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1.  Characterization of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate resistance, MIC and accessory gene regulator (agr) dysfunction among clinical bloodstream isolates of staphyloccocus aureus 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:287.
Background
The development of hVISA has been associated with vancomycin clinical failures and is commonly misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Therefore, the objectives of this present study was to improve the reliability of methodologies and criteria for identifying hVISA, evaluate the prevalence of hVISA among clinical bloodstream isolates of S. aureus and determine if there exists a relationship between accessory gene regulator (agr) dysfunction and the hVISA phenotype.
Methods
The presence of hVISA in 220 clinical S. aureus isolates (121 MSSA, 99 MRSA) from bloodstream infections was examined by CLSI broth microdilution, Macro & Standard Etest. Isolates which were classified as hVISA by Macro Etest, were additionally evaluated using a modified PAP-AUC method using a modified starting inoculum of 1010 CFU/mL, and growth on brain heart infusion agar with 4 mg/L vancomycin (BHIV4) at 108 and 1010 CFU/mL, and agr function was assessed by delta-hemolysin production.
Results
Broth microdilution MIC50/90 of S.aureus and hVISA was 1.0/2.0 and 1.5/2.0 mg/L (p= 0.02), respectively. Macro Etest identified 12 (5.5%) hVISA isolates; higher among MRSA (9.1%) versus MSSA (2.5%) (p = 0.03). The mean modified PAP-AUC ratios (> 0.8) of 7 MRSA strains and 3 MSSA strains were significantly different (p = 0.001). 58% of hVISA strains were found to be agr dysfunctional when 21% of MRSA strains were agr dysfunctional. hVISA was detected among S. aureus bloodstream isolates, which were classified as susceptible among clinical microbiology laboratories.
Conclusions
Evaluating the correlation between Etest MICs and modified PAP-AUC ratio values will add further improvement of discriminating hVISA, and agr dysfunction may be predictive of strains which display a greater predilection to display the hVISA phenotype.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-287
PMCID: PMC3215976  PMID: 22026752
2.  Characterisation of a Staphylococcus aureus strain with progressive loss of susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin during therapy✰ 
Following an initial response to vancomycin therapy, a patient with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia developed endocarditis, failed a second course of vancomycin and then failed daptomycin therapy. An increase in the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations of four consecutive MRSA blood isolates from 2 μg/mL to 8 μg/mL was shown by Etest. Population analysis of four successive blood culture isolates recovered over the 10-week period showed that the MRSA strain became progressively less susceptible to both vancomycin and daptomycin. Retrospectively, the macro Etest method using teicoplanin indicated a decrease in vancomycin susceptibility in the second blood isolate. The patient improved after treatment with various courses of trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid. Early detection of vancomycin-heteroresistant S. aureus isolates, which appeared to have clinical significance in this case, continues to be a challenge for the clinical laboratory. Development of suitable practical methods for this should be given priority. Concurrent development of resistance to vancomycin and daptomycin, whilst rare, must be considered in a patient who is unresponsive to daptomycin following vancomycin therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.12.010
PMCID: PMC2700752  PMID: 19233622
Staphylococci; Vancomycin; Teicoplanin; Heteroresistance
3.  Pharmacodynamics of Cefepime Alone and in Combination with Various Antimicrobials against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model 
Treatment options for gram-positive resistant bacteria are limited; therefore, efforts to evaluate therapy options in the critical care population are warranted. Cefepime has broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of cefepime with vancomycin, linezolid, or quinupristin-dalfopristin had an improved or enhanced effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We investigated various regimens of cefepime alone and in combination against two clinical MRSA isolates (R2481 and R2484) in an established in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Human pharmacokinetic regimen simulations were as follows: cefepime, 2 g every 8 h (q8h) (C8) and 12 h (C12), continuous-infusion 2-g loading dose followed by 4 g alone or in combination with gentamicin and tobramycin (1.0 or 2.0 [G1 and G2 or TB1 and TB2] mg/kg of body weight q12h and 5.0 [G5 or TB5] mg/kg q24h), arbekacin (ARB) (100 mg q12h), linezolid (LIN) (600 mg q12h), tigecycline (TIG) (100 mg q24h), or daptomycin (DAP) (6 mg/kg q24h) for 48 h. The MICs for cefepime, gentamicin, tobramycin, ARB, LIN, TIG, and DAP for the two clinical MRSA isolates (R2481 and R2484) were 4 and 4, 0.25 and 0.5, 128 and 0.5, 0.5 and 0.125, 2 and 4, 0.25 and 0.25, and 0.0625 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. At 48 h, combinations of C12 and C8 plus ARB, G1, or G5 (range, −2.05- to −4.32-log10 decrease) demonstrated enhanced lethality against R2481 (resistant to tobramycin) (P < 0.05). A similar relationship was demonstrated against R2484 with cefepime plus ARB, gentamicin, or tobramycin (range, −2.05- to −3.63-log10 decrease) (P < 0.05). A 99.9% kill was achieved with cefepime plus aminoglycoside combinations as early as 2 h and maintained throughout the 48-h period. TIG was antagonistic when combined with C12 against both isolates. DAP alone achieved 99.9% kill for up to 48 h for both isolates and was the most active agent against R2481 and R2484 (−2.89- and −3.61-log10 decrease at 48 h); therefore, combination therapy did not enhance lethality. Overall, the most potent combinations noted were cefepime in combination with low- and high-dose aminoglycosides. Further investigations with combination therapies are warranted.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.1.302-308.2005
PMCID: PMC538893  PMID: 15616309
4.  In Vitro Activities of a Novel Cephalosporin, CB-181963 (CAB-175), against Methicillin-Susceptible or -Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Glycopeptide-Intermediate Susceptible Staphylococci 
We examined the activity of CB-181963, a novel cephalosporin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n = 200), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) (n = 50), glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus species (GISS) (n = 47), and VRSA (n = 2) isolates. CB-181963 exhibited MIC profiles similar to those of linezolid against MRSA and GISS; however, activity against MSSA was similar to that of vancomycin. Time-kill study results of investigations of activity against MRSA, MSSA, and GISS at 24 h were as follows: CB-181963 activity = vancomycin activity > linezolid activity (P < 0.001); CB-181963 = quinupristin-dalfopristin = vancomycin > linezolid (P < 0.05); CB-181963 > linezolid (P = 0.003); and CB-181963 = quinupristin-dalfopristin = vancomycin. CB-181963 may provide an alternative treatment for multidrug-resistant staphylococci.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.7.2719-2723.2004
PMCID: PMC434184  PMID: 15215134

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