The proliferative capability of many invasive pathogens is limited by the bioavailability of iron. Pathogens have thus developed strategies to obtain iron from their host organisms. In turn, host defense strategies have evolved to sequester iron from invasive pathogens. This review explores the mechanisms employed by bacterial pathogens to gain access to host iron sources, the role of iron in bacterial virulence, and iron-related genes required for the establishment or maintenance of infection. Host defenses to limit iron availability for bacterial growth during the acute-phase response and the consequences of iron overload conditions on susceptibility to bacterial infection are also examined. The evidence summarized herein demonstrates the importance of iron bioavailability in influencing the risk of infection and the ability of the host to clear the pathogen.
This review summarizes the evidence indicating that mutagenic mechanisms in vivo are essentially the same in all living cells. Unique metabolic reactions to a particular environmental stress apparently target specific genes for increased rates of transcription and mutation, resulting in higher mutation rates for those genes most likely to solve the problem. Kinetic models which have demonstrated predictive value are described and are shown to simulate mutagenesis in vivo in E. coli, the p53 tumor suppressor gene, and somatic hypermutation. In all three models, direct correlations are seen between mutation frequencies and transcription rates. G and C nucleosides in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) are intrinsically mutable, and G and C silent mutations in p53 and in VH framework regions provide compelling evidence for intrinsic mechanisms of mutability, since mutation outcomes are neutral and are not selected. During transcription, the availability of unpaired bases in the ssDNA of secondary structures is rate-limiting for, and determines the frequency of mutations in vivo. In vitro analyses also verify the conclusion that intrinsically mutable bases are in fact located in ssDNA loops of predicted secondary structures.
mutagenesis; E. coli; p53; somatic hypermutation; kinetic models
The VH5 human antibody gene was analyzed using a computer program (mfg) which simulates transcription, to better understand transcription-driven mutagenesis events that occur during “phase 1” of somatic hypermutation. Results show that the great majority of mutations in the non-transcribed strand occur within loops of two predicted high-stability stem-loop structures, termed SLS 14.9 and SLS 13.9. In fact, 89% of the 2,505 mutations reported are within the encoded complementarity-determining region (CDR) and occur in loops of these high-stability structures. In vitro studies were also done and verified the existence of SLS 14.9. Following the formation of SLS 14.9 and SLS 13.9, a sustained period of transcriptional activity occurs within a window size of 60-70 nucleotides. During this period, the stability of these two SLSs does not change, and may provide the substrate for base exchanges and mutagenesis. The data suggest that many mutable bases are exposed simultaneously at pause sites, allowing for coordinated mutagenesis.
Transcription drives supercoiling which forms and stabilizes single-stranded (ss) DNA secondary structures with loops exposing G and C bases that are intrinsically mutable and vulnerable to non-enzymatic hydrolytic reactions. Since many studies in prokaryotes have shown direct correlations between the frequencies of transcription and mutation, we conducted in silico analyses using the computer program, mfg, which simulates transcription and predicts the location of known mutable bases in loops of high-stability secondary structures. Mfg analyses of the p53 tumor suppressor gene predicted the location of mutable bases and mutation frequencies correlated with the extent to which these mutable bases were exposed in secondary structures. In vitro analyses have now confirmed that the 12 most mutable bases in p53 are in fact located in predicted ssDNA loops of these structures. Data show that genotoxins have two independent effects on mutagenesis and the incidence of cancer: Firstly, they activate p53 transcription, which increases the number of exposed mutable bases and also increases mutation frequency. Secondly, genotoxins increase the frequency of G-to-T transversions resulting in a decrease in G-to-A and C mutations. This precise compensatory shift in the ‘fate’ of G mutations has no impact on mutation frequency. Moreover, it is consistent with our proposed mechanism of mutagenesis in which the frequency of G exposure in ssDNA via transcription is rate limiting for mutation frequency in vivo.
Coxiella burnetii is the bacterial agent of Q fever in humans. Here, we describe a unique, ∼7.2 kDa, surface-exposed lipoprotein involved in metal binding which we have termed LimB. LimB was initially identified as a potential metal-binding protein on far-Western (FW) blots containing whole-cell lysate proteins when probed with nickel-coated horseradish peroxidase (Ni-HRP) and developed with a chemiluminescent HRP substrate. The corresponding identity of LimB as CBU1224a was established by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. blast analyses with CBU1224a showed no significant similarity to sequences outside strains of C. burnetii. Additional in silico analyses revealed a putative 20 residue signal sequence with the carboxyl end demarcated by a potential lipobox (LSGC) whose Cys residue is predicted to serve as the N-terminal, lipidated Cys of mature LimB. The second residue of mature LimB is predicted to be Ala, an uncharged envelope localization residue. These features suggest that CBU1224a is synthesized as a prolipoprotein which is subsequently lipidated, secreted and anchored in the outer membrane. Mature LimB is predicted to contain 45 aa, of which there are 10 His and 5 Cys; both amino acids are frequently involved in binding transition metal cations. Recombinant LimB (rLimB) was generated and its Ni-HRP-binding activity demonstrated on FW blots. Ni-HRP binding by rLimB was inhibited by >95 % on FW blots done in the presence of EDTA, imidazole, Ni2+ or Zn2+, and roughly halved in the presence of Co2+ or Fe3+. The limB gene was maximally expressed at 3–7 days post-infection in Coxiella-infected Vero cells, coinciding with exponential phase growth. Two isoforms of LimB were detected on FW and Western blots, including a smaller (∼7.2 kDa) species that was the predominant form in small cell variants and a larger isoform (∼8.7 kDa) in large cell variants. LimB is Sarkosyl-insoluble, like many omps. The predicted surface location of LimB was verified by immunoelectron and immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-rLimB antibodies. Overall, the results suggest that LimB is a unique Coxiella lipoprotein that serves as a surface receptor for divalent metal cations and may play a role in acquiring at least one of these metals during intracellular growth.
The 23S rRNA gene of Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever in humans, contains an unusually high number of conserved, selfish genetic elements, including two group I introns, termed Cbu.L1917 (L1917) and Cbu.L1951 (L1951). To better understand the role that introns play in Coxiella's biology, we determined the intrinsic stability time periods (in vitro half-lives) of the encoded ribozymes to be ∼15 days for L1917 and ∼5 days for L1951, possibly due to differences in their sizes (551 and 1,559 bases, respectively), relative degrees of compactness of the respective RNA structures, and amounts of single-stranded RNA. In vivo half-lives for both introns were also determined to be ∼11 min by the use of RNase protection assays and an Escherichia coli model. Intron RNAs were quantified in synchronous cultures of C. burnetii and found to closely parallel those of 16S rRNA; i.e., ribozyme levels significantly increased between days 0 and 3 and then remained stable until 8 days postinfection. Both 16S rRNA and ribozyme levels fell during the stationary and death phases (days 8 to 14). The marked stability of the Coxiella intron RNAs is presumably conferred by their association with ribosomes, a stoichiometric relationship that was determined to be one ribozyme, of either type, per 500 ribosomes. Inaccuracies in splicing (exon 2 skipping) were found to increase during the first 5 days in culture, with a rate of approximately one improperly spliced 23S rRNA per 1.3 million copies. The in vitro efficiency of L1917 intron splicing was significantly enhanced in the presence of a recombinant Coxiella RNA DEAD-box helicase (CBU_0670) relative to that of controls, suggesting that this enzyme may serve as an intron RNA splice facilitator in vivo.
Coxiella burnetii is the bacterial agent of Q fever in humans. Acute Q fever generally manifests as a flu-like illness and is typically self-resolving. In contrast, chronic Q fever usually presents with endocarditis and is often life-threatening without appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Unfortunately, available options for the successful treatment of chronic Q fever are both limited and protracted (>18 months). Pentamidine, an RNA splice inhibitor used to treat fungal and protozoal infections, was shown to reduce intracellular growth of Coxiella by ca. 73% at a concentration of 1 μM (ca. 0.6 μg/mL) compared with untreated controls, with no detectable toxic effects on host cells. Bacterial targets of pentamidine include Cbu.L1917 and Cbu.L1951, two group I introns that disrupt the 23S rRNA gene of Coxiella, as demonstrated by the drug's ability to inhibit intron RNA splicing in vitro. Since both introns are highly conserved among all eight genotypes of the pathogen, pentamidine is predicted to be efficacious against numerous strains of C. burnetii. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing antibacterial activity for this antifungal/antiprotozoal agent.
Coxiella; Pentamidine; Group I intron; RNA splicing
Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that resides within the harsh, acidic confines of a lysosome-like compartment of the host cell that is termed a parasitophorous vacuole. In this study, we characterized a thiol-specific peroxidase of C. burnetii that belongs to the atypical 2-cysteine subfamily of peroxiredoxins, commonly referred to as bacterioferritin comigratory proteins (BCPs). Coxiella BCP was initially identified as a potential DNA-binding protein by two-dimensional Southwestern (SW) blots of the pathogen's proteome, probed with biotinylated C. burnetii genomic DNA. Confirmation of the identity of the DNA-binding protein as BCP (CBU_0963) was established by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Recombinant Coxiella BCP (rBCP) was generated, and its DNA binding was demonstrated by two independent methods, including SW blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). rBCP also demonstrated peroxidase activity in vitro that required thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (Trx-TrxR). Both the DNA-binding and peroxidase activities of rBCP were lost upon heat denaturation (100°C, 10 min). Functional expression of Coxiella bcp was demonstrated by trans-complementation of an Escherichia coli bcp mutant, as evidenced by the strain's ability to grow in an oxidative-stress growth medium containing tert-butyl hydroperoxide to levels that were indistinguishable from, or significantly greater than, those observed with its wild-type parental strain and significantly greater than bcp mutant levels (P < 0.05). rBCP was also found to protect supercoiled plasmid DNA from oxidative damage (i.e., nicking) in vitro. Maximal expression of the bcp gene coincided with the pathogen's early (day 2 to 3) exponential-growth phase in an experiment involving synchronized infection of an epithelial (Vero) host cell line. Taken as a whole, the results show that Coxiella BCP binds DNA and likely serves to detoxify endogenous hydroperoxide byproducts of Coxiella's metabolism during intracellular replication.
It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and ‘nonculturable’ endocarditis in homeless people. Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains understudied compared with most other bacterial pathogens. Numerous questions regarding Bartonella's molecular pathogenesis and epidemiology remain unanswered. Virtually every mammal harbors one or more Bartonella species and their transmission typically involves a hematophagous arthropod vector. However, many details regarding epidemiology and the public health threat imposed by these animal reservoirs is unclear. A handful of studies have shown that bartonellae are highly-adapted pathogens whose parasitic strategy has evolved to cause persistent infections of the host. To this end, virulence attributes of Bartonella include the subversion of host cells with effector molecules delivered via a type IV secretion system, induction of pathological angiogenesis through various means, including inhibition of apoptosis and activation of hypoxia-inducing factor 1, use of afimbrial adhesins that are orthologs of Yersinia adhesin A, incorporation of lipopolysaccharides with low endotoxic potency in the outer membrane, and several other virulence factors that help Bartonella infect and persist in erythrocytes and endothelial cells of the host circulatory system.
angiogenesis; Bartonella; bartonellosis; hemotrophy; infection; virulence
Cbu.L1917, a group I intron present in the 23S rRNA gene of Coxiella burnetii, possesses a unique 3′-terminal adenine in place of a conserved guanine. Here, we show that, unlike all other group I introns, Cbu.L1917 utilizes a different cofactor for each splicing step and has a decreased self-splicing rate in vitro.
During the adaptive immune response, antigen challenge triggers a million-fold increase in mutation rates in the variable region antibody genes. The frequency of mutation is causally and directly linked to transcription, which provides ssDNA and drives supercoiling that stabilizes secondary structures containing unpaired, intrinsically mutable bases. Simulation analysis of transcription in VH5 reveals a dominant 65 nt secondary structure in the non-transcribed strand containing six sites of mutable ssDNA that have also been identified independently in human B cell lines and in primary mouse B cells. This dominant structure inter-converts briefly with less stable structures and is formed repeatedly during transcription, due to periodic pauses and backtracking. In effect, this creates a stable yet dynamic “mutability platform” consisting of ever-changing patterns of unpaired bases that are simultaneously exposed and therefore able to coordinate mutagenesis. Such a complex of secondary structures may be the source of ssDNA for enzyme-based diversification, which ultimately results in high affinity antibodies.
Somatic hypermutation; Transcription-directed mutagenesis; Secondary structures; Supercoiling
The role of secondary structures and base mutability at different levels of transcription and supercoiling is analyzed in variable region antibody genes VH5, VH94 and VH186.2. The data are consistent with a model of somatic hypermutation in which increasing levels of transcription and secondary structure stability correlate with the initial formation of successive mutable sites. Encoded differences exist in stem length and the number of GC pairs at low versus high levels of transcription in CDRs. These circumstances simplify the complexities of coordinating mutagenesis by confining this process to each mutable site successively, as they form in response to increasing levels of transcription during affinity maturation.
Bartonella quintana is a gram-negative agent of trench fever, chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis in humans. B. quintana has the highest known hemin requirement among bacteria, but the mechanisms of hemin acquisition are poorly defined. Genomic analyses revealed a potential locus dedicated to hemin utilization (hut) encoding a putative hemin receptor, HutA; a TonB-like energy transducer; an ABC transport system comprised of three proteins, HutB, HutC, and HmuV; and a hemin degradation/storage enzyme, HemS. Complementation analyses with Escherichia coli hemA show that HutA functions as a hemin receptor, and complementation analyses with E. coli hemA tonB indicate that HutA is TonB dependent. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analyses show that hut locus transcription is subject to hemin-responsive regulation, which is mediated primarily by the iron response regulator (Irr). Irr functions as a transcriptional repressor of the hut locus at all hemin concentrations tested. Overexpression of the ferric uptake regulator (fur) represses transcription of tonB in the presence of excess hemin, whereas overexpression of the rhizobial iron regulator (rirA) has no effect on hut locus transcription. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses show that hutA and tonB are divergently transcribed and that the remaining hut genes are expressed as a polycistronic mRNA. Examination of the promoter regions of hutA, tonB, and hemS reveals consensus sequence promoters that encompass an H-box element previously shown to interact with B. quintana Irr.
The genome of the obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii contains a large number of selfish genetic elements, including two group I introns (Cbu.L1917 and Cbu.L1951) and an intervening sequence that interrupts the 23S rRNA gene, an intein (Cbu.DnaB) within dnaB and 29 insertion sequences. Here, we describe the ability of the intron-encoded RNAs (ribozymes) to retard bacterial growth rate (toxicity) and examine the functionality and phylogenetic history of Cbu.DnaB. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both introns repressed growth, with Cbu.L1917 being more inhibitory. Both ribozymes were found to associate with ribosomes of Coxiella and E. coli. In addition, ribozymes significantly reduced in vitro luciferase translation, again with Cbu.L1917 being more inhibitory. We analyzed the relative quantities of ribozymes and genomes throughout a 14-day growth cycle of C. burnetii and found that they were inversely correlated, suggesting that the ribozymes have a negative effect on Coxiella's growth. We determined possible sites for ribozyme associations with 23S rRNA that could explain the observed toxicities. Further research is needed to determine whether the introns are being positively selected because they promote bacterial persistence or whether they were fixed in the population due to genetic drift. The intein, Cbu.DnaB, is able to self-splice, leaving the host protein intact and presumably functional. Similar inteins have been found in two extremophilic bacteria (Alkalilimnicola ehrlichei and Halorhodospira halophila) that are distantly related to Coxiella, making it difficult to determine whether the intein was acquired by horizontal gene transfer or was vertically inherited from a common ancestor.
Bartonella are the only bacteria known to induce angioproliferative lesions of the human vasculature and liver during infection. Previous work from our lab suggests that GroEL participates in the mitogenic response observed in HUVEC cultures supplemented with the soluble fraction of Bartonella bacilliformis. Work in this study shows that exposure to high concentrations of the fraction is actually cytotoxic for HUVECs. To analyze this phenomenon, live B. bacillformis - HUVEC co-cultures were employed to study the effect of excess bacterial GroEL on the host cell during active infection. Four B. bacilliformis strains were generated to produce varying levels of GroEL. HUVEC co-cultures with LSS100, a strain that synthesizes markedly greater quantities of GroEL relative to others, significantly accelerates apoptosis of the co-cultured HUVECs relative to other strains. Acceleration of apoptosis can be inhibited by Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Time course data show that at 18 h of infection, both LSS100 and control strains significantly inhibit spontaneous apoptosis of co-cultured HUVECs, as previously reported for other Bartonella species. However, by 48 h LSS100 significantly increases apoptosis of the host cell. We hypothesize that intracellular Bartonella GroEL functions as an HSP60 analog, a eukaryotic orthologue known to accelerate procaspase 3 activation by enhancing its vulnerability to upstream activator caspases. These data suggest another strategy whereby Bartonella may regulate host cell growth.
We describe the presence and characteristics of two self-splicing group I introns in the sole 23S rRNA gene of Coxiella burnetii. The two group I introns, Cbu.L1917 and Cbu.L1951, are inserted at sites 1917 and 1951 (Escherichia coli numbering), respectively, in the 23S rRNA gene of C. burnetii. Both introns were found to be self-splicing in vivo and in vitro even though the terminal nucleotide of Cbu.L1917 is adenine and not the canonical conserved guanine, termed ΩG, found in Cbu.L1951 and all other group I introns described to date. Predicted secondary structures for both introns were constructed and revealed that Cbu.L1917 and Cbu.L1951 were group IB2 and group IA3 introns, respectively. We analyzed strains belonging to eight genomic groups of C. burnetii to determine sequence variation and the presence or absence of the elements and found both introns to be highly conserved (≥99%) among them. Although phylogenetic analysis did not identify the specific identities of donors, it indicates that the introns were likely acquired independently; Cbu.L1917 was acquired from other bacteria like Thermotoga subterranea and Cbu.L1951 from lower eukaryotes like Acanthamoeba castellanii. We also confirmed the fragmented nature of mature 23S rRNA in C. burnetii due to the presence of an intervening sequence. The presence of three selfish elements in C. burnetii's 23S rRNA gene is very unusual for an obligate intracellular bacterium and suggests a recent shift to its current lifestyle from a previous niche with greater opportunities for lateral gene transfer.
We previously identified a five-member family of hemin-binding proteins (Hbp's) of Bartonella quintana that bind hemin on the outer surface but share no homology with known bacterial heme receptors. Subsequently, we demonstrated that expression of the hbp family is significantly influenced by oxygen, heme, and temperature conditions encountered by the pathogen in the human host and the body louse vector; e.g., we observed a dramatic (>100-fold) increase in hbpC transcript levels in response to the “louse-like” temperature of 30°C. The goal of the present study was to identify a transcription factor(s) involved in the coordinated and differential regulation of the hbp family. First, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to show that the same environmental conditions generate parallels in the transcript profiles of four candidate transcriptional regulators (Irr, Fur, RirA, and BatR) described in the order Rhizobiales, with the greatest overall change in the transcription of irr (a >5-fold decrease) at a “louse-like” temperature, suggesting that Irr may function as an hbpC repressor. Second, a B. quintana strain hyperexpressing Irr was constructed; it exhibits a “bloodstream-like” hbp transcript profile in the absence of an environmental stimulus (i.e., hbpC is repressed and hbpA, hbpD, and hbpE mRNAs are relatively abundant). Furthermore, when this strain is grown at a “louse-like” temperature, an inversion of the transcript profile occurs, where derepression of hbpC and repression of hbpA, hbpD, and hbpE are readily evident, strongly suggesting that Irr and temperature influence hbp family expression. Third, electrophoretic mobility shift analyses show that recombinant Irr binds specifically to the hbpC promoter region at a sequence that is highly conserved in Bartonella hbp genes, which we designated the hbp family box, or “H-box.” Fourth, we used the H-box to search the B. quintana genome and discovered a number of intriguing open reading frames, e.g., five members of a six-member family of cohemolysin autotransporters. Finally, qRT-PCR data regarding the effects of Fur and RirA overexpression on the hbp family are provided; they show that Fur's effect on the hbp family is relatively minor but RirA generates a “bloodstream-like” hbp transcript profile in the absence of an environmental stimulus, as observed for the Irr-hyperexpressing strain.
Bartonella quintana is a fastidious, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that causes prolonged bacteremia in immunocompetent humans and severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. We sought to define the outer membrane subproteome of B. quintana in order to obtain insight into the biology and pathogenesis of this emerging pathogen and to identify the predominant B. quintana antigens targeted by the human immune system during infection. We isolated the total membrane proteins of B. quintana and identified 60 proteins by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. Using the newly constructed proteome map, we then utilized two-dimensional immunoblotting with sera from 21 B. quintana-infected patients to identify 24 consistently recognized, immunoreactive B. quintana antigens that have potential relevance for pathogenesis and diagnosis. Among the outer membrane proteins, the variably expressed outer membrane protein adhesins (VompA and VompB), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase (PpI), and hemin-binding protein E (HbpE) were recognized most frequently by sera from patients, which is consistent with surface expression of these virulence factors during human infection.
The groESL operon of Bartonella bacilliformis, a facultative intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium and etiologic agent of Oroya Fever, was characterized. Sequence analysis revealed an operon containing two genes of 294 (groES) and 1632 nucleotides (groEL) separated by a 55-nt intergenic spacer. The operon is preceded by a 72-nt ORF (ORF1) that encodes a hypothetical protein with homology to a portion of the HrcA repressor for groESL. A divergent fumarate hydratase C (fumC) gene lies further upstream. Deduced amino acid sequences for B. bacilliformis GroEL and GroES revealed a high degree of identity with homologues from other Bartonella and α-Protebacteria. A single transcriptional start site (TSS) was mapped 79 nucleotides upstream of the groES start codon, regardless of incubation temperature. The TSS was located immediately 5′ to a potential controlling inverted repeat of chaperonin expression (CIRCE) element and is preceded by a σ70-like promoter. The operon is followed by a predicted rho-independent transcriptional terminator. Northern blot analysis indicated that groES and groEL are co-transcribed as a single mRNA of ∼2.4 kb. A 6-h time course analysis by qRT-PCR showed that groEL expression increases 1.3-fold within 30 min of a temperature upshift from 30 to 37 °C, with maximum transcription reached after 60 min (∼4.3-fold), followed by a steady decrease to background (30 °C) transcription levels by 6 h. Western blot analysis revealed a 1.4- and 1.5-fold increase in GroEL synthesis following a temperature upshift or by inhibiting DNA supercoiling with coumermycin A1, respectively. Functional expression and complementation of temperature-sensitive Escherichia coli groES or groEL mutants with the cloned operon allowed them to grow at otherwise restrictive temperatures.
GroESL operon; Bartonella; Heat shock protein; Chaperonin; GroEL; GroES
Of all bacteria, Bartonella quintana has the highest reported in vitro hemin requirement, yet an explanation for this remains elusive. To produce diseases such as trench fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis, B. quintana must survive and replicate in the disparate environments of the Pediculus humanus corporis (body louse) gut and the human vasculature. We previously identified a five-member family of hemin binding proteins (Hbps) synthesized by B. quintana that bind hemin on the outer surface but share no similarity to known bacterial heme receptors. In the present study, we examine the transcription, regulation, and synthesis of this virulence factor family by cultivation of the bacterium in environments that simulate natural heme, oxygen, and temperature conditions encountered in the host and insect vector. First, quantitative real-time PCR data show that hbpC expression is regulated by temperature, where a >100-fold increase in transcript quantity was seen at 30°C relative to 37°C, suggesting that HbpC synthesis would be greatest in the cooler temperature of the louse. Second, cultivation at human bloodstream oxygen concentration (5% relative to 21% atmospheric) significantly decreases the transcript quantity of all hbp genes, indicating that expression is influenced by O2 and/or reactive oxygen species. Third, a differential expression pattern within the hbp family is revealed when B. quintana is grown in a range of hemin concentrations: subgroup I (hbpC and hbpB) predominates in a simulated louse environment (high heme), and subgroup II (hbpA, hbpD, and hbpE) is preferentially expressed in a simulated human background (low heme). By using two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting, we demonstrate that synthesis of HbpA correlates with hbpA transcript increases observed at low hemin concentrations. Finally, an hbpA promoter-lacZ reporter construct in B. quintana demonstrates that a transcriptional regulator(s) is controlling the expression of hbpA through a cis-acting regulatory element located in the hbpA promoter region.
Bartonellae are bacterial pathogens for a wide variety of mammals. In humans,
bartonellosis can result in angioproliferative lesions that are
potentially life threatening to the patient, including bacillary
angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis, and verruga peruana. The results of
this study show that Bartonella bacilliformis, the agent of
Oroya fever and verruga peruana, produces a proteinaceous mitogen for
human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) that acts in a dose-dependent
fashion in vitro with maximal activity at ≥72 h of exposure and
results in a 6- to 20-fold increase in cell numbers relative to
controls. The mitogen increases bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation
into HUVECs by almost twofold relative to controls. The mitogen is
sensitive to heat and trypsin but is not affected by the
lipopolysaccharide inhibitor polymyxin B. The mitogen does not affect
caspase 3 activity in HUVECs undergoing serum starvation-induced
apoptosis. The Bartonella mitogen was found in bacterial
culture supernatants, the soluble cell lysate fraction, and, to a
lesser degree, in insoluble cell fractions of the bacterium. In
contrast, soluble cell lysate fractions from closely related B.
henselae, although possessing significant mitogenicity for HUVECs,
resulted in only about a twofold increase in cell numbers. Biochemical
and immunological analyses identified GroEL as a participant in the
observed HUVEC mitogenicity. A B. bacilliformis strain
containing the intact groES-groEL operon on a multicopy
plasmid was generated and used to demonstrate a correlation between
HUVEC mitogenicity and GroEL levels in the lysate
(r2 = 0.85). Antiserum to GroEL
significantly inhibited mitogenicity of the lysate. Data also show that
GroEL is located in the soluble and insoluble fractions (including
inner and outer membranes) of the cell and is actively secreted by
Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever and an etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis, has an extraordinarily high hemin requirement for growth compared to other bacterial pathogens. We previously identified the major hemin receptor of the pathogen as a 30-kDa surface protein, termed HbpA. This report describes four additional homologues that share approximately 48% amino acid sequence identity with hbpA. Three of the genes form a paralagous cluster, termed hbpCAB, whereas the other members, hbpD and hbpE, are unlinked. Secondary structure predictions and other evidence suggest that Hbp family members are β-barrels located in the outer membrane and contain eight transmembrane domains plus four extracellular loops. Homologs from a variety of gram-negative pathogens were identified, including Bartonella henselae Pap31, Brucella Omp31, Agrobacterium tumefaciens Omp25, and neisserial opacity proteins (Opa). Family members expressed in vitro-synthesized proteins ranging from ca. 26.5 to 35.1 kDa, with the exception of HbpB, an ∼55.9-kDa protein whose respective gene has been disrupted by a ∼510 GC-rich element containing variable-number tandem repeats. Transcription analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) indicates that all family members are expressed under normal culture conditions, with hbpD and hbpB transcripts being the most abundant and the rarest, respectively. Mutagenesis of hbpA by allelic exchange produced a strain that exhibited an enhanced hemin-binding phenotype relative to the parental strain, and analysis by quantitative RT-PCR showed elevated transcript levels for the other hbp family members, suggesting that compensatory expression occurs.
We isolated and characterized mutants of Bartonella bacilliformis that are resistant to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin, which targets the A subunit of DNA gyrase. Mutants had single point mutations in the gyrA gene that changed either Asp-90 to Gly or Asp-95 to Asn and had 3- or 16-fold higher resistance, respectively, to ciprofloxacin than did wild-type B. bacilliformis. Asp-95 is homologous to Asp-87 of Escherichia coli GyrA and is a common residue mutated in fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of other bacteria. This is the first report of a mutation at an Asp-90 homologue, which corresponds to Asp-82 in E. coli GyrA.
The invasion-associated locus A and B genes (ialAB) of Bartonella bacilliformis were previously shown to confer an erythrocyte-invasive phenotype upon Escherichia coli, indirectly implicating their role in virulence. We report the first direct demonstration of a role for ialB as a virulence factor in B. bacilliformis. The presence of a secretory signal sequence and amino acid sequence similarity to two known outer membrane proteins involved in virulence suggested that IalB was an outer membrane protein. To develop an antiserum for protein localization, the ialB gene was cloned in frame into an expression vector with a six-histidine tag and under control of the lacZ promoter. The IalB fusion protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography and used to raise polyclonal antibodies. IalB was initially localized to the bacterial membrane fraction. To further localize IalB, B. bacilliformis inner and outer membranes were fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and identified by appearance, buoyant density (ρ), and cytochrome b content. Inner and outer membrane proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and IalB was positively identified by Western blot. Contrary to expectations, IalB was localized to the inner membrane of the pathogen. To directly demonstrate a role for IalB in erythrocyte parasitism, the B. bacilliformis ialB gene was disrupted by insertional mutagenesis. The resulting ialB mutant strain was complemented in trans with a replicative plasmid encoding the full-length ialB gene. PCR and high-stringency DNA hybridization confirmed mutagenesis and transcomplementation events. Abrogation and restoration of ialB expression was verified by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. In vitro virulence assays showed that mutagenesis of ialB decreased bacterial association and invasion of human erythrocytes by 47 to 53% relative to controls. Transcomplementation of ialB restored erythrocyte association and invasion rates to levels observed in the parental strain. These data provide direct evidence for IalB's role in erythrocyte parasitism and represent the first demonstration of molecular Koch's postulates for a Bartonella species.