,670-100,000) copies/mL. By intend-to-treat analysis, 30 (75%) and 24 (60%) patients achieved HIV-1 RNA at <400 and <50 copies/mL, respectively. In as-treated analysis, the corresponding rates were 29 (83%) and 23 (67%), respectively. Low-level viral rebound was found in 6 (15%) patients at week 48. Medians CD4 at week 12, 24, 36 and 48 were 249, 283, 307, and 351 cells/mm3 and significantly changed from baseline (all, P < 0.05). At 6 and 12 weeks, median (min-max) LPV Cmin was 6.52 (1.62-11.64) mg/L and 5.79 (0.75-16.31) mg/L, respectively. There were increments of mean total cholesterol and triglyceride at 48 weeks from baseline (P < 0.05).
LPV/r monotherapy with recycled lamivudine can maintain virological suppression in a substantial proportion of patients failing NNRTI-based regimen and provides adequate plasma concentrations of LPV although the incidence of low-level viremia is relatively high.
The aim of our study was to develop, on the basis of simple clinical data, predictive short-term risk equations for AIDS or death in Asian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were included in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database.
Inclusion criteria were highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation and completion of required laboratory tests. Predictors of short-term AIDS or death were assessed using Poisson regression. Three different models were developed: a clinical model, a CD4 cell count model, and a CD4 cell count and HIV RNA level model. We separated patients into low-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups according to the key risk factors Identified.
In the clinical model, patients with severe anemia or a body mass index (BMI; calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) ≤18 were at very high risk, and patients who were aged <40 years or were male and had mild anemia were at high risk. In the CD4 cell count model, patients with a CD4 cell count <50 cells/µL, severe anemia, or a BMI ≤18 were at very high risk, and patients who had a CD4 cell count of 51–200 cells/µL, were aged <40 years, or were male and had mild anemia were at high risk. In the CD4 cell count and HIV RNA level model, patients with a CD4 cell count <50 cells/µL, a detectable viral load, severe anemia, or a BMI ≤18 were at very high risk, and patients with a CD4 cell count of 51–200 cells/µL and mild anemia were at high risk. The incidence of new AIDS or death in the clinical model was 1.3, 4.9, and 15.6 events per 100 person-years in the low-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups, respectively. In the CD4 cell count model the respective incidences were 0.9, 2.7, and 16.02 events per 100 person-years; in the CD4 cell count and HIV RNA level model, the respective incidences were 0.8, 1.8, and 6.2 events per 100 person-years.
These models are simple enough for widespread use in busy clinics and should allow clinicians to identify patients who are at high risk of AIDS or death in Asia and the Pacific region and in resource-poor settings.
To assess the risk and the prognostic significance of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patients from The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database, a multi-centre prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving HIV care in the Asia-Pacific region.
The risk of TB diagnosis after recruitment was assessed in patients with prospective follow-up. TB diagnosis was fitted as a time-dependent variable in assessing overall survival.
At baseline, 22% of patients were diagnosed with TB. TB incidence was 1.98 per 100 person-years during follow up, with predictors including younger age, lower recent CD4 count, duration of antiretroviral treatment, and living in high TB burden countries. Among 3279 patients during 6968 person-years, 142 died (2.04 per 100 person-years). Compared to patients with CDC category A or B illness only, mortality was marginally higher in patients with single Non-TB AIDS defining illness (ADI), or TB only (adjusted HR 1.35, p = 0.173) and highest in patients with multiple non-TB AIDS or both TB and other ADI (adjusted HR 2.21, p < 0.001).
The risk of TB diagnosis was associated with increasing immunodeficiency and partly reduced by antiretroviral treatment. The prognosis of developing TB appeared to be similar to that following a diagnosis of other non-TB ADI.
Rash is the most common adverse effect associated with nevirapine (NVP). We aimed to develop a model and risk score for predicting NVP-associated rash among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts.
Cross-sectional study was conducted and 383 HIV-infected patients consecutively enrolled in the study.
Of 222 patients in the training set, 116 (52.2%) were males and median (IQR) age was 35.2 (31.1-42.0) years. Median (IQR) CD4 cell count was 104 (35-225) cells/mm3. Of these, 72 and 150 patients were in “rash” and “no rash” group, respectively. Four factors were independently associated with rash: a history of drug allergy (odds ratio (OR) 4.01, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.75-9.20, P = 0.001), body weight <55 kg. (OR 2.02, 95% CI, 1.09-3.76, p = 0.026), not receiving slow dose escalation (OR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.06-3.77, p = 0.032), and no concomitant drug(s) (OR 2.48, 95% CI, 1.32-4.64, p = 0.005). Receiver-operator characteristic analysis yielded area under the curve of 71% and the goodness-offit statistics was 6.48 (p = 0.840). The variables were given scores of 14, 7, 7 and 9, respectively. A cutoff >21 points defined the high risk individuals which yielded specificity and positive predictive value of 99% and 69%, respectively, with OR of 3.96 (95% CI, 1.79-8.86, p = 0.001).
A model and risk score for predicting NVP-associated rash performed well in this study population. It might be useful for predicting the risk of rash before NVP initiation among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts.
HIV; model; nevirapine; prediction; rash; risk factor.
To date, data on the durability of a regimen of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine are very limited, particularly from the resource-limited settings.
A prospective cohort study was conducted among 140 antiretroviral-naïve patients who were enrolled to initiate d4T, 3TC and NVP between November 2004 and March 2005. The objectives were to determine immunological and virological responses after 144 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. Seventy patients with tuberculosis also received rifampicin during the early period of antiviral treatment (TB group).
Of all, median (IQR) baseline CD4 cell count was 31 (14–79) cells/mm3; median (IQR) baseline HIV-1 RNA was 433,500 (169,000–750,000) copies/mL. The average body weight was 55 kilograms. By intention-to-treat analysis at 144 weeks, the overall percentage of patients who achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL was 59.3% (83/140). In subgroup analysis, 61.4% (43/70) patients in TB group and 57.1% (40/70) patients in control group achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (RR = 1.194, 95%CI = 0.608–2.346, P = 0.731). Eight (5.8%) patients discontinued d4T due to neuropathy and/or symptomatic lactic acidosis.
The overall durability and efficacy of antiviral response of d4T, 3TC and NVP are satisfied and they are not different between HIV-1 infected patients with and without co-administration of rifampicin due to tuberculosis. However, stavudine-related adverse effects are concerns.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00703898
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with stavudine and lamivudine is widely used as the first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. Lipodystrophy is common and options for switching ART regimen are limited; this situation can lead to patients' poor adherence and antiretroviral resistance. Treatment interruption (TI) in patients with high CD4 cell counts, lipodystrophy, and limited options may be an alternative in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to determine time to resume ART after TI and predictors for early resumption of ART in a resource-limited setting.
A prospective study was conducted in January 2005 to December 2006 and enrolled HIV-infected patients with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL, CD4 > 350 cells/mm3, and willing to interrupt ART. CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA, lipid profile, and lipodystrophy were assessed at baseline and every 3 months. ART was resumed when CD4 declined to <250 cells/mm3 or developed HIV-related symptoms. Patients were grouped based on ART regimens [NNRTI or protease inhibitor (PI)] prior to TI.
There were 99 patients, 85 in NNRTI group and 14 in PI group. Mean age was 40.6 years; 46% were males. Median duration of ART was 47 months. Median nadir CD4 and baseline CD4 were 151 and 535 cells/mm3, respectively. Median CD4 change at 3 months after TI were -259 (NNRTI) and -105 (PI) cells/mm3 (p = 0.038). At 13-month median follow-up, there was no AIDS-defining illness; 38% (NNRTI) and 29% (PI) of patients developed HIV-related symptoms. ART was resumed in 51% (NNRTI) and 36% (PI) of patients (p = 0.022). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, median time to resume ART was 5.5 (NNRTI) and 14.2 (PI) months (log rank test, p = 0.026). By Cox's regression analysis, NNRTI-based ART (HR 4.9; 95%CI, 1.5–16.3), nadir CD4 <100 cells/mm3 (HR 2.7; 95%CI 1.4–5.3) and baseline CD4 <500 cells/mm3 (HR 1.6; 95%CI, 1.2–3.1) were predictors for early ART resumption.
TI of NNRTI-based ART leads to rapid CD4 decline and high probability of early ART resumption and should be avoided. It is necessary to scale-up the options for HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy in resource-limited settings.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a generic fixed-dose combination (FDC) of stavudine (d4T)/lamivudine (3TC)/nevirapine (NVP) is widely used in developing countries. The clinical data of this FDC among very advanced HIV-infected patients is limited.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted among ART-naïve HIV-infected patients who were initiated a generic FDC of d4T/3TC/NVP between May 2004 and October 2005. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to the baseline CD4 (group A: <50 cell/mm3 and group B: ≥ 50 cell/mm3).
There were 204 patients with a mean ± SD age of 37.1 ± 8.9 years, 120 (58.8%) in group A and 84 (41.2%) in group B. Median (IQR) CD4 cell count was 6 (16–29) cells/mm3 in group A and 139 (92–198) cells/mm3 in group B. Intention-to-treat analysis at 48 weeks, 71.7% (86/120) of group A and 75.0% (63/84) of group B achieved plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/ml (P = 0.633). On-treatment analysis, 90.5% (87/96) in group A and 96.9% (63/65) in group B achieved plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/ml (P = 0.206). At 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks of ART, mean CD4 were 98, 142, 176 and 201 cells/mm3 in group A and 247, 301, 336 and 367 cells/mm3 in group B, respectively. There were no differences of probabilities to achieve HIV RNA <50 copies/ml (P = 0.947) and CD4 increment at 48 weeks between the two groups (P = 0.870). Seven (9.6%) patients in group A and 4 (8.5%) patients in group B developed skin reactions grade II or III (P = 1.000). ALT at 12 weeks was not different from that at baseline in both groups (P > 0.05).
Initiation of FDC of d4T/3TC/NVP in HIV-infected patients with CD4 <50 and ≥ 50 cells/mm3 has no different outcomes in terms of safety and efficacy. FDC of d4T/3TC/NVP can be effectively used in advance HIV-infected patients with CD4 <50 cells/mm3.